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Main problems of Turkish wooden boat manufacturers
1982 - IRG/WP 485
The best transportation system to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey has been since the earliest history sea transportation. As is well known the historical 'silk road' from Europe to the Far East and China was over the Black Sea and via Trabzon. During the last five years also this same connecting route has become very important for the transportation of food and industrial products from the West to the Middle East. Two other factors that are influencing the building of boats in this region are the local rich forest resources and fishing facilities. It can be pointed out that 80% of the Turkish sea food is produced in the Black Sea region, which amounts to 380,000 tons per year. Therefore the main purpose of boat building in this area can be attributed to the needs of the fishing industry
R Ilhan

Inorganic preservatives in wood dust - Cause of nasal cancer?
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50085
Since 1985 dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified by the Senate Commission of the German Research Council (DFG) as being ,,working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials ,,with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues to remain unclear despite some partial findings of new studies. The load of wood dust with non-genuine chemicals especially heavy metals is one of a number of possible triggering principles. This study describes wood dust collected in 33 German wood processing companies, with regard to concentration of the dust in the air and load of the dust with chromium, copper and boron. More often than expected the machining of preservative treated wood was found. Besides wood preservatives other sources of contamination of wood dust have been identified. Woodworkers are exposed to higher levels of chromium, copper and boron than average citizen, but are far away from threshold values. The heavy metal exposure levels found seem to be unlikely the sole carcinogenic principle of action.
A O Rapp, K Brandt, R-D Peek, U Schmitt

Evaluation of literature on adenocarcinomas in wood workers
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50092
Occupational exposure to wood dust alone or chemically treated is suspected to be associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity, which in the general population is very rare; fewer than 10% of nasal cancer deaths are adenocarcinomas, which have an annual incidence of 1-2 per million. However, the epidemiological data available are not sufficient to make a definitive assessment between occupational exposure to wood and increased risk for cancer. The data presently available are not sufficient to make a definitive assessment between wood dust exposure and increased risk for cancer other than nasal cancer and do not clearly identify the specific agent(s) responsible for these effects. Therefore, a review of literature was carried out from the standpoint of a wood scientist. The results reported in this paper are necessary to understand the association between wood dust exposure and nasal cavity tumors, along with demographic differences in cancer rates, and to develop strategies for intervention and reduction of disease causing agents in order to reduce risk to wood industry workers.
A Voss, R-D Peek

The Effect of Heat Treatment on Water Absorption and Dimensional Stability of Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40407
The heat treatment of wood is an environment-friendly method for wood preservation. This process improves wood’s resistance to decay and its dimensional stability. However, mechanical properties decrease in different ration because of density loss as a result of heat treatment. In this study, the effect of heat treatment on water absorption and dimensional stability at different relative humidity of Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) was investigated. Wood specimens conditioned at 65% relative humidity and 20oC temperature were subjected to heat treatment at 180°C for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours. After heat treatment, water absorption and dimensional stability were determined. The results show that water absorption and dimensional stability were occurred, decreasing in variation ration in relate with density loss. After heat treatment, water absorption and dimensional stability were decreased with increasing temperature and duration.
G Gunduz, D Aydemir

Performance of recent and old Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10816
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) hardwood is one of the most durable European wood species. In the present research, various aspects that could potentially influence the durability were elucidated, namely: presence of extractives, ring width, and weathering. Simultaneously, properties of wood, which was in outdoor use for 35 years, were elucidated as well. The results indicate that ring width and weathering (35 years of outdoor use) did not influence the durability. None of the used fungi were able to degrade sweet chestnut heartwood in a modified EN 113 experiment. After extraction with methanol or water, specimens lost between 11% and 15% total mass by leaching of extractives. However, extraction only slightly decreased the durability of leached wood. This indicates that other components (besides water and methanol soluble extractives) could be responsible for durability. Furthermore, analysis of 35 years old wood showed that not all relevant properties of the old Sweet chestnut wood deteriorated in the mentioned time frame. This proves that old sweet chestnut hardwood could be potentially reused for variety applications, if necessary.
M Humar, M Žlahtič, N Thaler