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Developments in the protection of wood and wood-based products
1980 - IRG/WP 340
Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of wood protection. This current review highlights how modern techniques have provided greater insight into the biological and physical processes affecting the durability of wood and wood-based products. Emphasis is also given to developments in preservative testing methodology and to the encouraging changes towards both the correct...
J M Baker


Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environmen...
G Das, V N P Mathur


Canadian code of good practices - Recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities
1990 - IRG/WP 3582
The rationale and procedures for the development of a set of recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities in Canada are discussed. Multi stake holders involvement in problem identification, problem assessment, state of the art knowledge database, implementation and periodic assessment procedures are important considerations for the successful development of a Code of Go...
V N P Mathur, G Das


Factors affecting leaching of preservatives in practice
1978 - IRG/WP 3113
At the 7th Meeting of the IRG in Poland in May 1975, the findings of collaborative laboratory leaching techniques were discussed, and the dangers inherent in using such results to predict the behaviour of preservative-treated components in service were emphasised. In order to improve our understanding of the factors governing leaching of preservatives in practice, and to identify areas where furth...
R Cockcroft, R A Laidlaw


Regulatory and Consumer Challenges Facing Timber Preservation and Durability Interests in New Zealand and Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20282
Timber preservation and durability interests in Australia and New Zealand are facing many challenges and threats arising from regulation and standards changes, to direct competition from competitive materials producers. Industry can address these challenges by pro-active initiation of sound, holistic, research, that addresses the performance needs of the regulators and specifiers and the expectati...
C MacKenzie


A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge ...
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


The new National Directive on wood preservation in the Netherlands
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-03
In the Netherlands the major part of treated timber is sold under the KOMO-certificate. The National Directive for vacuum pressure treated timber on which certification is based, is currently being revised. The new National Directive will contain a code of good practice including maximum leaching figures. It incorporates quality requirements for treated timber, existing legislative requirements an...
W J Homan, J K B Kwisthout, J Dubelaar


The practice of using concrete on wood piling for marine use in Thailand
1982 - IRG/WP 492
The practice of using concrete on wooden poles has been carried on in Thailand for a long time in pile-houses and pier constructions which have been situated in, or partly in the sea. In such instances, the hewed round and/or square-sawn heartwood poles of naturally durable timber species have been coated with concrete of about 5 to 10 cm or more in thickness, and to about 100 cm above the highest...
B Anuwongse


Generic code of good practices for wood preservation facilities
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50037
Wood preservation chemicals are designed to be toxic to wood destroying organisms. This toxicity, however, may not be limited to target organisms but the use of these chemicals can potentially harm various biota and humans as well. This fact dictates that adequate precautionary measures be employed to prevent any harmful effects to humans and the environment. The extensive experience with wood tre...
V N P Mathur, G Das


Information regarding a report on the "Code of Good Practice" for the use of chlorophenoxides for wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3302
In 1981 the British Columbia Chlorophenate Wood Protection Task Force was formed to respond to workers' health and environmental concerns regarding the use of chlorophenoxides for control of sapstain and mould fungi at sawmills and lumber export terminals. The task force consisted of representatives of both the federal government (Environment Canada) and the provincial government (British...
V N P Mathur


World list of wood preservative names
1980 - IRG/WP 387
The list contains names that have been collected by the author over many years and includes besides traditional wood preservatives, exterior wood finishes and preservative stains, and some preservative coatings. Generally, however, primers and paints have been deliberately excluded. The list includes also products that have been claimed as wood preservatives, as well as a few fire-retardant coatin...
R Cockcroft


Impregnation of timber and regulations applied to preservation practice in Greece
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-04
The practice of wood preservation in Greece was started about 80 years ago and refer to creosote-treated timber used in ground contact (i.e. railway sleepers, poles). At present, three creosote impregnation plants and thirteen CCA or CCB units exist in Greece treating about 90.000 m3 of wood per year. Most of the research on wood preservation has been carried out in the last 15-20 years and refer ...
S Adamopoulos, E Voulgaridis


Soft-rot testing. Memo to CEN
1983 - IRG/WP 2206 A
1. Development of a single test procedure to assess performance of preservatives against soft rot fungi is an ideal that cannot be realised at present, if results are to be both reproducible between laboratories and pertinent to the practical requirements of individual countries. 2. Consensus opinion amongst members of Sub Group I - Soft rot tests, of Working Group II - Fundamentals of Testing, of the IRG, is that the immediate needs of CEN would be best answered by: (a) a code of recommended practice, (b) a multiplicity of test procedures, and (c) a degree of flexibility in test procedures. 3. The code of recommended practice should recognise the need for: (a) a pure culture, synthetic medium (sand or vermiculite + nutrients), single wood species test to be adopted by all laboratories as a common reference point of testing, (b) mixed inoculum and/or unsterile soil laboratory or fungus cellar tests which account for local variations in the fungal flora, (c) incorporation of a range of wood species where applicable (i.e. where mixed hardwoods comprise the main resource), (d) provision of local internal standards of known performance under field conditions, (e) incorporation of leaching procedures other than standard methods with deionized water (e.g. mild acid, milk alkali, ionic solutions of various salts) where applicable to local exposure conditions, (f) precise definition of the criteria used for establishing toxic thresholds (mass loss, strength loss, microscopic examination). 4. Initial screening tests should remain the province of the individual research worker. 5. The code of recommended practice should have the sole purpose of establishing provisional retention levels for subsequent confirmation by field trial. 6. IRG should list and approve test procedures considered adequate to establish toxic thresholds for preservatives against soft rot fungi. 7. It should be clearly understood that when using a series of test techniques, it is inevitable that a range of toxic thresholds will be obtained for the same preservative. 8. Guidelines should be drawn up for interpretation of test data for subsequent transformation to provisional retention levels. 9. Adoption of the broad principles outlines above is recognition of the dynamic nature of toxic thresholds. The additional information obtained by a more flexible, and complex, approach to testing may make interpretation more difficult but should provide data from which response of preservatives to varying biological and environmental hazards can be more realistically assessed. 10. It is recommended that CEN adopt, in principle, the basic philosophy of testing outlined above and move towards formulation of a Working Document in collaboration with IRG
J A Butcher, D J Dickinson


Survey of North American practice in conditioning forest products before preservative treatment
1972 - IRG/WP 308
Seasoning requirements for the wide range of forest products which are treated with preservatives and fire retardants must be capable of dealing with a very complex set of conditions which are summarized under a number of variables including type and hazard of end use, the most effective distribution of preservative, a wide range of cross sectional dimensions, the possibility of seasoning by a ran...
J Rak, T S McKnight


Field Tests on Poles. A report from practice
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20343
A routine field inspection of some 1000 creosote poles during summer 2005 in northern Jutland, Denmark. The routine inspection was done by hammering, Pilodyn testing and taking core samples with a Matson Borer. Additionally a drill resistance measurement was done with a device consisting of the drill machine with a long, flexible steel needle with 1,5mm diameter and the measuring computer/battery-...
A Peylo, C-G Bechgaard


Practice Makes Perfect: A Biodeterioration Diagnostics Database that Makes Practice
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10648
Replacement of bio-based materials deteriorated by pests costs billions annually and wastes natural resources. Wood replacement rates have remained relatively stable despite significant advances in wood preservation. This may be explained, in part, by poor end-use by uninformed users and by inadequate pest management once products are in service. This problem may be exacerbated by two opposing fac...
J S Schilling


Acquisition of sorption isotherms for modified woods by the use of dynamic vapour sorption instrumentation: Principles and Practice
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40518
The complex wood-water relationship has been the topic of numerous studies. Sorption isotherms – in particular – have been derived for hundreds of wood species, their sap- and heartwood sections as well as for decayed, engineered and modified wood materials. However, the traditional methods for obtaining sorption isotherms are very time consuming. With new dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) instrum...
E T Engelund, M Klamer, T Mark Venås


Durability of acetylated Radiata pine: Laboratory tests and performance in practice
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40899
Wood acetylation is an established process to enhance biological durability and dimensional stability of lower valuable wood species without the use of biocides. Acetylated Radiata pine (ACCOYA® wood) has been on the market for more than 10 years now, starting in 2007. Numerous lab tests have confirmed the high durability of acetylated Radiata pine. Here, additional data with four Radiata pine ...
K Jacobs, W Scheiding, B Weiß