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Status of the research and development of a new preservative system (EFPL) for pressure treatment of spruce in Canada
1975 - IRG/WP 348
Our work has been to develop a system which would have the stability of the ACA system and the formulation flexibility of the CCA system enabling properties such as fixation of arsenic, water repellency, appearance and cost to be controlled. Our permeability studies of spruce using a method previously developed indicated that an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate is an excellent candidate for the treatment of spruce. Studies of the permeability of spruce sapwood microsections to CCA preservative and to an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate proved that the ammoniacal system penetrates 1.7 to 1.8 times faster than the CCA system, in the radial direction. The permeability in the tangential direction was on the average 3.8 times better. These results were confirmed by pressure treatments of spruce lumber and spruce roundwood with both preservatives.
J Rak, M R Clarke


Marine testing of selected waterborne preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 4137
In 1978 a marine test was established at West Vancouver, B C. to determine the performance of selected waterborne preservatives. The preservatives in test were chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA-C), ammoniacal copper arsenate (ACA), a modified formulation of ACA which contained a higher copper content (modified ACA), ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) and ammoniacal zinc arsenate (AZA). The wood species used for the test was red pine. After eight years in test the CCA is providing excellent performance at all retentions, while the modified ACA is showing significant deterioration only at the lowest level. The ACA is performing quite well although it shows signs of surface deterioration at all retention levels. The performance of the ACZA is rated as unsatisfactory at retentions below 32 kg/m³ while AZA was considered to be unsuitable for use in the marine environment.
J N R Ruddick


Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest of wood treaters, mainly because of its potential use in permanent wooden foundations. We identified this trend and extended our research work to the treatability of spruce lumber.
R Rak


Testing of alkylammonium compounds
1981 - IRG/WP 2152
Following laboratory soil block tests which showed that Bardac 20 possessed a fungicidal threshold similar to that of chromated copper arsenate, treated ponderosa pine sapwood stakes were installed in a field test site near Vancouver, Canada. Two years after installation all the stakes show signs of fungal degradation. Seven stakes have been removed from the test due to total loss of strength after only two years, and many others are near failure due to extensive decay. It may be concluded from this study, that under the conditions of the test, Bardac 20 has failed to prevent wood-destroying fungi from decaying the stakes. Further investigation of treated "check" stakes and failed field tested stakes has revealed an uneven distribution of the chemical in some stakes treated to low retentions.
J N R Ruddick


Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett


Disposal of treated wood - Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3563
It is estimated that treated wood removed from service each year in Canada contains about 16,000 tonnes of creosote, 1000 tonnes of pentachlorophenol and 245 tonnes of CCA or ACA. The amount of CCA treated wood for disposal is expected to increase more than ten-fold by the year 2020. At present, most treated wood is disposed of in landfills, burned (creosote only) or recycled as other products. Other approaches to reduction, reuse, recycling and disposal are discussed.
P A Cooper


The most important wood-destroying insects in various countries (Results of questionnaire)
1981 - IRG/WP 1136
M-M Serment


Wood preservation and the environment: A Canadian perspective
1990 - IRG/WP 3577
The non-pressure (surface) and pressure treatment of wood impacts on the environment in four ways. These are: through the production of treated wood at sawmills and pressure treating facilities; during the storage of treated wood prior to use; when the pressure treated wood is placed in service; and finally, when the treated product reaches the end of its useful life and must be disposed. By reference to current and past Canadian wood preserving practices, the impact of concern by environmentalists on future directions for the wood preserving industry is reviewed. "Information gaps" are identified, which must be filled if the general public's perception of wood preservation as being beneficial to society is to be maintained. The need for internationally agreed criteria for the approval of new preservatives is also identified.
J N R Ruddick


Performance of treated spruce in Canadian field test sites
1989 - IRG/WP 3506
Spruce material under test in Canadian field test sites is performing better than anticipated. From the comparison of the performance of spruce treated with various preservatives, it appears that penetration may be far more important on durability performance than the preservative itself or the retention of preservatives in the wood. However, there is still insufficient data on the influence of penetration on the performance of treated spruce. As data for species other than white spruce and data for sawn material is also incomplete, spruce cannot be accepted by the Canadian standards at this time.
J P Hösli, E E Doyle


Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was carried out on the material to determine the extent to which decay had progressed during this period. Samples were taken from the surface of tanalith C treated posts and subsequent microscopic examination revealed that soft rot attack was present in the outer portion of posts. The groundline area of posts treated with (K 33), CCA type B and (greensalt) CCA type A were in generally good condition after 22 years and 31 years respectively. Rate of decay was highest for CCA-C tanalith treated posts at 0.3 mm per year with a retention of 3.04 kg/m³ oxides.
C D Ralph


Assessment of wood preservation facilities in Canada
1989 - IRG/WP 3557
This document sets out an assessment procedure for the current status of the wood preservation industry in Canada in relation to the Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities published by the Government of Canada in April 1988. A questionnaire has been prepared in consultation with industry and the Canadian Institute of Treated Wood. An assessment report (state-of-the-art) will be prepared on the basis of the information provided in these questionnaires and discussions.
G Das, V N P Mathur


Termites in Eastern Canada: An updated review and bibliography
1990 - IRG/WP 1431
This report updates Document No. IRG/WP/1333, issued in 1987. The current distribution of termites in eastern Canada and current termite control practices and controversies are explained, and current research is very briefly summarized. Since 1987, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) has been discovered in several more municipalities in the province of Ontario, and in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In October 1989, a well-established drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) infestation was also found in the framing of one house in Toronto. Restrictions on soil pesticide applications for subterranean termite control have increased since 1987, and research on termite biology and control has progressed at the University of Toronto. A comprehensive bibliography of publications, technical reports, and theses concerned with termites in eastern Canada is included in this report.
J K Grace


Water-borne preservative marine trials in Western Canada
1981 - IRG/WP 470
Red pine boards treated with chromated copper arsenate, ammoniacal copper arsenate, copper zinc arsenic additive, a modified ammoniacal copper arsenate, and zinc arsenic additive, have been installed in a marine field test at West Vancouver, British Columbia. After two and a quarter years exposure, all the test samples are in excellent condition with the exception of those treated with the zinc arsenic additive. All the zinc arsenic additive treated boards at the lowest preservative retention and two thirds of those at the second lowest retention in test have failed. A performance index calculated for the zinc arsenic additive indicates an added service life of 3% at the standard retention level.
J N R Ruddick


Eastern subterranean termite responses to three soil pesticides
1990 - IRG/WP 1432
In laboratory assays simulating field conditions, tunneling and mortality of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) workers were evaluated in sand treated with aqueous solutions of formulated chlorpyrifos, isofenphos, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Chlopyrifos and isofenphos were evaluated at concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm (weight of active ingredient / weight of sand), and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate at 2500 and 5000 ppm. No tunneling was observed in sand treated with chlorpyrifos, and high termite mortality suggested vapor and/or high contact toxicity. Tunneling was initiated in isofenphos-treated sand, and termites subsequently died in the tunnels from contact toxicity. At both concentrations, termite mortality from isofenphos exposure was equivalent to that with chlorpyrifos, but the shorter tunnel length at the higher isofenphos concentration (1000 ppm) indicated a concentration-dependent rate of mortality. Greatest tunneling was observed in sand treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Low and variable mortality with this compound at 2500 ppm are attributable to its slow toxic action and, possibly, difficulty in obtaining an homogenous distribution. Tunneling was not inhibited at 5000 ppm, but mortality was comparable to that observed with 1000 ppm chlorpyrifos, although slightly less than with 1000 ppm isofenphos. Termiticides having different repellency/mortality profiles are potentially useful in termite control.
J K Grace


Canadian code of good practices - Recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities
1990 - IRG/WP 3582
The rationale and procedures for the development of a set of recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities in Canada are discussed. Multi stake holders involvement in problem identification, problem assessment, state of the art knowledge database, implementation and periodic assessment procedures are important considerations for the successful development of a Code of Good Practices for wood preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Termites in Eastern Canada: A brief review and assessment
1987 - IRG/WP 1333
The distribution of termites in Canada is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in Ontario province. Municipal and provincial termite control programs are discussed and current treatment practices are described. Previous research on Reticulitermes flavipes in Ontario is briefly reviewed, with reference to a number of unpublished reports and publications of limited distribution.
J K Grace


A status report on code of good practices
1991 - IRG/WP 3679
Code of Good Practices - Anti Sapstain documents, presented to IRG meetings in the past, are the basic documents for health and safety of the workers and the environment in Canada. The BC Ministry of Environnment has now issued regulations in the area of effluent discharge. While Pentachlorophenols (PCP) are not used by the industry, the documents are still used as a guideline document for the other anti sapstain chemicals. New chemicals suppliers are adhering to the same format in preparing similar documents, for example, Kop-Cote has issued a Code of Good Practices document on the use of NP-1. In Eastern Canada, Environment Canada and the Atlantic Provinces have now set up a task group to develop a chemical management guidance document for the regional wood protection industry. In the near future, it is expected that a generic code of good practices will be developed based on the chemical management guidance document. The generic code shall be used by all anti sapstain facilities in Canada, irrespective of the chemical used. Code of Good Practices - Wood Preservation documents were published and reported to IRG in earlier meetings. An assessment of effectiveness and use of these documents is nearly complete. Forestry Canada will support other federal departments in setting up a task force to update these documents in 1992. Through a contract, a video has been prepared to increase the awareness among the plant personnel on the Code of Good Practices for oil-borne preservatives. We expect that the IRG Health and Safety Committee will create a dialogue among all the members from different countries so as to increase the awareness of health and safety of workers in the wood preservation industry and the safety of the environment. Information should be exchanged regarding the actual studies, proposed plan etc., so that all can benefit from the work done by others, rather than duplicating the work already done by somebody else. The Committee should set up a task group to prepare a global plan for writing a Code of Good Practices for wood protection and preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Management of treated wood waste in Canada - Technical and regulatory solutions
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-15
A major problem facing the wood preservation industry in Canada is the management of wastes. This refers to wastes generated during the treatment process as well as waste treated wood that is removed from service. The volume of oil borne preservative treated industrial products to be removed from service in Canada over the next 20 years is expected to be fairly constant at approximately 350,000 to 400,000 cubic metres (m3) per year. On the other hand CCA treated removals will increase from 112,000 m3 in the year 2000 to approximately 480,000 m3 in 2020. Current management practices for industrial product removals are reuse, recycling as wood and fibre, energy recovery in industrial combustion systems and land filling. The expected increase in the volume of waste CCA-treated industrial material represents a major disposal challenge. The volume of CCA treated consumer products to be removed from service over the next 20 years is expected to increase dramatically from approximately 75,000 m3 in the year 2000 to in excess of 1 million m3 in 2020. At present, the only practical disposal methods for this material are land filling and limited reuse. For the foreseeable future, management practices such as reuse, recycling and energy recovery in industrial combustion systems such as large power boilers and cement kilns, appear to be practical and economically feasible for oil borne preservative-treated products. Furthermore, the owners of these products are motivated to pursue responsible disposal methods in order to avoid the increasing cost of land filling. In the case of CCA-treated consumer products, the waste material is widely distributed in residential areas. Individual homeowners have no commitment to responsible disposal and in fact, in many cases, may not even be aware that they have CCA-treated wood on their property. The identification, collection, storage and disposal of this material represent major problems due to the growth in volume that is forecasted. This paper presents the current situation that the wood preservation sector is facing in Canada with respect to the management of wastes and discusses both the technical and regulatory options that are being explored and implemented.
B Munson


Microbial breakdown mechanisms. Mini-Symposium at the 18th IRG meeting, Honey Harbour, Ontario, Canada
1987 - IRG/WP 1327
An understanding of how micro-organisms cause chemical alternation to wood is essential for effective wood preservation. Investigation of the Microbial Breakdown of wood is a very dynamic research field and is increasing in importance as several biocides are being examined as alternativesw to classic wood preservatives. These biocides often do not possess broad spectrum activity. It is esential that the biocides are carefully examined and a good knowledge obtained of how and what they must protect. The aim of this Symposium is to attempt to present an update of research, presented by leaders in the field. The following presentations were held: 1) Intrduction/Overview - L.E. Leightley 2) Morphological observations of brown rot and white rot decay - K. Messner 3) Biochemical aspects or brown and white rot decay - T.L. Highley 4) Influence of variable lignin content on brown rot decay of wood - T. Nilson; G. Daniel 5) Soft rot decay - R.A. Eaton.
L E Leightley


Utility pole recycling and disposal in Eastern Canada
1990 - IRG/WP 3587
Increasing public awareness, prompted by environmental groups such as Greenpeace, concerning the use and disposal of treated wood is becoming a serious issue in Canada. Producers and user groups of treated Pentachlorophenol (PCP) utility poles are at the forefront of public, government and media attention. If, as expected, further limitations on the use and disposal of PCP by the public are imposed, the producers and users of this material will have to find alternative means of the means of pole disposal.
S D Henry


Fumigant movement in Canadian wood species
1984 - IRG/WP 3296
Pole sections prepared from seven Canadian wood species (Thuja plicata, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus contorta, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Pseudotsuga menziesii, southern yellow pine) were fumigated with chloropicrin, methylisothiocyanate and Vapam and the rates of fumigant penetration determined. All three fumigants were applied directly into holes bored radially into the pole sections. Analysis for fumigants commenced after a few days at various sampling distances from the treating point. After three months the test was concluded. Methylisothiocyanate, diffused equally well upwards or downwards in the pole section from the point of fumigation in all wood species, and appears to offer the best potential of the three fumigants as a pole treatment in Canada. When applied directly, chloropicrin initially moved quickly but then the diffusion rate slowed somewhat. Upward movement was fastest in eastern white and western red cedar while downward movement was also rapid in southern yellow and red pine. Chloropicrin movement was rated as good in Douglas-fir but poor in jack pine. Diffusion of chloropicrin was severely retarded in lodgepole pine. In general Vapam movement was slow at first, and then increased with time. Diffusion rates for all wood species were similar except for relatively rapid upward movement in red and southern yellow pines.
J N R Ruddick


Some factors affecting the treatability of spruce roundwood with ammoniacal preservative solutions
1976 - IRG/WP 371
Permeable wood species for use in preservative-treated commodities are becoming depleted in Canada. Spruce can be a convenient replacement for them from local resources provided it can be treated to levels adequate for protection of commodities in ground contact. Basically, two approaches were taken to improve treatability of difficult-to-penetrate softwood species; first, to improve the permeability of wood and second, to improve the penetrating properties of liquids. The first approach involves various means of wood pre-treatment: biological (enzymes, moulds and bacteria including ponding), chemical (removal of extractives), mechanical (precompression) and technological (presteaming of green wood, replacement of water in wood by solvents). There are a great many publications devoted to individual topics mentioned here indicating the significance of the subject. The second approach is the selection of a solvent capable of penetrating into the wood better than conventional solvents for, preservative compounds.
J Rak


Field testing of alkylammonium wood preservatives
1983 - IRG/WP 3248
The field test performance of five alkylammonium wood preservatives is described. The relative effectiveness of three unmodified formulations was determined by calculation of a Performance Index. Of the three, didecyldimethylammonium chloride was found to be superior to octyldecyldimethylammonium chloride, and both were more effective than alkyltrimethylammonium chloride. However, none were considered to have potential for use as wood preservatives. The addition of cupric chloride to octyldecyldimethylammonium chloride did not improve its effectiveness. Initial results for alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride modified by the addition of tributyltin chloride indicated that the preservative performance may be significantly improved.
J N R Ruddick


Check development on jack pine logs in Eastern Canada
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10387
Logs in storage are subject to check damage. The severity of the problem may vary with various environmental and storage conditions. In this study, an investigation was conducted on the development of checks in debarked and bark-on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) logs in Eastern Canada. In the summer of 1999, jack pine trees were felled, logs were debarked and stored in a sawmill yard. The logs were inspected and sampled every 2 to 4 weeks. The moisture content and the amount and depth of checks presented in each log were determined. Bark-on logs, stored in sunny and shaded environments served as controls. The results showed that the moisture content of debarked logs dropped rapidly, whereas the humidity of bark-on logs stored in a shaded environment decreased much slower. More checks were found on debarked logs than on bark-on ones. On debarked logs, the average number and depth of checks increased proportionally with the duration of storage. However, formation of the deepest check did not correlate with storage time. Fewer checks were detected on logs with intact bark, especially on those stored in the shade.
Dian-Qing Yang, R Beauregard


Marine trials with ammoniacal wood preservatives
1980 - IRG/WP 423
Ammoniacal wood preservatives have been known for many years and are considered among the best water-borne systems for protecting wood in ground contact. In recent years attention has been increasingly focussed on these preservatives because of their ability to penetrate difficult-to-treat species better than most other fixed water-borne preservatives. This is particularly important for example, in eastern Canada, where there is an abundance of spruce and a relative shortage of easily treated woods such as pine. Besides being able to readily penetrate wood, the preservative must also be well fixed in the wood. We have concentrated in recent years on improving the already good fixation of ammoniacal copper arsenate and have paid particular attention to increasing the ratio of copper ions to arsenic ions, adding extra anions, and also substituting all or part of the copper by zinc. The preservatives thus formulated are termed copper arsenic additive (CAA), copper zinc arsenic additive (CZAA) and zinc arsenic additive (ZAA). Many of the properties of these preservatives have been reported elsewhere (Hulme, 1979). However, no reports have yet been prepared on their ability to protect wood in sea water. This first progress report indicates how well these preservatives protect wood against marine borer attack in Canadian coastal waters for at least 8 months.
M A Hulme, D P Ostaff


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