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Fumigation as a remedial treatment: A review of North American literature
1983 - IRG/WP 3253
The development of the use of fumigants for eliminating decay in timber and roundwood in North America is reviewed. Initial experiments on oak wilt identified volatile chemicals which eradicated decay in roundwood. Subsequently, extensive experimentation on Douglas-fir poles in service showed that treatment with chloropicrin eliminated internal decay for more than ten years. Vorlex was also quite ...
J N R Ruddick

Long-term effectiveness of fumigants in controlling decay in Douglas fir waterfront timbers
1986 - IRG/WP 3364
The persistence, movement, and effectiveness of chloropicrin and Vapam (sodium N-methyl dithiocarbamate) in large, horizontal Douglas fir timbers were evaluated 7 years after fumigation. Chloropicrin prevented reestablishment of decay fungi; reinvasion occurred in some Vapam-treated timbers. Residual fungistatic effect was detected up to 1.2 m from the fumigation site in chloropicrintreated timber...
T L Highley

Preservatives treatment and field test monitoring of spruce pole stock: CCA and fumigant treatments
1990 - IRG/WP 3619
The fumigants trichloronitromethane (chloropicrin) and sodium N-methyldithiocarbamate (SNMDC) were used to treat red spruce pole stock, either CCA treated or untreated, through holes bored through the pole's center. The poles were analyzed for the presence of microorganisms immediately before ground installation and again after installation at a pole test site. Monitoring of fumigant move...
A J Pendlebury, B Goodell

Movement and persistence of chloropicrin, Vapam, Dazomet and methylisothiocyanate in red and white oak timbers
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3728
This study describes the movement and persistence of four fumigants in sawn red and white oak timbers exposed out of ground contact for 2 years. Chloropicrin moved the furthest from the point of application, and was the most persistent. Vapam was next best, followed by Dazomet. Methylisothiocyanate (MIT), applied as pellets, was not effective, probably because MIT was lost from pellets prior to tr...
T L Highley

Movement and persistence of Dazomet and pellected methylisothiocyanate in wrapped Douglas fir and southern pine timbers
1991 - IRG/WP 1496
The movement and persistence of Dazomet (tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2 H-1,3,5 thiadiazine-6-thione) and pelleted methylisothiocyanate (MIT) was evaluated in wrapped Douglas-fir and Southern Pine timbers. MIT pellets did not impart a fungistatic effect to any of the timbers. Failure of MIT was probably due to loss of MIT from pellets prior to application. Fungistatic effect of Dazomet was consistently...
T L Highley

Performance if internal remedial treatments to arrest fungal attack in poles and large timbers
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40834
Internal remedial treatments have been used to arrest internal fungal attack in utility poles and other large timbers. Water diffusible systems and volatile fumigants have both been used for this purpose. While both work, it is important to understand the performance attributes of each system. This paper reviews the literature on both systems and makes recommendations for future research....
J J Morrell

Fumigant movement in Canadian wood species
1984 - IRG/WP 3296
Pole sections prepared from seven Canadian wood species (Thuja plicata, Thuja occidentalis, Pinus contorta, Pinus resinosa, Pinus banksiana, Pseudotsuga menziesii, southern yellow pine) were fumigated with chloropicrin, methylisothiocyanate and Vapam and the rates of fumigant penetration determined. All three fumigants were applied directly into holes bored radially into the pole sections. Analysi...
J N R Ruddick

Effect of fumigant residue in aerated wood blocks on the spore germination of decay fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 2382
Fumigants are increasingly used in several countries for remedial treatments of transmission poles to increase the service life. The present study was initiated primarily to test the remaining toxic effects of spruce (Picea rubra) wood, fumigated with chloropicrin (trichloronitro methane) or MIT (Methyl isothiocyanate) after long period of aeration, on the spore germination of decay fungi. This st...
J Bjurman, B Goodell

Ability of chloropicrin, Vorlex, or methylisothiocyante to prevent marine borer attack of Douglas fir piling
1989 - IRG/WP 4153
The preservative-treated shell around Douglas-fir piling is an excellent barrier to attack by marine borers; however, damage to this shell can permit marine borer attack. The feasibility of using fumigants to enhance piling performance was examined by exposing fumigant-treated Douglas-fir sections in marine waters off Newport, OR, or Port Hueneme, CA. The piling were inspected annually and increme...
M A Newbill, J J Morrell

Cell wall microdistribution of chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate in treated spruce
1989 - IRG/WP 3548
Chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) residues were observed using SEM/EDXA and TEM/EDXA in treated spruce wafers that had been exposed to the vapors of the two fumigant preservatives. Chlorinated residues from chloropicrin were found throughout the wood cell wall, even in acetone extracted material. The residues were most heavily concentrated in extractive materials in the rays, but unlike ...
G F Daniel, B Goodell

Efficacy of fumigants in the eradication of decay fungi implanted in southern pine timbers
1986 - IRG/WP 3365
Southern pine timbers (15.2 cm x 15.2 cm x 4.26 m) were fumigated at midlength to evaluate the effectiveness of the fumigants chloropicrin, Vapam, Diazomet, Busan 40, Vanicide 51, Vanicide TH, sodium bisulfite, and ethanolamine in eradication of decay fungi. The fumigants were introduced into 2.54 cm holes which were closed immediately with rubber stoppers. Movement and persistence of lethal conce...
T L Highley, W E Eslyn

Three-dimensional modeling of fumigant distribution in wood poles
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30025
The practice of using fumigants to control internal decay has been widely accepted in the United States and has shown to be effect in control internal decay in transmission poles and other large wood timbers. Mathematical models were developed to simulate the chloropicrin movement in utility poles after treatment. The simulation results indicated that treatment of utility poles, using either tradi...
Jing Liu, B Goodell

Effect of wrapping on movement of chloropicrin, Vapam, and Vanicide TH in southern pine timbers
1987 - IRG/WP 3411
Important fungi that decay wood protucts were "inoculated" into nonpressure-treated southern pine timbers as vapor-sensing agents to evaluate the effect of wrapping on the movement and persistence of fungitoxic concentrations of chloropicrin, Vapam, and Vanicide TH in the timbers. Fumigant movement and persistence in the timbers was enhanced by wrapping the timbers in polyethylene after fumigation...
T L Highley

The use of fumigants for controlling decay of wood: a review of their efficacy and safety
1989 - IRG/WP 3525
Volatile agricultural chemicals (fumigants) such as chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate have been used in the United States for controlling internal decay of large dimension wood products for over 20 years. This usage has been concentrated in the electric utility industry, but fumigants are increasingly applied to protect bridge timbers, marine piling, and even ...
J J Morrell

Gelatin encapsulated fumigants for wood fumigations: Current research status
1985 - IRG/WP 3336
The fumigants chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) were encapsulated in gelatin as an alternative to liquid fumigant treatments for control of decay fungi in wooden utility poles. Gelatin-encapsulated MIT was stored for over 2 years under dry conditions without significant fumigant leakage. Gelatin encapsulated MIT and chloropicrin were released from capsules when pl...
A R Zahora, M E Corden, J J Morrell

Selecting fumigants for treatment of internal decay in wood
1986 - IRG/WP 3370
A number of potential fumigants were screened with respect to their toxicity to decay fungi, (Poria carbonica, and Lentinus lepideus) and their sorption characteristics on Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) wood. Wafers of infected wood were exposed to different fumigant concentrations for various times then cultured to determine viability. The lethal concentration X time (ct) factor...
P A Cooper

Movement of chloropicrin, Vapam, and methylisothiocyanate in southern pine and Douglas fir timbers
1987 - IRG/WP 3410
Douglas fir and southern pine timbers, 15.2 x 15.2 x 426 cm³ (6-in x 6-in x 14-ft), were "inoculated" with brown-rot and white-rot fungi as vapor-sensing agents to evaluate the movement and distribution of fungitoxic concentrations of chloropicrin, Vapam, and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) over a 20-week period. Residual fumigant in timbers was determined by a bioassay with Gloeophyllum trabeum. The ...
T L Highley

Use of Internal Remedial Treatment to Extend Wood Life at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30525
The condition of wood in a reconstructed fur trading fort was assessed over a 30 year period. Poor initial treatment had resulted in the development of extensive early decay. While supplemental treatment with chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate had arrested the attack, the results suggested that remedial treatments were unable to completely overcome the initial problems associated with treatmen...
C S Love, C Freitag, J J Morrell