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Effect of moisture and cellulosic substrate on decay of hardwoods by soft-rot fungi
1982 - IRG/WP 2173
The development by Forintek Canada Corp. of standard test procedures for laboratory preservative evaluations using soft-rot fungi was requested by the American Wood Preservers' Association. In Europe, through cooperative studies in the International Research Group on Wood Preservation, several attempts have been made to produce a standard procedure, but variability in results obtained between different testing laboratories has precluded the development of such a method. The present studies represent an initial evaluation of the effects of substrate moisture content and the presence of cellulosic materials on decay of a tropical and temperate hardwood by two brown soft-rot fungi.
A Byrne, R S Smith


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


Substrate preferences in adult Pselactus spadix (Herbst)
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10352
Adult preferences of P. spadix were tested in a series of olfactory and tactile choice tests. Tests employed pine and beech wood blocks, which were undecayed or decayed by soft rot fungi, wetted with seawater or freshwater and drilled or undrilled. Survival of individual adults on undecayed pine and beech in a non-choice test was determined. Olfactory cues were found not to be an important factor in substrate selection. Adults were shown be negative phototactic, which is likely to be related to locating checks in wood from where colonisation can start. In the tactile tests adults clearly preferred wetted wood, although the water source was not important. Conditioned pine blocks were preferred over beech, with exception of seawater wetted wood on which no such a preference was found. The survival on pine was significantly higher than on beech, the water source had no influence on survival. It is thought that the water source relates to larval preferences or survival rather than that of adults. The fact that P. spadix is found along coastlines rather than rivers, is probably related to the effect of water type on larvae. P. spadix did not show a clear preference for marine when given the choice between two marine and one terrestrial soft rot fungus. Factors other than the fungal salinity tolerance are likely to influence preferences in P. spadix. The non-choice tests used undecayed wood blocks and showed significantly higher survival on pine as compared to adults without a substrate, indicating that fungal presence is not a prerequisite for colonisation by adults.
P Oevering, A J Pitman


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 10 from Naos Island, Panama
1980 - IRG/WP 462
Blocks of 3 wood species, Beech (Fagus sylvatica), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Alstonia (Alstonia scholaris) were exposed at site number 12 at Naos Island, Panama on March 8, 1978 by John R. DePalma. The arrangement of the panels in the exposure site is as shown in Figure 1.
D W French


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma


A preliminary study on the feasibility of substituting the soil culture medium in soil block tests
1984 - IRG/WP 2209
In this work the possibility was studied of substituting the soil culture medium in preservative screening methods. The conclusions are that another type of material, Sphagnum moss, can be used with advantages, but that some more information is still needed to give a real idea regarding the differences caused by the substrate tested.
J C Moreschi


Test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of different preservatives in sea-wate
1975 - IRG/WP 414
R A Eaton


Use of vermiculite as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of treated wood
1989 - IRG/WP 3547
It is considered the possibility of using vermiculite instead of soil as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of wood treated with preservatives for agricultural use. Three organic preservatives were used. It had been tested the behaviour of both, vermiculite and soil in case of preservative leaking due to a leach. So that, assays of germination with cucurbitaceous were carried out, mixing a dose of preservatives with both substrates.
M V Baonza Merino, D Franco


Changes in the degree of decay of lignocellulosic substrate used in a screening test of fungicidal wood preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 287
This report contains results of investigations aimed at: a) determination of the effect of the kind of substrate and species of test fungus on quantitative changes in used samples prepared from spruce cardboard, and b) comparison of the threshold fungicidal values of come fungicides determined with accelerated method, with values obtained by block method. During performed investigations, the method described in Document No.: IRG/WP/262 was used. Assesment of decomposition degree was based on the loss of weight and amount of NaOH consumption by the substrate.
K Lutomski


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water: Final report
1987 - IRG/WP 4133
Three timbers chosen as reference species were treated with 3, 6 and 10% solutions of CCA and CCB preservatives and exposed for up to 93 months at 8 tropical and temperate marine sites. Eleven local species treated in the same way were exposed at 4 of the 8 sites. There was no apparent difference in performance between CCA and CCB treated specimens. The severest test site was Panama Canal but marine borer damage of specimens was recorded at all the test sites. Treated specimens of the reference species Alstonia scholaris and Pinus sylvestris were markedly superior in performance at all sites and Homalium foetidum was considered the best local species. Along with the reference species Fagus sylvatica, treated specimens of the remaining local species performed relatively poorly. All treated species were attacked by soft rot fungi, except treated Alstonia scholaris and Homalium foetidum which were superficially decayed by bacteria. The relative success of treated Alstonia scholaris in this trial is attributed to its permeability characteristics and acceptance of high preservative loadings, even preservative distribution and its high lignin content.
R A Eaton


Proposed test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative in seawater
1975 - IRG/WP 411
R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 3rd Interim Report
1983 - IRG/WP 4101
This paper updates the results of microbiological examination and marine borer assessment of untreated wood samples (15 x 2 x 2 cm³) and samples treated with 3, 6 and 10% CCA and CCB preservatives. Three reference species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris were used at all the test sites in addition to local species chosen by participants in the test.
R A Eaton


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 9: Report of third inspection (2 years) in Italy
1980 - IRG/WP 461
The wood samples were submerged in the sea at Follonica, Italy, in April 1977. Follonica, latitudine 42°55' North and longitude 10°45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 13°C to 25°C, salinity 37-38% and pH about 8. The inspections were carried out after 6 months (10/1977), 1 year (4/1978) and 2 years (4/1979).
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 7: Second report on the samples in Papua New Guinea
1980 - IRG/WP 459
This report presents the findings to date regarding specimens installed in Papua New Guinea, as part of a world-wide marine trial of certain timbers treated with CCA or CCB preservatives. The details of the trial are set out in document number IRG/WP/414. The report discusses the findings in the context of the conditions prevailing at the trial site and of the properties of the trial timbers. The trial is the third to be installed in the waters of Papua New Guinea. In 1967, pine and eucalypt samples treated either with CCA or with creosote, were installed at Rabaul, Lae and Port Moresby. Tamblyn et al (1978) describe the performance of these samples. A second trial, consisting of fifteen Papua New Guinean timbers, vacuum/pressure treated with CCA, was established at Lae and Port Moresby in 1973. This trial is described in the report of Rayner (1974). The necessity for effective treatment against marine borer attack is particularly evident in the waters of Papua New Guinea. Shillingaw and Moore (1974) found that most wharves constructed around the coast of New Guinea during the war became unserviceable within eighteen months. A timber which has a considerable reputation for durability in Australian waters - turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera) - has proved to be vulnerable to borer attack here; it gives a service life of as little as two years at Wewak, though a somewhat longer life can be expected at Port Moresby. The most destructive borers in these waters are the members of the family Teredinidae. Nearly forty species of teredinids occur here. The isopods, Limnoria and Sphaeroma are also responsible for damage to timber wharf installations in certain areas. The pholad Martesia is also found, but never in sufficient numbers to cause economically significant damage.
S M Cragg, C R Levy


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 20: Report on the inspection of specimens at Sekondi, Ghana after 48 months
1985 - IRG/WP 4116
The results of the second inspection of CCA- and CCB-treated test panels exposed at Sekondi, Ghana, in June 1980, are presented. The panels of Pinus sylvestris treated with 3% CCA are stil unattacked after 48 months. Panels treated with 10% CCA and still in test (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Alstonia scholaris) are still free of attack. Locol species treated with 3% CCB have all been destroyed. Of the panels treated with 10% CCB recovered from the bottom of the sea, those of Ongokea gore were shown by X-radiography to be in various stages of attack by teredinids. One recovered panel of Erythrophleum guineense and four of Mitragyna stipulosa remain free of attack. Teredinids constitute the major hazard.
F F K Ampong, N Asare-Nyadu


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 4: Report of second inspection (12 months) in Australia
1979 - IRG/WP 448
Previous reports have presented full details of the treatment and installation of the test specimens in Sydney Harbour during December, 1977, and of the results of the first (6 months) inspection made during June, 1978. At the June inspection it was apparent that the plastic tubing used to make up the frames from which to suspend the specimens was inadequate for the job and not strong enough to support the heavy fouling which had occurred. Consequently, frames were re-designed and rebuilt in a heavier grade of plastic tubing and, within a week or two of the actual inspection, the remaining test specimens were transferred to new frames. These have proved entirely adequate, as can be seen from the photoqraphs. In accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414), the whole of the remaining part of the test was re-examined on 13th December, almost exactly 12 months from the day of installation. The inspection procedure previously adopted was again followed. Fouling was assessed for whole frames as there was no apparent difference between individual groups of specimens in the amount of fouling present; the specimens were then cleaned and again assessed for teredine and crustacean attack - which were recorded separately and independently.
J Beesley


Immunogold localisation of catalytic domain of endocellulase in the cellulosic substrates
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10205
The reaction of catalytic domain of endocellulase on the cellulosic substrates was visualised by using immunogold labelling procedures to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. Polyclonal antibody was produced against the catalytic domain of endo-l, 4-ß-glucanase (EGI) from a ruminal anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus albus F-40. Immuno-TEM works showed the positive labelling of polyclonal antibody of catalytic domain endocellulase on the cellulosic structures. Gold particles occurred mostly in the disrupted terminal areas of cellulose microfibrils. In contrast, gold labelling on the central part of microfibril was not so much distributed as that in the terminal part. The catalytic domain of endocellulase was presented mainly in the outer membrane of bacterial cells, suggesting that this enzyme is a cell surface protein serving to degrade the cellulosic substrates. The labelling density between the whole endocellulase and the catalytic domain of endocellulase was different. Micromorphological characteristics of cellulose degradation by this bacterium were also examined by SEM and TEM.
Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi, Kyu Ho Myung, K Ohmiya, S Karita


Chemical analyses of IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST (to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water) samples
1987 - IRG/WP 4114
Chemical analysis of CCA and CCB treated timber was carried out after exposure at tropical and temperate marine sites. Results indicated that losses of all elements had occurred. In particular, losses of boron were severe. Arsenic and copper were also lost. The chromium components in both formulations was the most dominant metal remaining. The results suggest that chromium modification was important in timber treatments for the marine environment, since there appeared to be little difference in timber protection between the CCA and CCB systems.
L E Leightley


Resistance of painted wood to mould fungi. Part 2. The effect of wood substrate and acrylate paint systems on mould growth
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10234
Resistance of acrylate paint systems on different types of pine and spruce sapwood to mould fungi was studied. Dipping into the preservative prior to painting, a primer with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.50 + 0.2%) and a topcoat with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.25 + 0.12%) were combinations of the treatments studied. The efficacy of the treatment systems varied, but the wood material also affected the ability of the paint systems to resist mould growth on the paint surface. The kiln-dried yellow surfaces of the pine and spruce sapwood were more susceptible to mould growth than the spruce surface sawn 10 mm below the original kiln-dried surface. On the resawn spruce material, the most effective treatments were free from mould growth after 26 weeks at RH 100%. However, the effect was markedly lower on the kiln-dried surfaces of pine and spruce sapwood. The influence of natural weathering on the mould growth will be a next stage of the study. The study is a part of a project CT94-2463 in the AIR programme of DG XII.
H Viitanen, P Ahola


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 1: Treatment of reference samples
1977 - IRG/WP 426
It was agreed in Wildhaus on 15 May 1976 that preparations for the test detailed in Document No: IRG/WP/414 should commence immediately, but that initially only two water-borne preservatives should be used - a copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) and a copper/chrome/boron (CCB) formulation respectively. PRL, England (R Cockcroft) would be responsible for supplying samples of the reference timbers treated with CCA and Dr Wolman GmbH, Federal Republic of Germany (W O Schulz) for supplying samples of the reference timbers treated with CCB. Untreated samples of the reference timbers would be supplied at the same time. Samples of the two wood preservatives have been kindly supplied for the test by Hickson's Timber Products Ltd, UK and Dr Wolman GmbH.
R Cockcroft, T B Dearling, W O Schulz, H V Borck


Resistance of painted wood to mould fungi. Part 3. The effect of weathering, wood substrate and fungicides on mould growth
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10284
The effect of 6 month outdoor weathering on the resistance of acrylate paint systems on different types of pine and spruce sapwood to mould fungi was studied. Dipping into the preservative prior to painting, a primer with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.50 + 0.2%) and a topcoat with and without a fungicide (propiconazole + IPBC 0.25 + 0.12%) were combinations of the treatments studied. Weathering decreased ability of the fungicides to protect the paint films. The kiln-dried yellow nutrient rich surfaces of the pine and spruce sapwood were more susceptible to growth of bluestain and mould fungi than the spruce surface sawn 10 mm below the original kiln-dried surface. The most effective treatment combinations on the resawn spruce material were able to give a sufficient protection against bluestain and mould after outdoor weathering and subsequent 23 weeks incubation at RH 100%. However, the effect was markedly lower on the kiln-dried surfaces of pine and spruce sapwood. On the samples without the fungicide, decay was also found. The study is a part of a project CT94-2463 in the AIR programme of DG XII.
H Viitanen, P Ahola


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 21: Report of eighth inspection (7 years) in Australia
1985 - IRG/WP 4119
This report tabulates the seven year (86 month) inspection results, obtained on 28 Fabruary l985, of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test at Goat Island, Australia. This test was installed in December 1977. The results are given in Tables 1-6. Table 7 lists the number of marine borers identified from blocks (2 cm and 6 cm long respectively) cut from the ends of specimens removed at the previous inspection, i.e. after 72 months. At that inspection the central portion of the specimens removed from test were used for chemical analysis, and bacterial and soft rot assessment by various IRG researchers. Limnoria quadripunctata has been previously identified from other timbers treated with copper-containing preservatives (Barnacle et al., 1983). Limnoria indica had not been identified previously from Australia, and this occurrence together with additions to the description of the borer, will be given by Cookson (in preparation).
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle


Soft-rot control in hardwoods treated with chromated copper arsenate preservatives. Part 3: Influence of wood substrate and copper loadings
1977 - IRG/WP 2100
The hypothesis is proposed that hardwoods need more chromated copper arsenate (CCA) than softwoods to protect them from soft-rot attack mainly because hardwoods are more readily consumed by soft-rot fungi. Simple model systems, using copper-supplemented agar or groundwood pulp treated with CCA showed that fungi tolerated more toxicant (copper) as more available substrate (malt) was provided. Soft-rot tests with CCA-treated hardwood blocks provided typical dosage-response curves when results were expressed as a ratio of substrate to toxicant (wood to copper). Furthermore, hardwoods needed 10 to 20 times more copper as CCA than softwoods to prevent soft-rot attack. When CCA was substituted by ammoniacal copper arsenate in 5 hardwoods, similar threshold values for soft-rot attack were obtained in terms of a wood-to-copper ratio. Hence, CCA may be behaving poorly against soft-rot fungi in our hardwood specimens mainly because the substrate contained too little copper. The practical implications of these results are discussed.
M A Hulme, J A Butcher


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