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Laboratory studies of CCA-C-leaching: influence of wood and soil properties on extent of arsenic and copper depletion
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50186
The extent which a wood preservative leaches is important for efficacy studies and environmental concerns. However, little information exists on the effect soil properties have on leaching. This study investigated leaching of stakelets which had been cut from five different southern yellow pine (SYP) sapwood boards then treated with CCA-C to a target retention of 6.4 kgm-3 (0.4 pcf). All stakel...
D Crawford, R F Fox, D P Kamden, S T Lebow, D D Nicholas, D Pettry, T Schultz, L Sites, R J Ziobro


An introduction to environmental aspects of groundwater arsenic and CCA treated wood poles in Bangladesh
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50081
The environment comprises biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Therefore, environmental science is a multi-disciplinary study, includes life sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, geology, geography, meteorology, forestry, agriculture, soil science, hydrology, ecology, public health, engineering etc. Tremendous industrial and mining activities, deforestation and population ...
A K Lahiry


Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was ...
C D Ralph


Treatability of Siberian larch and spruce with chromated copper arsenate
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40060
Heartwood of Siberian larch (Larix gmelini) and spruce (Picea jezoensis) was pressure treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) Type B using a full cell process. Larch heartwood was somewhat difficult to treat than the spruce, although both species did not meet a minimum requirements of penetration and retention specified by the American Wood Preservers' Association (AWPA) for difficul...
Gyu-Hyeok Kim, Woo-Gue Jee, Jae-Jin Kim


A Soil Bed Test of the Effect of CCA Penetration on the Performance of Hem-fir Plywood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30332
An accelerated decay test was set up to compare the performance of CCA-treated Western hemlock/amabilis fir plywood treated to meet the preserved wood foundation (PWF) retention standard with various patterns of preservative penetration. Short lengths of treated plywood and comparable untreated material were installed in a soil bed. After eleven years of exposure, the CCA treatments were all sou...
P I Morris, J K Ingram


Fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in Australian hardwoods: A comparison of three Eucalyptus species
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30107
New environmental guidelines for the management of CCA treatment plants were released in Australia in 1995. This has stimulated interest in techniques for controlling or accelerating the fixation of CCA in freshly treated timber products. The ability to understand, then effectively control and/or accelerate fixation of CCA in treated timber products can be an economic, technical and environmental ...
J Holmes


Wood Preservatives Science Issues: US EPA’s Perspective
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-2
The USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), Antimicrobials Division (AD), regulates the use of chemicals registered as wood preservatives in the United States. An overview of the registration and re-registration process is presented. The wood preservatives data requirements include toxicological, human exposure, ecological, and environmental fate data. A detailed discussion of wood preservati...
N Elkassabany


Effects of surfactants and ultrasonic energy on the treatment of wood with chromated copper arsenate
1977 - IRG/WP 3108
Sugar pine stakes 1'' x 1" x 16" were treated by a hot-water bath followed by soaking in cold CCA solution for 10 to 30 minutes. A similar number of stakes were treated by a cold-cold bath. Half of the stakes were subjected to ultrasonic energy during the CCA bath. The mean absorption for stakes given the hot-cold bath was 18.52 pcf (297 kg/m³) and 4.64 pcf (74 kg/m³) for those...
C S Walters


Equilibrium distribution of toxic elements in the burning of impregnated wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50172
The current work focuses on predicting the behavior of arsenic, chromium, and copper in the burning of impregnated wood. A theoretical method is used to study the chemistry of the system, with special interest directed towards the vaporization tendency of the potentially toxic elements. The core of the study is the global equilibrium analysis that simultaneously takes into consideration all chemic...
K Sandelin, R Backman


Soft-rot control in hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives. Part 3: Influence of wood substrate and copper loadings
1977 - IRG/WP 2100
The hypothesis is proposed that hardwoods need more chromated copper arsenate (CCA) than softwoods to protect them from soft-rot attack mainly because hardwoods are more readily consumed by soft-rot fungi. Simple model systems, using copper-supplemented agar or groundwood pulp treated with CCA showed that fungi tolerated more toxicant (copper) as more available substrate (malt) was provided. Soft-...
M A Hulme, J A Butcher


Performance of Paraserianthus falcataria treated with ACZA, ACQ, CC or CCA and exposed in Krishnapatnam harbour, India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30382
Paraserianthus falcataria (=Albizia falcataria) treated to two retentions with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA), ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), ammoniacal copper citrate (CC) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was assessed over 34 months in a tropical marine waters at Krishnapatnam harbour on the east coast of India. ACZA treatment showed comparatively better resistance than CCA, ACQ a...
B Tarakanadha, K S Rao, J J Morrell


Water repellency of wood treated with alkylammonium compounds and chromated copper arsenate
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30231
The comparative water sorption properties of southern pine treated with CCA and several alkylammonium compounds was evaluated for freshly treated wood and for wood after exposure in a fungus cellar. It was found that CCA imparts considerable water repellency to wood which is reduced somewhat after exposure to wet soil. With the exception of a long chain (C20 -C22) compound, the alkylammonium compo...
D D Nicholas, A Kabir, A D Williams, A F Preston


Rapid fixation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) wood preservatives by microwave treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40184
Rapid microwave heating of freshly chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber indicates that rapid preservative fixation is possible within approximately 40 seconds. The leaching of CCA was evaluated using simulated rainfall. Cost analyses indicates that microwave fixation using an on-line conveyor belt fixation process with an output of 4m3/hour using a microwave power supply of 230 kW costs ...
G Torgovnikov, P Vinden, E Mapanda, P R S Cobham


Chromated copper arsenate preservative treatment of hardwoods. Part 2: leaching performance of seven North American hardwoods
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30132
Seven North American hardwood species were treated with 2% CCA-C solution and fixed at temperatures of 21°C and 50°C and conditions of high relative humidity (95%) as described in Part 1 of this presentation. Red pine (Pinus resinosa) was included as a softwood for comparison. Adequately fixed wood blocks (99.9% chromium fixation) were exposed to leaching tests according to AWPA E11-87 test. Par...
T Stevanovic-Janezic, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Properties of particleboard made from recycled CCA-treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50146
Recovery of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood for reuse ha s been the focus of several international research groups due to the imminent disposal problem created when large quantities of CCA-treated wood ultimately come out of service. Bioleaching with Bacillus licheniformis CC01 and oxalic acid extraction are two methods known to remove significant quantities of metals from CCA-treated...
C A Clausen, S N Kartal, J H Muehl


Management strategies for the disposal of CCA-treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50155
A two-fold management strategy is presented for the disposal of wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The first part focuses on the use of alternative wood treatment preservatives. The second part of the management strategy addresses short-term disposal issues (less than 25 years) by developing new methods to handle the waste. A set of seven alternative wood preservatives were evaluat...
H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend


CCA removal from treated wood by chemical, mechanical and microbial processing
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-26
Most preservative-treated wood produced and consumed in the U.S. is treated with toxic inorganic compounds containing copper, chromium, and arsenic. Because chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is fixed to the wood, treated wood has not been considered toxic or hazardous and is currently landfilled. Increasing public concern about environmental contamination from treated wood combined with increasing q...
C A Clausen, R L Smith


Effect of soil chemistry and physical properties on wood preservative leaching
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50111
When treated wood is placed in contact with soil, complicated mass transfer and chemical reactions occur which causes the preservative components to leach from the wood. There are several factors that are known to affect the amount of chemical leached from wood. These are properties of the preservative and carrier, preservative retention, degree of fixation, exposure time, grain orientation, surfa...
Joan-Hao Wang, D D Nicholas, L S Sites, D E Pettry


Environmental Impacts of CCA-Treated Wood: A Summary from Seven Years of Study Focusing on the U.S. Florida Environment
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50205
Wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) was identified in 1995 as the cause of elevated arsenic concentrations within wood fuel used for cogeneration within Florida. Since this time a research team from the University of Miami and University of Florida has evaluated the environmental impacts of CCA-treated wood within the State. Research has focused on two distinct areas: in-service l...
H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend, J D Schert


Chromated copper arsenate preservative treatment of hardwoods. Part 1: CCA fixation performance of seven North american hardwoods
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30131
There has been an increased interest in utilisation of hardwoods from eastern North America for exterior applications which require protection with preservatives such as CCA. We have examined CCA fixation at two selected temperatures of seven common North American species: red maple (Acer rubrum L.,), white birch (Betula papyrifera ), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), trembling aspen (Po...
T Stevanovic-Janezic, P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Thermochemical Remediation of Preservative-Treated Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50254
Remediation methods continue to be developed and refined for CCA-treated wood in order to divert this material from landfills and create secondary products from the wood fiber. A two-step thermochemical remediation method was developed to assess the efficiency of metal removal from CCA-treated spruce flakes. Nearly all the metals (As, Cr, and Cu) were thermochemically extracted from chromated copp...
R Sabo, C A Clausen, J E Winandy


Comparison of laboratory and natural exposure leaching of copper from wood treated with three wood preservatives
2008 - IRG/WP 08-50258
Standard and non-standard laboratory and field leaching tests were used to compare copper leaching from wood treated to above ground and ground contact specified retentions for three wood preservative systems, CCA-C, ACQ-D and a micronized copper formulation with quat DDAC as co-biocide. Copper leaching was highest for the ACQ formulation. Percent leaching was lowest for the micronized copper sy...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung


Rapid Microwave-Assisted Acid Extraction of Metals from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Southern Pine Wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-50262
The effects of acid concentration, reaction time, and temperature in a microwave reactor on recovery of CCA-treated wood were evaluated. Extraction of copper, chromium, and arsenic metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated southern pine wood samples with three different acids (i.e., acetic acid, oxalic acid, and phosphoric acid) was investigated using in microwave reactor. Oxalic acid wa...
Bin Yu, Chung Y Hse, T F Shupe


Seasonal shifts of fungal community structure at the interface of treated or untreated wood and soil
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10721
Many wood species are degraded rapidly in soil by the fungal community. In order to preserve wood and structures in which it is used, chemical preservatives are used. Little is known about the interaction of treated wood and the surrounding soil fungal community. For this work, presented at IRG 41, wooden specimens (Pinus sylvestris sapwood, sizes 25 mm x 50 mm x 500 mm (longitudinal)) were treate...
M Noll, I Stephan


Hydroponic Phytoremediation of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and Copper Contaminated Water
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50304
The removal of selected metals by duckweed (Lemna minor) and parrotfeather (Myriophyllum aquaticum) from a simulated aqueous environment contaminated with Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) and copper sulfate was studied in a controlled laboratory experiment. The duckweed and parrotfeather’s tissues were analyzed to evaluate the removal of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As) from CCA cont...
C Keith, H Borazjani, S Diehl, Y Su, Fengxian Han, B Baldwin


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