IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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The performance of metal-chromium-arsenic formulations after 32 to 38 years' in-ground exposure in Australia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30240
Two trials of metal-chromium-arsenic preservatives were exposed in-ground in Australia. In Trial 1, Pinus radiata stakes treated with Boliden K.33, Boliden S.25, Celcure A, Tanalith C and Tanalith CA were installed at Sydney and Narrandera in 1961/1962. In Trial 2, P. radiata and Eucalyptus regnans sapwood were treated with Celcure A, Celcure A21-N, Celcure A 21-O and Tanalith CA (new) and installed at Sydney and Innisfail in 1966/1967. In Trial 1, all metal-chromium-arsenic preservatives at 8 and 12 kg m-3 gave median specimen lives in excess of 35 years. As none of the stakes treated to 12 kg m-3 with Boliden K.33, Celcure A, Tanalith C or Tanalith CA had become unserviceable, the minimum guarantee period for these preservatives is greater than the present exposure periods. In Trial 2, the four CCA preservatives when impregnated into P. radiata sapwood at 12 kg m-3 gave median specimen lives at Sydney of greater than 32.5 years. With E. regnans sapwood treated to 12 kg m-3, only Celcure A 21-0 gave a median specimen life at Sydney of greater than 32.5 years. At the high decay and termite hazard site of Innisfail, Celcure A 21-0 protected the eucalypt better than any of the other CCA formulations.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, J Beesley

An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins

Resistance to soft rot of hardwood plywood treated with CCA salt
1983 - IRG/WP 3258
Plywood made from indigenous hardwoods was treated at an average loading of 34 kg Celcure A per m³ and was installed in a field test. After 20 years the samples were only slightly attacked by soft rot and the glue bonds were still intact.
R S Johnstone

IRG 21 invitation
1990 -
IRG Secretariat

Fungicidal and termiticidal effectiveness of alkylammonium compounds
1983 - IRG/WP 3232
This paper is related to effectiveness of several AAC's against wood decay fungi and termites by Japanese standardized test methods.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

Abstracts of some papers received and promised for IRG 21
1990 - IRG/WP 5355
IRG Secretariat

Abstratcs of some papers received and promised for IRG 21, Part 2
1990 - IRG/WP 5357
IRG Secretariat

Abstracts of some papers and posters received and promised for IRG 20. Part 2 (89-04-21)
1989 - IRG/WP 5346
IRG Secretariat

Soft rot decay of 23 CCA-treated hardwoods from Sabah, Malaysia, in ground contact in Australia
1986 - IRG/WP 1280
The performance against soft rot decay of 23 CCA-treated hardwoods from Sabah, Malaysia, was examined after 20 months in ground contact at Pennant Hills, Australia. The results indicate that between these species soft rot decay is excluded by different levels of CCA salt suggesting that the threshold level for exclusion of soft rot in these hardwoods is a function of anatomical structure/ultrastructure.
R S Johnstone

The effect of ACC (Celcure) on durability of blue beech
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30209
Durability of the sapwood and heartwood of blue beech (Carpinus betulus) against white rot fungus (Coriolus versicolor) was studied. As treatment three concentrations of preservative (control or 0%, 3%, and 5% of ACC) were applied. The measuring 1.5x2.5x5cm3 as dimension of wood samples (sap and heartwood) was used. During 16 weeks exposure, untreated wood blocks were completely deteriorated by the fungus and their weight losses were 24.4% in sapwood and 23.4% in heartwood. However, 3% and 5% of ACC caused that weight losses were significantly decreased. In 3% of preservative sapwood decreased only 1.08%, and heartwood reduced 0.94%. In 5% of ACC weight losses were 0.97% (sapwood) and 1.03% (heartwood). Thus there was a significant difference between treated and untreated wood, and no significant differences were occurred between sapwood and heartwood when exposed to the white rot fungus.
S M Kazemi

An interim report on trials with 'Boliden K33' and 'Celcure A' in water of different salinities in the Baltic Sea and in the UK
1974 - IRG/WP 406
It was felt necessary to undertake field trials using large test samples exposed in natural water of different salinity in order to determine preservative leaching and to assess the degree of biological attack.
R A Eaton, D J Dickinson

Copper based water-borne preservatives: The use of a thin section technique to compare the protection of wood by copper based preservatives against soft-rot and bacterial decay
1987 - IRG/WP 2286
This paper describes the techniques developed and gives examples of results obtained for the performance of copper based wood preservatives against both the bacterial and fungal hazards.
A M Wyles, D J Dickinson

Utilization of plasma treatments in the field of wood protection
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40912
Plasma treatments have been used for modification of surfaces of wood and wood-based materials for some decades and solutions were developed to apply it for wood protection. This contribution aims to present the background, introduce the available plasma technology, and to give an overview on the typical applications and benefits.
S Dahle, H Militz

Annual Report 2020
2021 - IRG/WP 21-60486
IRG Secretariat

Revised budget for 2021 (forecast Oct 2021)
2021 - IRG/WP 21-60487
IRG Secretariat

Buget for 2022
2021 - IRG/WP 21-60488
IRG Secretariat

IRG52 Webinar Programme
2021 - IRG/WP 21-60484
IRG Secretariat

Assessment of the toxicity of some copper-, zinc- and boron-based wood preservatives to the cellar fungus Coniophora cerebella Schröet
1974 - IRG/WP 242
This article reports the use of a method based on the determination of the probability of the protection of timber against destruction by fungi. By converting the probability values to probit values and plotting them as a function of the amount of preservative retained in the timber, curves of the toxic effect are obtained, enabling any timber protection probability to be assessed.
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov

Investigation of temperature effect on fixation of Celcure preservative (ACC) in beech (Fagus orientalis)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40200
In this research, the fixation speed of Celcure 2% (ACC) preservative salt, under temperature of 17°C, 27°C and 50°C, on intact and stained wood specimens of beech was investigated. For this purpose, blocks of wood with 5x5x7 cm dimensions were prepared and saturated with 2% ACC concentration by full-cell process. The specimens were put in three incubators at the above-mentioned temperatures. For measuring the percentage of fixation through time, the specimens were extracted by using hydraulic pressure equipment, under 69 Mpa pressure. The pH of extraction was measured with the method of diphenyl Carbazid and by using spectrophotometer. This measurement was done continuously and the amount of 6- valence chromium concentration present in the extract was compared with the amount of chromium concentration in the primary solution and then the percentage of fixation was calculated. The results showed that the decrease in 6-valence chromium is accompanied with increase of pH, this is due to absorption of positive hydrogen ion by 6-valence chromium for reduction to 3-valence chromium and also ion-exchange of active components with wood during the primary phase of fixation. Also, the time necessary for reaching complete fixation in intact and stained wood in the fixation temperature conditions of 17, 27 and 50°C were 1075, 501, 109 hours, respectively. In general, the results showed that temperature has effective role in accelerating of fixation process and in this respect, intact and stained wood did not show significant statistical difference.
A Karimi, M Ghorbani

Plenary 2021 Agenda
2021 - IRG/WP 21-60485
IRG Secretariat

An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3180
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. The growth characteristics of spruces (Picea spp) make them attractive candidates for forestry schemes. In 1975 the UK Forestry Commission had about 400 000 hectares, about 20% of total UK forest area, planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). As an example of the situation in Scandinavia, the growing stock in Sweden consists of about 45% Norway spruce (Picea abies), 38% Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and the remainder hardwoods. The importance of spruce as a source of sawn timber in Europe is clear and we are investigating methods of improving the treatment of this timber. As part of the investigation we have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative.
C R Coggins

Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 2: Study of the metal sorption and migration potential under simulated rainfall
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 b
In order to examine the potential environmental impact of spillages of the saltborne wood preservative CCA in treatment plants, four large scale experiments are set-up so as to follow the water transport and ion mobility in various field soils. A plastic container is filled with a sand, silt, clay and potting soil, made up at their respective bulk density and wetted to a given moisture content. Using a rain simulator on top, a homogeneous spillage of a ready-to-use CCA solution is applied, followed by a rainfall simulation after 3 days and a 3 weeks redistribution period. Soil augers that are taken prior to each new perturbance reveal the distribution and migration pattern of the heavy metals. Copper and arsenic are strongly adsorbed in the upper soil layers, depending on the soil characteristics. Chromium, however, is percolated easily through the soil column and is readily extractable from the soil using pure water.
G M F Van Eetvelde, R Hartmann, J M Mwangi, H S Öztürk, M Stevens

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 21: Report of eighth inspection (7 years) in Australia
1985 - IRG/WP 4119
This report tabulates the seven year (86 month) inspection results, obtained on 28 Fabruary l985, of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test at Goat Island, Australia. This test was installed in December 1977. The results are given in Tables 1-6. Table 7 lists the number of marine borers identified from blocks (2 cm and 6 cm long respectively) cut from the ends of specimens removed at the previous inspection, i.e. after 72 months. At that inspection the central portion of the specimens removed from test were used for chemical analysis, and bacterial and soft rot assessment by various IRG researchers. Limnoria quadripunctata has been previously identified from other timbers treated with copper-containing preservatives (Barnacle et al., 1983). Limnoria indica had not been identified previously from Australia, and this occurrence together with additions to the description of the borer, will be given by Cookson (in preparation).
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle

A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated hardwoods in ground contact
1982 - IRG/WP 2172
A laboratory technique to measure the performance of preservative treated timber in ground contact is described. It uses partially sealed blocks of timber which are treated, leached and sawn into small stakelets for soil exposure in a fungal cellar. Performance is monitored by the loss of static bending strength with time, and a simple apparatus for measuring the deflection of a stakelet under a load is described. Birch, Scots pine, and four Eucalyptus species were tested untreated and treated with a CCA preservative. Results show that the wood was attacked by soft rot, that attack could be detected rapidly and accurately using the loss of static bending strength, and that results confirmed field trial and service data. The technique is rapid, simple, accurate and realistic.
E F Baines

Inadequacies in preservative retention and formulation as contributory causes of premature failure of CCA-treated vineyard posts
1984 - IRG/WP 3280
Analyses of severely decayed or failed vineyard posts and examination of stake test data on effectiveness of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives have suggested two contributory causes of premature failure of vineyard posts: 1. Preservative retentions in posts are such that after 15 years' exposure some decay is inevitable. 2. The high arsenic, low chrome formulations with which the posts were treated are less effective in controlling decay than low arsenic high chrome formulations previously used in New Zealand, on the performance of which many concepts of CCA effectiveness are based.
M E Hedley

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