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The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. Any preservative should be evaluated by the Ministry of Agriculture before recommendation. Of the preserved woods are Lumbers, sleepers and poles, woods used in constructions and furniture as well. The woods used in furniture, constructions or woodworks are mostly imported from Sweden, Russia, Finland or Korea. Several kinds of woods are imported as Picea sp., Pinus sp., Phagus sp. Local woods used are limited in kinds and amount, as Casuarina sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Acacia sp. Treated woods are potentially increasing in use. There are neither restriction for the use of treated woods, not any regulation concerning the desposal of these woods.
S I M Moein

Schrifttum über den Hausbockkäfer Hylotrupes bajulus L. (Serville) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)
1977 - IRG/WP 164
H Becker

Review of the literature on Lyctidae (Coleoptera)
1987 - IRG/WP 1211
E Graf

Some observations on Chlorophora pilosus Forst. var. glabromaculatus Goeze (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1119
A Gambetta

Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König

Bibliography on the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1104
M-M Serment, H Becker

Questionnaire on the most important wood-destroying insects in your country and/or state
1980 - IRG/WP 1125
S Cymorek

Der Fall Lyctus. Skizzen über Auftreten, Bedeutung und Bekämpfung eines Holzwurms
1980 - IRG/WP 1100
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and allied species cause severe damage to wood throughout the world and inflict losses on producers, the trade, industries and craftsmen. Starch-containing wood is liable to attack. The history of the accidental introduction of this wood-destroyer into West-Europe and the causes for this are outlined, biological requirements for the attack as well as developments for Lyctus-control are outlined considering results of new investigations. To day the exent of damage by Lyctiides excercises an influence on timber reserves and on the usage of light timber species.
S Cymorek

Exotic timber insect species intercepted in the UK since 1945
1978 - IRG/WP 182
Since the formation of an entomology section at the former Forest Products Laboratory, Princes Risborough, the Laboratory has been called upon to identify and comment upon a wide range of insects and insect damage in imported timber. Very often only the damage remains and frequently dead insects are associated with it, but on other occasions living exotic wood-boring insects enter the UK. Following a request made at the 1977 meeting of the IRG, we have compiled a list of living exotic timber insects intercepted and sent to the Laboratory since 1945. This compilation has resulted from an examination of clerical records made over the years and the information recorded was frequently incomplete. In the best authenticated instances, live larvae were recovered from identified timber species of known country of origin and reared through to adults for identification, but in many cases isolated adult beetles were sent to the Laboratory from unknown timbers.·Frequently the records do not indicate whether larvae or adults were found. The list shows host timbers and area of origin only where this information was reliably known. The important question concerning live introductions is of course whether the insects are capable of becoming established in this country. This will depend not only on such factors as climatic requirements and availability of suitable host species but also on the frequency, and density of the introductions. Clearly some of the species, such as various Lyctus sp. have long become established here. It would be fascinating to speculate on the potential of some of the species in our list to become established but this lies outside the scope of the present short note.
J M Baker, R W Berry

The wood-attacking insects in wooden houses of an old open air museum in southern Finland
1989 - IRG/WP 1409
Harmful insects of wood in a open-air museum were investigated in 1985-1988 by order of the National Board of Antiquities and Historical Monuments of Finland in nine old log houses. Many thousands of insects and altogether 1073 anobiids (Coleoptera, Anobidae) were obtained by window and light traps. The most common Anobiidae-species were Hadrobregmus confusus (Kraatz) 60.3%, Hadrobregmus pertinax (L.) 30.6% and Ernobius mollis (L.) 8.9%. The amounts of trapped insects varied in different houses and the flight time of anobiids varied greatly according to yearly weather conditions.
H Viitanen, M Pulkkinen

Anobium punctatum De Geer (Coleoptera Anobiidae)
1980 - IRG/WP 1103
Anobium punctatum de Geer (1) est un Coléoptère qui appartient au sous-ordre des Teredilia et à la famille des Anobiidae. Cet insecte a été décrit pour la première fois par Charles de Geer, entomologiste Suédois dans ses "Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire des insectes" parues en 1774, sous le nom vulgaire de Vrillette pointillée et en latin " Ptinus (punctatus) griseo fuscus". Ces noms de genre et d'espèce ont été modifiés à plusieurs reprises (2) depuis cette date, au fur et à mesure des acquisitions systématiques. "Anobium punctatum" de Geer semble maintenant universellement adopt‚ mais il est possible de voir cet insecte désigner dans la littérature française relativement récente, sous les appellations fréquemment usitées d’Anobium striatum 01. ou plus rarement d'Anobium domesticum. Geof. L'origine grecque du mot Anobium (a : privatif, Bios : vie) tient au fait que les adultes sont capable de faire le mort quand on les touche et de "persister dans cette catalepsie au point de se laisser brûler" (R. Perrier, 1932). D'après les données récoltées jusqu'à present, il semble qu'Anobium punctatum ne soit cantonné que dans les régions tempérées des deux hémisphères Nord et Sud du globe terrestre. C'est ainsi qu’il est bien connu dans la presque totalit‚ des pays d'Europe dont Tooke (1949) dit qu'il est originaire.
M-M Serment

Wood attacking insects in urban areas in Sao Paulo State - Brazil
1985 - IRG/WP 1267
From 1974 to 1984 the investigators of Wood Division (IPT) inspected, for insect attack, more than 1,500 buildings of several kinds: commercial, residencial and historical buildings, houses and industries. In all cases, IPT was asked to give advices on control and erradication. During that time three papers concerning this problem were published (Cavalcante, 1976; De Lelis, 1978; Zanotto & Canedo, 1982). This paper, comprising partial data from the above papers, lists insects found, estimates the costs necessary to control them, and reports the most common factors that have been found favouring infestations in the inspected buildings.
P A Zanotto, M D Canedo, D A T Lelis

Minthea rugicollis (Walk.) (Coleoptera: Lyctidae): A pest of rubberwood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1570
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has grown in prominence as a source of timber in recent years. One of the drawbacks in the utilization of this species is its susceptibility to attack by powder-post beetles belonging to the family Lyctidae. In Malaysia, Minthea rugicollis (Walk) is the, most commonly found species attacking seasoned rubberwood. In this paper, information available thus far on Minthea rugicollis is collated in brief and an outline given of a current research project aimed at developing comprehensive information on the biology of this important pest of rubberwood. Some inherent properties of rubberwood and their effect on the activities of Minthea rugicollis will also be investigated.
F Abood, R W Berry, R J Murphy

Beetle-Fungus Associations in Woody Substrates in the Context of International Trade
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10610
Interest in the role of insects in transmitting various fungi and in the potential for outbreaks of insects vectoring plant disease organisms has resulted in a large volume of literature on insect-fungi relationships. Mites are mentioned as an important third partner in these associations. This paper summarizes information and provides an update on major aspects of these intricate associations in the context of woody substrate, modern forestry, global climate change and international trade with wood products. This paper discusses the partners separately and comments on their potential pathogenicity, the reason for the associations and how are they maintained, and addresses the complexity of the research around these issues. Beetles as well as fungi range from being secondary, harmless and pure saprotrophs to being aggressive and pathogenic. Globally there are a number of examples where particular insect-fungi combinations have caused significant economic losses, especially when exotic organisms are imported. The vector-fungus relationship is a strategy that makes both groups ecologically effective; together they spread fast, may have high plasticity, invade new territories, evolve and explore new crops on a global scale. There is an increased awareness of invasive species and more vigorous inspections in many countries causing trade disruptions and market loss. Wood packaging, logs and green lumber are generally considered to be a high-risk pathway. Currently the ISPM-15 standard imposes obligatory phytosanitary treatment (heat treatment at 56°C for 30 minutes to the core or fumigation with methyl bromide) of wood packaging in international trade. Other alternative treatments are actively being investigated and will cover a larger array of traded commodities. Chemical pressure impregnation has been shown to be effective in eradicating some pests. If approved internationally as a phytosanitary treatment it would facilitate trade in treated wood products, protect existing markets and open new ones. It will also reduce the potential cost of additional treatment for phytosanitary purposes. Further research is needed in this area to define effective treatment parameters.
A Uzunovic

An Important Wood Destroying Beetle: Anobium punctatum (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) and Distribution of Western Black Sea region
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10666
Anobium punctatum (De Geer) is an economically important insect species regarding damage to wooden structures. The damage mostly occurs in historic wooden buildings, wooden chairs, tables and seats. It has been determined in the Istanbul, Ankara, Ayancik, Bartin, Rize, Trabzon, Gumushane and Gole regions of Turkey. There is no detailed study in terms of the distribution of this insect and the degree of its damage in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. In this study, it was determined that furniture beetle is intensively widespread in the region.
A Toper Kaygin, Y Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, S Yildiz, S M Onat, N K Özkazanç, B Kaygin, S Çelíkyay

Occurrence of synanthropic beetles (Coleoptera Ptinidae) and checkered beetles (Coleoptera Cleridae) in relation to climatic factors in historical buildings from North-Eastern Germany
2021 - IRG/WP 21-10980
Predatory checkered beetles occur in many historical buildings. Thus, it is essential to learn more about the ecology of these beetles, specifically for their further use as suitable beneficial organisms in biological control of wood-destroying insects. In this study, indoor climatic conditions were examined as a major factor influencing their occurrence and that of their prey Anobium punctatum and Xestobium rufovillosum. For this purpose, monitoring and climate measurements were implemented in nine historic buildings in North-Eastern Germany (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern). A collective occurrence of Opilo domesticus and Korynetes caeruleus together with the wood boring pests was shown via sticky traps and collections of adult beetles. The exit holes of O. domesticus and Opilo mollis in paper covers used to monitor hatching-activity are not sufficiently species-specific and are therefore not considered in the evaluation of the climate data. Usually only annual and monthly mean values for temperature and relative humidity have been considered to discuss the occurrence of the insects mentioned. Anobium punctatum and X. rufovillosum, as well as their predators K. caeruleus and O. domesticus, have been found in half-timbered and solid structures. According to this, their climatic requirements must be quite similar. As a new study approach, climatic conditions for the period of walking and flight activity (reproductive phase via sticky traps and collections) were studied separately for both, the beneficial insects and wood pests. The results obtained so far partially showed significant differences for the insect species investigated. Anobium punctatum reproduces within narrowly defined temperature intervals with an optimum between 15.5 - 18 °C. For the reproductive phase of O. domesticus, the optimal temperatures are between 16.5 - 18 °C, up to about 23 °C, which almost exactly corresponds to those of A. punctatum. However, there are differences in humidity requirements. The beetles of O. domesticus have only been recorded at a rel. humidity of 64 - 73 %. This range of rel. humidity is narrower than for A. punctatum, whose beetles are found in buildings with rel. humidity from 55 - 80 %. These differences in climatic requirements may be part of the reason for the less frequent occurrence of O. domesticus beetles in only three buildings and the greater distribution and abundance of A. punctatum in all nine buildings. The obtained results from these studies and those of previous findings regarding climatic conditions will help successful breeding of checkered beetles in the laboratory for biological control purposes.
C Baar, C von Laar, M Willert, H Bombeck