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In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Screening results of fungicides for sapstain control on Pinus radiata
1983 - IRG/WP 3236
Thirty-two compounds were tested to determine their ability to contain the growth of stain, mould and rot organisms on fresh Pinus radiata D Don. A screening technique was employed using 35 to 50 mm diameter biscuits of Pinus radiata stemwood 10 mm thick. No compound was found to be cost effective when compared against the standard treatments of NaPCP (0.5% a.i.) plus borax (1.5%) and Captafol (0.2% a.i.). The best compound identified was a guanadine compound Guazatine which at 0.2% a.i. was slightly better than the standard treatments employed in New Zealand. From these results and previous published work it would appear that mixtures offer more hope of a low hazard, cost effective treatment to replace the presently used industrial standard.
P J Hayward, J Duff, W Rae

Commercial antisapstain chemicals in New Zealand
1980 - IRG/WP 3142
Almost all sawn timber of exotic softwoods (principally Pinus radiata) and a large proportion of indigenous sawn timber receives an antisapstain chemical treatment to prevent fungal degrade during subsequent seasoning, storage, or transportation (if exported). Antisapstain chemicals are also widely used to protect freshly peeled round produce during drying. A further, specialised, use is as the fungicidal additive to concentrated boron salt solutions used in boron diffusion treatment of sawn timber; such timber is very prone to mould and stain during the diffusion period. In all cases, the chemical is applied to green timber by momentary immersion in the solution, or by spray. The amount of solution that remains on the surface of dipped timber is very small; solution uptake by dipping green 100 x 50 mm² rough-sawn timber is approximately 18 litres/m³ - equivalent to 1 gal/100 bd ft of 4 x 2 in². The concentration of chemical in solution is that shown by experimentation or experience to be necessary to inhibit almost all fungal growths for a period of 3-4 months. However, adjustment to solution concentrations is often necessary if full cost-effectiveness of the treatment is to be achieved. For example, in winter and early spring chance of fungal infection is usually low, so solution concentrations can be reduced. In contrast, wet warm summers tend to promote fungal degrade and so solution concentrations need to be increased. The condition of the timber also dictates concentrations. Rough-sawn timber absorbs more solution than planer-gauged material, so concentrations must be increased if gauged timber is to obtain adequate protection. This is of particular concern when mills attempt to gauge timber before boron treatment; lack of mould and stain control has limited this worthwhile development. Since antisapstain treatment results only in a superficial deposit of fungicide on the surface of green timber it is merely a preventive, or prophylactic, treatment. The full success of an antisapstain chemical in preventing fungal degrade therefore depends on the timber being free of infection at time of application. Prompt handling between felling, conversion, and antisapstain treatment is a prerequisite of treatment.
J A Butcher

An appraisal of anti-sapstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1985 - IRG/WP 3331
Eleven formulations were tested in the field for effectiveness against sapstain, mould and fungi on Pinus elliottii in Queensland. The commercially used sodium pentachlorophenoxide (0.5% a.i.) and Captafol (0.2% a.i.) performed well. Busan 1009 (0.3% a.i.), Protek T (5.0% a.i.), Woodgard E.S. and E.C. (0.8% a.i.), together with sodium tetrachlorophenoxide (0.5% a.i.) offer potential as anti-sapstain treatments. Protek S (up to 0.6% a.i.), Azaconazole (up to 0.2% a.i.) and copper-8-quinolinolate (up to 0.06% a.i.) were ineffective in protecting against mould and sapstain fungi.
L E Leightley