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Tests on preservation of wood against marine borers
1976 - IRG/WP 417
The Instituto del Legno has carried out for some years a series of trials about the biodeterioration of wood in the sea. The investigations included the settlement and activity of marine borers, the natural durability of indigenous and tropical woods and the preservation of wood for marine use. This paper reports the trials on the effectiveness of some preservatives in protecting wood against marine borer attack. The trials were carried out at Follonica station, where some investigations had shown that untreated pine samples submerged in the sea were totally destroyed by marine borers within 1 year. Follonica station, latitude 42° 55' North and longitude 10° 45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 12°C (January to March) to 25°C (July to September), salinity between 37 to 38% and pH about 8. The borers observed in wood were: Nototeredo norvagica Spengler, Bankia carinata Gray, Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and Chelura terebrans Philippi.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


Evaluation of polystyrene as a protective of wood in sea-water
1986 - IRG/WP 4129
A test is described on the biological protection of wood by treatment with polystyrene. The results, obtained in marine trials, after 18 months, show that the treatment with polystyrene is not all that effective in preventing the attack of marine borers.
A Gambetta


Chelura terebrans (Crustacea: Amphipoda) is capable of degrading wood independently of its associate, Limnoria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4180
Chelura terebans has been reported to be dependent on the tunnelling activities of Limmmoria. However, this study has shown that Chelura is capable of excavating its own grooves in the surface of blocks of the low density hardwood, balsa (Ochroma lagopus). When reared on blocks of balsa, Chelura ingests small wood particles. These particles often show evidence of degradation due to tunnelling bacteria and, in some cases, soft rot fungi. Such degradation is also evident in the wood being excavated. The wood particles are packed into a cylindrical food-mass in the gut. Rod-shaped faeces still containing recognisable, though degraded, wood particles are produced. The surface of these animals supports a luxuriant flora of bacteria which are particularly numerous around the mouth. This microflora may also play a role in the nutrition of Chelura.
S M Cragg, G F Daniel


Marine trials with water-borne salts and organotin compound
1986 - IRG/WP 4128
Pinus sylvestris blocks treated with water-borne salts (CCA, CCB, CCF) and organotin compounds (TBTO, TBTCl) were submerged in the sea at Follonica station. The results obtained after 12 years of immersion are presented. The samples treated with CCA, CCB and CCF at the lowest concentration (2%) were destroyed after 7-9 years and the samples treated with CCB and CCF at the highest concentrations (4%, 6%), which were tested for a longer time than CCA treated samples, were destroyed after 11-12 years. The samples treated with organotin compounds did not show any attack by molluscan borers after 12 years with the exception of those treated with TBTCl at the lowest concentration (0.5%). The organotin compounds were less effective against crustacean borers.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


The natural history of teredinid molluscs and other marine wood borers in Papua New Guinea
1975 - IRG/WP 410
The teredinids, commonly known as teredos or shipworms, are bivalve molluscs adapted to boring into wood. They are most closely related to the Family Pholadidae, or piddocks, which bore into mud, stone and coral. The teredinids have a relatively small, hemi-spherically shaped shell, the elongated body extending beyond the posterior end of the shell valves. The soft body, protected by the wood and the calcareous sheath the mantle secretes, contains most of the visceral mass posterior to the posterior adductor muscles. The siphons, which protrude from the burrow into the water for respiration and feeding, are relatively short. At their base are calcareous structures called pallets which seal off the burrow when the siphons are retracted. The shell valves, which function as a grinding tool during the boring action, gape anteriorly for the protusion of the foot and posteriorly for the protusion of the elongated body. As the anterior and posterior adductor muscles contract alternatively, the valves rock around the dorsoventral axis on their dorsal and ventral condyles. The foot holds the denticulated valves close to the head of the burrow so that. small particles of wood are rasped off when the posterior adductor muscles contract.
S M Rayner


Molecular identification of marine borers causing wood deterioration on marine facilities in Korea
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10955
The deterioration factors of wood which was used in the marine environment, Tongyeong (South Coast) and Incheon (West Coast) in Korea, were investigated in order to develop technologies for safe and long-term use of timber in ocean facilities. The marine microorganisms isolated by damaged wood were identified as morphological Chelura sp. and Teredo sp. As a result of DNA sequencing, it was confirmed that they were Grandidierella japonica and Teredo navalis. However, the homology of Chelura sp. was low, so it was difficult to identify by this result alone. As the combination of results between morphology and molecular analysis, it was derived as Chelura sp. and Teredo navalis. Because Korea is surrounded by three seas, it is necessary to study the protection of timber used in various fisheries facilities. For future research, various marine wood-harvesting factors will be explored
Sae-Min Yoon, Min-Ji Kim, Won-Joung Hwang, Yong-Seok Choi, Dong-Won Son