Your search resulted in 22 documents.
Soil chemistry and wood decay
1978 - IRG/WP 2109
Soil is a most complex biological, chemical and physical material; its study is effectively a separate branch of science but almost entirely in relation to ist ability to grow plants - this paper is intendet just to note some known facets that might have relevance to the decay of wood and the performance of wood preservatives....
E A Hilditch
An investigation into the influence of soil cation exchange capacity on preservative component depletion
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20050
The mobility of preservative components from treated wood into the soil environment is regarded as an important determinant of preservative performance. Standard procedures for the investigation of this phenomenon have not been developed to any great extent. Soil bed studies conducted in this laboratory using natural soil and modified soil media have provided interesting comparative data on the in...
K J Archer, L Jin
Diffusion and interaction of components of water-borne preservatives in the wood cell wall
1988 - IRG/WP 3474
This study investigates the rates of diffusion and ultimate distributions of copper and arsenate components of wood preservatives in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Adsorption studies of copper on red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood confirm the importance of cation exchange reactions on the ultimate distribution of copper in the wood substance and i...
P A Cooper
Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper
Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton
The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...
Leaching tests - A paper for discussion
1973 - IRG/WP 221
J W W Morgan
Oxalate production and calcium oxalate accumulation by Gloeophyllum trabeum in buffered cultures
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10075
Most basidiomycetous fungi produce oxalic acid as a result of their metabolic activities and nutrient procurement. There is currently a renewed interest in the role that oxalic acid may play in the decomposition of wood by basidiomycete fungi. It has been observed that although most wood degrading fungi have the capacity to produce oxalic acid, not all of these organisms express this capacity equa...
J H Connolly, J Jellison
The foreign exchange situation and fate of wood preservation in Nigeria
1989 - IRG/WP 3558
Up to about 15 years ago, wood utilization industry in Nigeria gave no serious thoughts to wood preservation. After this period however, as a result of escalated local demand for sawn timber, logs with wider sapwood and mainly of secondary tree species requiring protection of the sawn timber became dominant in the local timber scene. Preservatives both for protection in and out of ground contacts ...
M A Odeyinde, S C Ifebueme
A comparison of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and neutron activity analysis for the determination of concentrations in wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10048
As wood decays the ionic composition changes, with increases often being seen in the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and sometimes K. The concentration of eight cations in red spruce sapwood and heartwood samples was determined independently by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) and by neutron activation analysis (NAA) as part of an effort to standardize our analytical procedures and c...
J Jellison, J Connolly, K C Smith, W T Shortle
Selective chromate elimination from the storage-drainage-water of a wood impregnation plant
1980 - IRG/WP 3153
With the Enviro-Chrom-Ex process it is possible to eliminate ecologically and economically hexavalent chromium (chromate) from water selectively. The process which is based on the principle of selective ion exchange works with different chromate concentrations and under the presence of other ions, irrespective of the water hardness. The values of water-offtake reach 0.1 mg CrVI at maximum, causing...
O Wälchli, R Ott, R Hugener, E Graf, B Lieberherr
Evaluating the potential of amine chemicals for use as wood protecting agents. Part 1: Investigation of cation components of quaternary ammonium compounds
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30049
Quaternary ammonium compounds (quats) have shown a great potential as more environmentally acceptable wood preservatives. In order to identify chemicals possessing the wood protecting potential, an evaluation was carried out of a range of commercially available 'quats', using a modified soil block test. Ponderosa pine sapwood blocks were treated with selected 'quat&a...
Hang Tang, J N R Ruddick
Studies on the permeability of Norway spruce (Picea abies)
1987 - IRG/WP 2295
It is well known that the bordered pits play a dominating role for liquid transport in softwoods. The mechanism behind pit aspiration during drying or heartwood formation seems to be well understood. The reason why the fixation of the membrane (torus) to the pit opening remains almost irreversible is, however, still unclear. A technique has been developed combining so-called "solvent exchange dryi...
I Johansson, K Nordman-Edberg
Differences in pH, electrical resistance, cation composition and NIR spectra of red spruce wood during early stages of brown rot degradation
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10449
Red spruce sapwood was exposed to degradation by the brown rot fungi Coniophora puteana, Postia placenta, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Serpula lacrymans for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks using a modified soil block assay design. Average weight losses over time ranged from 0-8.9% during this time period. Detectable changes in pH, electrical resistance and cation compostion were observed in the wood as early as 1 ...
J Jellison, S Kelley, B Goodell, D Hui, A Ostrofsky
Some practical implications from recent research on the fixation of CCA preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 358
The mechanism of fixation of CCA preservatives is briefly described. If the temperature is increased during the primary fixation period, the formation of intermediate fixation compounds is less extensive. The length of the primary fixation period is of practical interest. It is determined by preservative composition and concentration, temperature and wood species. Diagrams are given for Pinus sylv...
Assessing health risks to occupants following remedial insecticidal treatment of timber in dwellings
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-27
Experiments have been carried out to assess (i) the aerial concentrations of volatile wood preservative constituents, and (ii) the potential for contamination from treated surfaces, following in situ insecticidal treatment of timbers in dwellings. Using white spirit as a model for volatile constituents in the treatment of free-standing, wood-lined chambers indicated that temperature and air exchan...
R J Orsler, E D Suttie, V Rijckaert
Cation analysis of wood degraded by white and brown rot fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1552
Changes in the concentrations and composition of cations within wood colonized by the brown-rot fungi Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum and the white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium were analyzed using plasma emission and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In degraded poplar wood significant decreases in pH and electrical resistance readings were observed as...
J Jellison, K C Smith, W T Shortle
Efficacy of lignocellulosic materials for Removal of Cation and Anions from Industrial and Urban Wastewater
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50321
The adsorption of Ca, Zn, Na, Cd (II), Cr (III) and No3 ions from industrial and urban wastewater and aqueous solutions by poplar (Populusnigra) sawdust, cotton linter, zeolite and expanded perlite were examined on the basis of a batch adsorption technique. The results revealed that application of sawdust, cotton linter, perlite and zeolite are effective in improving elimination of Ca, Zn, Na ions...
M Akhtari, M Ghorbani Kohkandeh, H Borazjani
Accessibility of hydroxyl groups in anhydride modified wood as measured by deuterium exchange
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40784
Acetylated wood shows improved properties largely due to the reduced amount of water in the acetylated cell wall. However, the exact mechanism by which water is excluded in acetylated wood remains unclear. Acetylation reduces hydroxyl content by substitution of hydroxyl groups in wood polymers but may also hinder access to unmodified hydroxyls by physical bulking. This work assesses hydroxyl acces...
G Beck, S Strohbusch, E Larnøy, H Militz, C Hill
Recent findings clarifying the mechanism of brown-rot decay protection in acetylated wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40827
This paper summarizes the findings obtained during my PhD research over the past three years. The results provide insights which help to understand the enhanced brown-rot decay resistance of acetylated wood with particular emphasis on the role of water. The protection acetylation provides is derived from moisture exclusion within the acetylated cell wall, but the exact mechanism by which water is ...
Hydroxyl accessibility - A brief review of deuterium exchange studies on modified wood
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20656
Wood modification imparts dimensional stability and decay resistance. The mechanism(s) by which this occurs are thought to be related to the bulking of the wood cell wall and subsequent moisture exclusion. Hence, quantification of accessible hydroxyl (OH) groups is of great interest when evaluating and increasing the understanding of the performance of modified wood. The aim of this study was to b...
G Beck, C Hill, G Alfredsen
Knowledge exchange and transfer from academia to industry in the field of wood protection research – Activities of the IRG-WP Communications Committee
2019 - IRG/WP 19-50354
The International Research Group on Wood Protection (IRG) was founded in 1969 as a structured group of like-minded scientists and technologists focused on generating knowledge of the science of wood deterioration, and novel solutions to provide sustainably and environmentally responsible products for the protection of wood-based materials. The primary function of the IRG is to provide opportunitie...
F Latorre, B Abbott, C Brischke, M Humar, D Jones, E Larnoy, L Nunes, A Preston, T Singh