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IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma


Resistance to soft rot of hardwood plywood treated with CCA salt
1983 - IRG/WP 3258
Plywood made from indigenous hardwoods was treated at an average loading of 34 kg Celcure A per m³ and was installed in a field test. After 20 years the samples were only slightly attacked by soft rot and the glue bonds were still intact.
R S Johnstone


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water: Final report
1987 - IRG/WP 4133
Three timbers chosen as reference species were treated with 3, 6 and 10% solutions of CCA and CCB preservatives and exposed for up to 93 months at 8 tropical and temperate marine sites. Eleven local species treated in the same way were exposed at 4 of the 8 sites. There was no apparent difference in performance between CCA and CCB treated specimens. The severest test site was Panama Canal but marine borer damage of specimens was recorded at all the test sites. Treated specimens of the reference species Alstonia scholaris and Pinus sylvestris were markedly superior in performance at all sites and Homalium foetidum was considered the best local species. Along with the reference species Fagus sylvatica, treated specimens of the remaining local species performed relatively poorly. All treated species were attacked by soft rot fungi, except treated Alstonia scholaris and Homalium foetidum which were superficially decayed by bacteria. The relative success of treated Alstonia scholaris in this trial is attributed to its permeability characteristics and acceptance of high preservative loadings, even preservative distribution and its high lignin content.
R A Eaton


A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge and the analysis, to arrive finally at an aggregation and conclusion from the data.
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 3rd Interim Report
1983 - IRG/WP 4101
This paper updates the results of microbiological examination and marine borer assessment of untreated wood samples (15 x 2 x 2 cm³) and samples treated with 3, 6 and 10% CCA and CCB preservatives. Three reference species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris were used at all the test sites in addition to local species chosen by participants in the test.
R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 9: Report of third inspection (2 years) in Italy
1980 - IRG/WP 461
The wood samples were submerged in the sea at Follonica, Italy, in April 1977. Follonica, latitudine 42°55' North and longitude 10°45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 13°C to 25°C, salinity 37-38% and pH about 8. The inspections were carried out after 6 months (10/1977), 1 year (4/1978) and 2 years (4/1979).
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 7: Second report on the samples in Papua New Guinea
1980 - IRG/WP 459
This report presents the findings to date regarding specimens installed in Papua New Guinea, as part of a world-wide marine trial of certain timbers treated with CCA or CCB preservatives. The details of the trial are set out in document number IRG/WP/414. The report discusses the findings in the context of the conditions prevailing at the trial site and of the properties of the trial timbers. The trial is the third to be installed in the waters of Papua New Guinea. In 1967, pine and eucalypt samples treated either with CCA or with creosote, were installed at Rabaul, Lae and Port Moresby. Tamblyn et al (1978) describe the performance of these samples. A second trial, consisting of fifteen Papua New Guinean timbers, vacuum/pressure treated with CCA, was established at Lae and Port Moresby in 1973. This trial is described in the report of Rayner (1974). The necessity for effective treatment against marine borer attack is particularly evident in the waters of Papua New Guinea. Shillingaw and Moore (1974) found that most wharves constructed around the coast of New Guinea during the war became unserviceable within eighteen months. A timber which has a considerable reputation for durability in Australian waters - turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera) - has proved to be vulnerable to borer attack here; it gives a service life of as little as two years at Wewak, though a somewhat longer life can be expected at Port Moresby. The most destructive borers in these waters are the members of the family Teredinidae. Nearly forty species of teredinids occur here. The isopods, Limnoria and Sphaeroma are also responsible for damage to timber wharf installations in certain areas. The pholad Martesia is also found, but never in sufficient numbers to cause economically significant damage.
S M Cragg, C R Levy


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 20: Report on the inspection of specimens at Sekondi, Ghana after 48 months
1985 - IRG/WP 4116
The results of the second inspection of CCA- and CCB-treated test panels exposed at Sekondi, Ghana, in June 1980, are presented. The panels of Pinus sylvestris treated with 3% CCA are stil unattacked after 48 months. Panels treated with 10% CCA and still in test (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Alstonia scholaris) are still free of attack. Locol species treated with 3% CCB have all been destroyed. Of the panels treated with 10% CCB recovered from the bottom of the sea, those of Ongokea gore were shown by X-radiography to be in various stages of attack by teredinids. One recovered panel of Erythrophleum guineense and four of Mitragyna stipulosa remain free of attack. Teredinids constitute the major hazard.
F F K Ampong, N Asare-Nyadu


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 4: Report of second inspection (12 months) in Australia
1979 - IRG/WP 448
Previous reports have presented full details of the treatment and installation of the test specimens in Sydney Harbour during December, 1977, and of the results of the first (6 months) inspection made during June, 1978. At the June inspection it was apparent that the plastic tubing used to make up the frames from which to suspend the specimens was inadequate for the job and not strong enough to support the heavy fouling which had occurred. Consequently, frames were re-designed and rebuilt in a heavier grade of plastic tubing and, within a week or two of the actual inspection, the remaining test specimens were transferred to new frames. These have proved entirely adequate, as can be seen from the photoqraphs. In accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414), the whole of the remaining part of the test was re-examined on 13th December, almost exactly 12 months from the day of installation. The inspection procedure previously adopted was again followed. Fouling was assessed for whole frames as there was no apparent difference between individual groups of specimens in the amount of fouling present; the specimens were then cleaned and again assessed for teredine and crustacean attack - which were recorded separately and independently.
J Beesley


Leaching of CCA components from treated wood under acidic conditions
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50004
The leaching of CCA components from treated wood under acidic conditions were investigated. Western hemlock treated with three types of CCA and two levels of target retention was subjected to leaching at four different levels of pH. After leaching tests, leached samples were subjected to laboratory decay and soft rot tests. The amount of CCA components leached was dependent on acidity of leaching solution, CCA formulation, and target retention. The leaching of CCA components at pH 4.0 or above was not significant even though a relatively low amounts of arsenic were leached. The resistance of leaching according to the type of CCA was in the sequence of CCA-Type C (oxide), CCA-Type C (salt) and CCA-Type B (oxide). The amount of leaching was increased with the increase in target retention. The reduction of biological effectiveness was not distinct for treated wood leached in acidified water of pH 4.0 or above. Based on the results of this study, it might be concluded that losses of CCA components at pH 4.0 or above were not great enough to cause public concern about environmental problems and reduction of biological efficacy in service.
Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim


Chemical analyses of IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST (to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water) samples
1987 - IRG/WP 4114
Chemical analysis of CCA and CCB treated timber was carried out after exposure at tropical and temperate marine sites. Results indicated that losses of all elements had occurred. In particular, losses of boron were severe. Arsenic and copper were also lost. The chromium components in both formulations was the most dominant metal remaining. The results suggest that chromium modification was important in timber treatments for the marine environment, since there appeared to be little difference in timber protection between the CCA and CCB systems.
L E Leightley


Comparisons of differences in electrical conductivity and corrosivity between CCA-oxide and CCA-salt treated wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3178
CCA preservatives have served well in many applications throughout the world. In developed areas it is the preservative in demand for clean dry paintable surfaces with long durability. In developing areas it is widely used for economic and logistical reasons. With the current emphasis on energy resources, the CCA preservatives are gaining greater acceptance as a substitute for hydrocarbon-related preservatives. While there are several formulations with apparent wide differences in the proportions of active ingredients, (chrome, copper and arsenate), the performance of each appear to be essentially equivalent as wood preservatives. This performance has lead to an almost blind acceptance in the market place in the U.S. in that any CCA is considered equivalent in all respects. When all aspects are considered, it is readily apparent that this equivalency does not exist.
J A Taylor


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 1: Treatment of reference samples
1977 - IRG/WP 426
It was agreed in Wildhaus on 15 May 1976 that preparations for the test detailed in Document No: IRG/WP/414 should commence immediately, but that initially only two water-borne preservatives should be used - a copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) and a copper/chrome/boron (CCB) formulation respectively. PRL, England (R Cockcroft) would be responsible for supplying samples of the reference timbers treated with CCA and Dr Wolman GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany (W O Schulz) for supplying samples of the reference timbers treated with CCB. Untreated samples of the reference timbers would be supplied at the same time. Samples of the two wood preservatives have been kindly supplied for the test by Hickson's Timber Products Ltd, UK and Dr Wolman GmbH.
R Cockcroft, T B Dearling, W O Schulz, H V Borck


Treatment details for the field experiment to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particlar reference to soft rot
1977 - IRG/WP 384
These notes are compiled to complement and supplement Document No: IRG/WP/367 which described the plan for the treatment of the stakes, using a CCA preservative, for the field experiment. This document gives extra details of the treatment characteristics of the different timber species and as such may give IRG members useful information on the sapwood permeability of a range of hardwoods. The report may also be useful when planning further trials in this investigation when the performance of stakes treated with other preservatives is examined.
F W Brooks, M R Gayles


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 21: Report of eighth inspection (7 years) in Australia
1985 - IRG/WP 4119
This report tabulates the seven year (86 month) inspection results, obtained on 28 Fabruary l985, of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test at Goat Island, Australia. This test was installed in December 1977. The results are given in Tables 1-6. Table 7 lists the number of marine borers identified from blocks (2 cm and 6 cm long respectively) cut from the ends of specimens removed at the previous inspection, i.e. after 72 months. At that inspection the central portion of the specimens removed from test were used for chemical analysis, and bacterial and soft rot assessment by various IRG researchers. Limnoria quadripunctata has been previously identified from other timbers treated with copper-containing preservatives (Barnacle et al., 1983). Limnoria indica had not been identified previously from Australia, and this occurrence together with additions to the description of the borer, will be given by Cookson (in preparation).
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle


Microbial decomposition of salt treated wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-22
Specialized microorganisms which are able to convert fixed inorganic preservatives from treated wood into water soluble components are investigated. A number of brown rot fungi like Antrodia vaillantii have been isolated from cases of damage and examined under unsterile conditions with CCA-, CCB-, CCF- and CC-treated wood at retention levels of at least 50% higher than recommended for wood in ground contact. Depending on the kind of fungus, preservative retention, wood particle size, culture conditions and duration Cr and As can be almost completely leached from the treated wood. Cu reacts with oxalic acid to a compound of limited water solubility.
R-D Peek, I Stephan, H Leithoff


Biological detoxification of wood treated with salt preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3717
The use of microorganisms that are capable to convert chemically fixed inorganic preservative complexes from impregnated wood waste into watersoluble components is investigated. A number of fungi were isolated from deteriorated and initially well-treated wood. They revealed an exceptionally high production of organic acids (pH 2). The fungi were identified and used together with others of the same genus for experiments under non-sterile conditions on a laboratory scale with CCA-, CCB and CC-treated wood at retention levels of at least 50% higher than recommended for wood in ground contact. As a result Cr and As were leached to more than 90% depending on culture conditions, whereas Cu reacts with oxalic acid to a complex with limited water solubility.
I Stephan, R-D Peek


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 6: Report of third inspection (24 months) in Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 456
This report presents the results of the third inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed at the Goat Island Marine Biological Station of the Maritime Services Board of New South Wales, in Sydney Harbour. The inspection was completed on 5th December, 1979, after 24 months exposure. As on previous occasions, this inspection was carried out in conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) apart from an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. At the conclusion of the inspection, all specimens remaining on the frame designated for removal at this inspection were recovered, re-labelled and despatched to Portsmouth for laboratory examination. The re-designed frames of PVC water-pipe were found to be in good order and can be expected to survive the remaining 5 years of test exposure.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 14: Report of fifth inspection (48 months) in Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 484
This report presents the results of the fifth inspection of the IRG/ COIPM Internatlonal Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. This inspection took place on 9th December, 1981, just 48 months after the specimens were installed. Earlier reports have contained full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens as well as results of all previous inspections, made after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, as stipulated in the working plan.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 18. Report of seventh inspection (72 months) in Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 4108
This report includes the results for the 72 month inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test installed in Sydney Harbour. Although, overall, attack by teredinid and limnorid borers have been most commonly encountered in test specimens at this site, slight attack, mainly by sphaeromatids, has recently been initiated on some hitherto unattacked treated Alstonia scholaris and Pinus sylvestris specimens. There is still little difference between the performances of CCA or CCB treated specimens for each timber species after 6 years immersion.
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 3: Report of first inspection of samples at Lae, Papua New Guinea
1978 - IRG/WP 446
Samples for the international marine test were placed on frames numbered I to VII. Frames numbered VII of both CCA and CCB trials are being stored dry in the laboratory at F.P.R. & D.C. Frames I to VI of both trials were suspended in the sea at Lae Harbour (Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea) on 6th December 1977. The first inspection of the CCA trial was carried out on 8th June 1978, at which time the samples in frame VI were removed and posted for microbiological examination, while frames V and VI were X-rayed. Due to the considerable discrepancy between the results of visual and of X-ray examination, it was decided that all frames should be X-rayed. Unfortunately, this could not be carried out until 22nd August 1978. At this time, the samples in frame IV of the CCB trial were removed and posted for microbiological examination. The samples were X-rayed on a Toshiba Rotanode. Best results were obtained by operating at 50 kV and 50 mA, and by using an exposure time of 0.16 s. X-ray pictures of the samples were examined and the degree of teredinid attack was given a rating from 0 to 3 (see IRG/WP/414). The loss of many of the control specimens can be attributed to extremely heavy teredinid attack. Indeed, in some cases, small teredinid-riddled traces of the samples remained. Specimens of Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris which were heavily attacked in June were missing by August. The X-rays of four samples made in June 6th are compared with those made on August 22nd and a particularly striking example of rapid attack in the period intervening between the two inspections is shown. Neither pholad nor crustacean attack was observed in any of the samples, which in June were attacked. There were no marked differences between the degree of fouling on different samples. In each case the fouling completely covered all surfaces, but did not project much from the sample blocks. A typical example of this fouling which is probably best described as grade 2 fouling (moderate) is shown. Bryzoans covered more surface area than the other fouling organisms. Other microscopic fouling organisms which were common were bivalves, hydrozoans and sponges. Insufficient information is available on the marine fauna of Papua New Guinea to enable a detailed description of the fouling community to be made.
S M Cragg, C R Levy


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