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Low temperature drying conditions of Pinus radiata wood for avoiding internal stain
1989 - IRG/WP 3507
It has been observed that, if in little sawmills, timber is dried with a low temperature schedule, it arrives at destination with internal sapstain besides of superficial mould. In this study, the lowest drying temperature at which wood should be exposed for sterilization, which results to be 52°C, is searched. It is not possible to avoid entrainment of pentachlorophenol, even though a waiting pe...
M C Rose


Potentialities of protein borates as low-toxic, long-term wood preservatives - Preliminary trials
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30212
Boron compounds are efficient wood preservatives, as well as safe for the mammals and environmentally acceptable. Their natural solubility allows them to treat almost any wood species, but is also the cause of their high depletion from treated timber in outside exposure. In order to reduce this leachability, potentialities of proteinic polymer networks retaining boron within the wood have been inv...
M-F Thévenon, A Pizzi, J P Haluk


Marine borers and marine wood protection - Some answers and some outstanding questions - A comment
1990 - IRG/WP 4163
A brief description of the nature of hazards encountered in different parts of the marine environment is given. An attempt is then made to assess what were the essential findings of selected areas of research in the marine wood protection field and what still needs to be done. That is, if we are to more adequately understand what we are attempting to do in this field of study!...
J E Barnacle


Thermotolerant mould growth in dehumidifier kilns in New Zealand
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10169
Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variottii is common on wood dried in dehumidifier kilns that operate within a temperature range of 35-55°C. Aspergillus fumigatus causes an unacceptable blue / grey discolouration of the woods surface and prolonged exposure to spores during handling of mouldy wood can cause health problems amongst timber workers. A survey of dehumidifier kiln opera...
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals


The effect of low molecular weight chelators on iron chelation and free radical generation as studied by ESR measurement
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10367
The focus of this work was to improve our current knowledge of the non-enzymatic mechanisms involved in brown-rot decay. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), is an attractive technique for the identification and study of chemical species containing unpaired electrons (such as radicals and certain transition metal species). ESR spin-trapping techniques...
Yuhui Qian, B Goodell


Exterior wood stains
1980 - IRG/WP 3135
Experience has shown that conventional paints cannot now be relied upon to provide a complete seal against water entry, that in practice water can often circumvent the film and that the paint, far from serving to keep water out will seal it in. Moreover present-day paints are often subject to localised and premature failure out of doors and consequently entail high maintenance costs. Problems of w...
E R Miller


N-tritylmorpholine as a potential marine wood protectant against teredinids and pholads - A preliminary evaluation
1983 - IRG/WP 497
The molluscicide, N-tritylmorpholine, is effective in eradicating certain fresh water snails, the intermediate hosts in the transmission of schistosomiasis in man. This preliminary study shows that N-tritylmorpholine is also active against wood-boring marine mollusks. Fine sapwood impregnated with this morpholino compound was not damaged by teredinids or pholads while exposed at two marine sites i...
J D Bultman, K K Parrish


A novel defaunation method of the protozoa to investigate cellulose metabolism in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10050
The largest protozoa in the hindgut of workers of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was selectively eliminated by forced-feeding on low-molecular weight cellulose (LC) with a mean DP of 17. Although one week's feeding on LC caused perfect disappearance of Pseudotrichonympha grassii Koidzumi, the selective defaunation method itself had no detrimental effect on ...
T Yoshimura, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi


Low-toxicity DNBP wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3408
Low and very low toxicity single compound preservatives of both excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activity for interior, extrior and ground-contact applications are presented. These are ester derivatives of alkyl dinitrophenols, in particular of 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) and 2-sec-octyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. These esters, of much lower toxicity than DNBP impart to the treated timber co...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen, R Vosloo


Low polymer levels containing bioactive monomer polymerized in situ provide resistance to Gloeophyllum trabeum
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30066
Wood preservation based on in situ polymerization of potentially bioactive monomers has been studied. Tributyltin oxide acrylate (TBTOA) and pentachlorophenol acrylate (PCPA) were synthesized. Wood samples were treated at 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight solutions with varying amounts of crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, TMPTM) and polymerized in situ in wood samples (2.54 x 2.54 x 0....
R E Ibach, R M Rowell


Preliminary studies to assess the effects of aeration and lowered humidity on the decay capacity, growth and survival of the dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans (Wulf ex. Fr.)
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10208
Novel microcosms were used to test separately the effects of aeration and humidity on the decay capacity, linear spread and survival of Serpula lacrymans. The application of a pumped air supply resulted in an effective cessation of fungal activity when all but the lowest of the air flow rates was used. Furthermore, the lowest air flow rate caused marked growth tropisms away from the stress. In sep...
G A Low, J W Palfreyman, N A White, H J Staines, A Bruce


Curing conditions for a low formaldehyde etherificated melamine resin
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40108
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. Previous studies indicated that the resin with the lowest formaldehyde content tested showed the best results regarding fungal resistance, dimensional stability and formaldehyde emissions after curing. In the present paper the influence of ...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek, A O Rapp


Copper linoleate: A new low toxcity wide spectrum, heavy duty wood preservative
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30082
Copper linoleate, a "fixed" copper soap has been developed and evaluated in South Africa over a 30-year period. The initial product, an organic solvent based preservative has been tested in pine poles against termites and fungi. Results indiate that the product has performed well against existing heavy duty wood preservatives such as CCA and creosote in long term field trials (30 years). The paper...
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A J Pendlebury, T Pizzi


Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was obs...
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury


Chemical treatment of ten Amazonian timber species of low natural durability
1991 - IRG/WP 3640
The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 10 amazonian wood species of low natural durability, to treatment with CCA preservative (2% concentration): it was concluded that all species studied are easily treated with this preservative. The sapwood showed high absorption and total penetration. The heartwood is relatively easy to preserve, exception to Parkia nitidae (Fava), Quale...
C S Neta, B F Vianez


Investigation of extracellular mucilaginous material in some wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10188
The external morphology of the extracellular mucilagenous material (ECM) produced by Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana during colonization of Scots pine and beech was studies using SEM. Specimens were examined in the frozen hydrated, freeze-dried and critical point dried state. All technics produced artefacts but the ECM was best preserved when examined the frozen hydated state. Critical ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Evaluation of tropical wood by-products as a potential source for termite control products
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10408
Termites damaging in houses represent an ever growing threat in Europe, where the phenomenon has accelerated during the last ten years, as well as in the tropics, where infestations are permanent. To fight against this plague, the current methods used, through injection of organochloric or organophosphorized products into the timber structures and walls, are belonging to the past due to the toxici...
A Zaremski, S Robert, J-L Clement, D Fouquet


Wood and filter paper degradation, phenol oxidase and one-electron oxidation activities by the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10486
The activities of one-electron oxidation and phenol oxidase during incubation of cultures of the white-rot basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis subvermispora containing either glucose or wood were periodically measured. Further, the degradation activities against wood and filter paper were examined during the course of cultivation. Weight losses of Japanese beech wood and Japanese cedar wood after 12 wee...
H Tanaka, S Itakura, A Enoki


The role of oxygen and oxygen radicals in one-electron oxidation reactions mediated by low-molecular weight chelators isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum.markup
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10086
The KTBA assay for determination of one-electron oxidation activity was used to assay reactions of low-molecular weight chelators isolated from the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The assay, performed either under air or nitrogen showed that molecular oxygen was an important factor in chelator-mediated oxidation reactions. A reduction in oxidative activity was observed when superoxide dismu...
Jun Lu, B Goodell, Jiang Liu, A Enoki, J Jellison, H Tanaka, F Fekete


The involvement of extracellular substances for the generation of hydroxyl radical during wood degradation by white-rot fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10218
The activities of one-electron oxidation, hydroxyl radical generation, and phenol oxidase during the incubation of cultures of four white-rot fungi containing either glucose or wood were periodically measured. Further, their degradation activities against wood were examined during the course of cultivation. The generation of hydroxyl radical was correlated to the activity of wood degradation and i...
H Tanaka, S Itakura, A Enoki


The use of low cost X-ray fluorescence instruments in the determination of copper chromium and arsenic in preservative treated wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2278
Internal quality control in timber treatment plants can be pursued by analysis of preservative treatment solutions and treated timber. Treaters must proceed with costly and lengthy analyses through analytical laboratories. An alternative approach for the timber treater, is to use low cost analysers (L.C.A.'s) based upon x-ray fluorescence. Detailed comparisons have been made between stand...
J Norton, L E Leightley


The effect of high and low boron soils on foraging termite behaviour and their metabolic systems
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10602
The highest concentrations of boron are found in ground water and soils of some of the driest climate areas (arid and semi arid regions) in the world. This present study examined the various concentrations of boron levels on filter papers against the subterranean termite species Coptotermes from different provenances and different boron soil levels. The termites were presented with no-choice bioas...
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden


Study of new wood preservatives from biological origin and low toxicity against wood decay organisms (fungi and termites)
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10600
Wood as an organic material is likely to be attacked by living organisms if no protecting treatment is applied to improve its durability. The biological agents, which in Spain, due to its specific climatologic, cause major damage to wood, are the stain fungi, the rot fungi and the subterranean termites. The commercialisation of the products actually used to treat wood against fungi and to treat t...
M T Troya, M J Prieto, F Rubio, D Lorenzo, J J Teixidó


Protection of a low-density mangrove timber species gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) through preparation of particleboard – An Assessment
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40348
It is now well established that the conversion of low-density and low-cost timbers into laminated, composite and densified form is an alternative of wood protection by means of wood preservatives. Once only the timber species gewa (Excoecaria agallocha) was used for manufacturing newsprint paper in Bangladesh, which is not continued today. The feasibility of commercial production of particleboard ...
A A Mahfuz, M O Hannan, M A Islam, M N Islam , M M Islam, A K Lahiry


Development of boron/linseed oil combined treatment as a low-toxic wood protection. Evaluation of boron fixation and resistance to termites according to Japanese and European standards
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30448
Combinations of boric acid as a first step of treatment and linseed oil as a second step have been performed in order to enhance boron retention to leaching and wood resistance to termites. Classic leaching and termites resistance standards are inappropriate to evaluate this combination which can be considered as both a wood core preservation treatment and a coating. Japanese Industrial Standard...
F Lyon, M-F Thevenon, Y Imamura, J Gril, A Pizzi


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