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Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz


Collaborative soft rot tests: Results of analyses of soil samples
1976 - IRG/WP 263
C R Levy


Nitrogen content of soils at field sites
1981 - IRG/WP 1133
Nine participants in the Collaborative Field Experiment submitted samples for nitrogen analysis to this laboratory as requested by Leightley (IRG/WP/3162). These arrived in a variety of conditions e.g. wet, dried, sterilised and unsterilised and sometimes spent a considerable time in transit. Soils varied in cellular fraction organic matter content, some were obviously sieved prior to postage while others contained significant quantities of large vegetative detritus. Samples were also taken at different times of the year and seasonal and climatic factors may have influenced the values subsequently obtained by analysis.
B King, G Mowe


Biological and chemical observation on the early fungal colonization of TBTO treated Swedish redwood stakes
1984 - IRG/WP 3311
Data on the early fungal colonization of Swedish redwood stakes, impregnated with 1% TBT0 / 0.5% dieldrin solution, both by double vacuum impregnation and immersion processes are presented. Results of chemical analyses of wood samples from the outer 1 mm of separate painted and unpainted stakes, exposed over the same twelve month period, are also discussed.
R Hill, A H Chapman, A Samuel, K Manners, G Morton


The variability of preservative distribution in test blocks
1973 - IRG/WP 220
The techniques for the assessment of likely effectiveness of preservative systems have long been the subject of much discussion. The whole field has recently been reviewed by Hilditch and Hamblyn (1971) who described in detail many of the laboratory test procedures used, but who also indicated the deficiencies in many of these techniques. It has long been the view of many associated with the wood preservation industry that laboratory tests can only serve as a preliminary method of screening and that final approval by both the company marketing the development and independent authorities, on whom the burden of approval rests, can only be given after detailed testing in the field. The aim of the simple piece of work described in this paper, is to lok at the variability which one might expect in the distribution of preservative in test blocks destined for laboratory fungal evaluation.
F W Brooks, M R Gayles, R W Watson


Chemical analyses of IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST (to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water) samples
1987 - IRG/WP 4114
Chemical analysis of CCA and CCB treated timber was carried out after exposure at tropical and temperate marine sites. Results indicated that losses of all elements had occurred. In particular, losses of boron were severe. Arsenic and copper were also lost. The chromium components in both formulations was the most dominant metal remaining. The results suggest that chromium modification was important in timber treatments for the marine environment, since there appeared to be little difference in timber protection between the CCA and CCB systems.
L E Leightley


The chemical nature of bis(tributyltin) oxide in Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1989 - IRG/WP 3508
Tributyltin compounds have been used for many years as wood preservatives. This study has provided, for the first time, an explanation for the previously reported dealkylation and/or volatilisation of the tributyltin species in, and from, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. Thus, 119 Sn nuclear magnetic resonance studies have shown that, on impregnation into this timber, bis(tributyltin) oxide is rapidly converted to other tributyltin species, Bu3SnOX, and that these subsequently undergo disproportionation to Bu4Sn and Bu2Sn(OX)2 compounds. We have additionally demonstrated that Bu4Sn, so produced, is not substantive in Pinus sylvestris and is lost by volatilisation. Since the rate of disproportionation of the Bu3SnOX species should be dependent upon the nature of the X group, it should be possible to significantly affect, if not stop, this process by the use of alternative tributyltin fungicides, e.g. tris(tributyltin) phosphate or tributyltin methanesulphonate. However, tributyltin fungicides have been used successfully in wood preservation for at least 25 years. Therefore, it must be concluded that, even after disproportionation in timber, in service, sufficient preservative action is retained to prevent decay of wood under the conditions of natural exposure. Nevertheless, it is becoming evident from this work and from previous studies of the compatibility of tributyltin fungicides with synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, that, on chemical grounds, (Bu3Sn)2O should not be the preferred tributyltin preservative.
S J Blunden, R Hill


Chemical and biological studies of organotin treated and painted wood stakes after outdoor exposure
1987 - IRG/WP 3419
Organotin based wood preservatives containing tributyltin oxide (TBTO) or tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN) are used in Sweden mainly for double-vacuum treatments of window joinery of Pinus sylvestris. After impregnation the joinery is painted or stained in different colours. To evaluate this effect (different colours on the degree of degradation of TBTO and TBTN, effected by different temperatures in the wood), stakes of Pinus sylvestris sapwood were treated with TBTO or TBTN, painted in different colours and exposed outdoors out of ground contact.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to most parts of the pole in the ground-line zone and the microflora had been changed - in some cases drastically. The test is still in progress. Chemical and microbiological analyses after 12, 28 and 60 months will be published at a later date.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


A bioassay for appraising preservative protection of wood above ground
1978 - IRG/WP 2124
A bioassay, using the mold fungus Aspergillus niger, gave results that were correlated with amounts of pentachlorophenol and tributyltin oxide in pine sapwood treated with solutions ranging in strength from 0.016 or below to 5%. Limited bioassay estimates of penta in commercially treated millwork corresponded to estimates by lime ignition. The assay fungus exhibited somewhat greater tolerance of the preservatives than did two prominent decay and stain fungi in comparably conducted bioassays. The procedure is simple, requires few aseptic precautions, and can be carried out in 7 to 10 days. The amount of preservative in a small specimen of wood to be assayed is indicated by the size of the area around the specimen resting on nutrient agar seeded with Aspergillus niger spores over which the fungus is unable to develop its typical black spores.
T C Scheffer, L Gollob


Soft rot decay in CCA treated eucalypts in Queensland - A comment
1986 - IRG/WP 1301
A survey has been completed concerned with the distribution and severity of groundline soft rot decay in the CCA treated sapwood of eucalypt poles in Queensland. The survey encountered some 1000 poles of which 55% were slightly, 28% moderately and 17% severely decayed. Soft rot decay was more severe in urban than rural locations. Embedment of poles in concrete resulted in severe soft rot. No significant correlation was found between an increase in CCA retention and decrease in severity of soft rot. Soft rot decay was found to be very variable. Management of this variability could be made by practising realistic and efficient pole inspection techniques.
L E Leightley


Cell wall properties of softwood deteriorated by fungi: combined chemical analyses, FT-IR spectroscopy, nanoindentation and micromechanical modelling
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20527
Mechanical properties of wood are determined by its inherent hierarchical microstructure, starting at the nanometer scale, where the elementary components cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin build up the wood cell wall material. Fungi cause degradation and decomposition of these components and, thus, alter the mechanical properties of wood. The aim of this study is to gain new insight into these relationships at the cell wall level, particularly at early stages of degradation characterized by a mass loss of less than 10 %. Early detection of deterioration is essential during monitoring of timber structures as it may help avoiding subsequent larger scale damages. This contribution presents results of an ambitious experimental programme covering the determination of earlywood/latewood specific compositional data with consistent microstructural and micromechanical properties. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was studied in reference condition and after degradation by brown rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and white rot (Trametes versicolor), respectively. Ultrastructural and compositional data were acquired by means of FT IR spectroscopy and wet chemical analyses. Micro-structural features such as the microfibril angle were determined by X-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties of sound and degraded wood cell walls were determined using nanoindentation, yielding the (anisotropic) indentation modulus of the S2 cell wall layer and the cell corner middle lamella of Scots pine tracheids. Aiming at the identification of relationships between ultrastructural and micromechanical characteristics, two different approaches were followed. On the one hand, multivariate data analysis was applied. On the other hand, a multiscale micromechanical model was used to derive causal relationships between structure and (mechanical) function for deteriorated wood. Anisotropic indentation theory allows calculating model predictions for the indentation modulus of the S2 cell wall layer based on measured chemical compositions resulting from the degradation process. Comparing these predictions with the experimental results enables to test hypotheses on possible scenarios of wood cell wall deterioration during fungal attack. Identified relationships between ultrastructural, microstructural, and micromechanical characteristics will be discussed as well as the potential of micromechanical modelling in the analysis of fungal degradation strategies and their effect on the mechanical behaviour.
L Wagner, T K Bader, K de Borst, T Ters, K Fackler


Chemical, physical-mechanical characterization and durability of thermally modified beech and ash wood by thermo-vacuum process (Termovuoto)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40758
The paper illustrates part of the results from the CIP Eco-innovation project “Thermo-vacuum: new process for new generation of thermally modified wood”. The project is part of the 7th Framework Programme for European Research and Technological Development, and thermo-vacuum modified wood is already on the European market. The project was selected by the European Commission, EASME Agency, as "Best of Eco-innovation: project success stories", May 2015, Barcelona. Temovuoto timber is already presented on the European market.
M Jebrane, I Cuccui, O Allegretti, N Terziev


Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also examined using Fenton's reagent. The enhancement of decay resistance by acetylation was revealed clearly for all cases of exposures but varying with fungal and wood species used. For a brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, the weight loss reached almost nil in all woods at 20 WPG (weight percent gain) of acetylation, after the striking decrease from 10 to 15 WPG. For a white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, it was counted until 12-15 WPG in the perishable hardwoods used, but not in a softwood Cryptomeria japonica, even at 6 WPG. In cases of another brown-rotter Serpula lacrymans and soil burial, effect of acetylation was intermediate between Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor. Anti-degradation mechanism by acetylation was discussed, from these weight loss - weight gain relationships, and the IR-and 13C-NMR spectral analyses of fungus-exposed wood.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb


The effect of certain wood extractives on the growth of marine micro-organisms
1977 - IRG/WP 438
S E J Furtado, E B G Jones, J D Bultman


Soft rot in CCA-treated utility poles in Sweden
1989 - IRG/WP 1398
Soft rot investigations of CCA-treated utility poles (Pinus sylvestris L.) have been conducted throughout large parts of Sweden during 1974-1985. The investigation included 179 utility poles of the State Power Board which had been used for 10-18 years in the different administrative regions from northern to southern Sweden. In addition, 193 telephone poles from the Östersund area and 218 from the Kristianstad area were studied after having been in use for 18-25 years. The soft rot fungi cause two types of attack in wood cells, namely cavities (Type I) and erosion (Type II). In this investigation, soft rot is reported only when cavities of Type I were found. Erosion (Type II) is more difficult to observe, particularly in early stages, and in addition is almost impossible to distinguish from certain other attacks of rot, such as white rot, which may have occurred during storage of the poles before impregnation. In western and central Sweden, minor attacks of soft rot were found after 10-12 years in State Power Board poles embedded in soil in arable land and meadows. Power Board poles in northern Sweden had minor attacks of soft rot after 16-18 years in arable land and also in forest land when embedded in soil. Poles used by the Telecommunications services, all embedded in stone, showed minor and only occasional attacks of soft rot at Östersund (northen Sweden), but considerably more soft rot at Kristianstad (southern Sweden). The Telecommunication poles had been in service up to seven years longer than the poles used by the State Power Board. The localization and spread of soft rot attacks in a pole can vary. There may be many reasons for this, including insufficient impregnation, leaching, etc. The soft rot attacks found in the Power Board poles are always minor and sporadic and none of the investigated poles can be said to imply any safety risk. The same applies to the Telecommunication poles at Östersund whereas those at Kristianstad demonstrated considerably more severe and more frequent attacks. The attacks of soft rot in the Telecommunication poles more frequently occurred internally, more often deeper in the sapwood than in the outermost parts.
H Friis-Hansen, H Lundström


Di-sodium fluorophosphate, a new fluorine containing, water-borne wood preservative
1986 - IRG/WP 3373
The physical, chemical properties of Di-sodiumfluorophosphate (Na2PO3F) are compared with those of a trade-mark SF-salt. The opposition of biological activity and toxicological data showed that Di-sodiumfluorophosphate may be a suitable alternative to SF-salts ( based on MgSiF6).
D Seepe, W Metzner


Discussion of diiodomethyl p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for wood preservatio
1987 - IRG/WP 3425
The effectiveness of diiodomethyl-p-tolyl sulfone (Amical® 48) as a fungicide for preservation of wood is supported by a discussion of results from the literature and current research programs.
J M Stamm, K J Littel, F M H Casati, M B Friedman


The decay resistance of chemically modified aspen composites to the white rot fungus Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quelet
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40122
Chemical modification of Aspen wood (Populus tremula L.) in the form of solid wood, veneers and sawdust was undertaken by a two step procedure consisting of esterification with maleic anhydride (MA) and subsequent oligoesterification with MA and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) or allyl glycidyl ether (AGE). Modified wood was thermoplastic and was thermally formed by hot-pressing to produce veneer or solid wood samples with smooth glossy surfaces, while plastic-like wafers were obtained by hotpressing modified sawdust. Chemical modification alone was shown to enhance the biological resistance of Aspen to decay by Coriolus versicolor. In addition, hot-pressing enhanced decay resistance of both unmodified wood and esterified wood veneer samples, although no improvement was found by hot pressing oligoesterified wood. The most effective treatment for the improvement of decay resistance was chemical modification of the sawdust in conjunction with hot-pressing. A microscopic examination of chemically modified and control samples following exposure to the fungus showed more extensive colonisation and decay in untreated, unpressed samples.
M C Timar, A J Pitman, M D Mihai


Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50% of the chromium and copper content of the individual blocks was leached independent of the time of storage, whereas simultaneously treated pinewood samples showed complete fixation after 4 weeks of storage.
H Willeitner, K Brandt


Chemical compounds from Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora heartwood and their biological activities against wood destroying fungus (Coriolus versicolor)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30373
The chemistry analysis of the compounds present in dichloromethane and ethanolic fraction as well as bioassays enables to understand the durability differences of Eperua falcata and Eperua grandiflora. The principal distinction between these two species is the acidic subfraction of diterpenoic extract, which is antifungic in Eperua falcata when tested in in-vitro conditions. This study also enables to show that ethanolic fraction plays an important role in the mechanism of natural durability. It also reports the first isolation of cativic acid in Eperua falcata wood.
N Amusant, C Moretti, B Richard, E Prost, J M Nuzillard, M-F Thévenon


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


Collaborative field experiment: Analysis of copper and chromium in stakes of the four reference timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 3213
The stakes analysed belong to the Swedish set of the four reference timbers of the collaborative field experiment (Document No: IRG/WP/367). Before the field exposure 60 mm were cut off the end of each stake. This was done in order to be able to carry out chemical analyses as well as different types of testing. Some of the material has been used in softrot tests (Document No: IRG/WP/1151).
T Nilsson


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