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Results of collaborative work on laboratory soft rot testing
1989 - IRG/WP 2341
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period.
J K Carey, J G Savory


Collaborative tests on the influence of solvent and drying method on the toxic limit of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes
1974 - IRG/WP 248
Seven institutes from five countries, Austria, England, France, Germany and the Netherlands have collaborated in a study on the influences of solvent and drying method on the toxic limits of wood preservatives against Basidiomycetes tested according to the agar-block method. Two preservatives, a 25% pentachlorophenol-concentrate and tributyltinoxide were applied to pine sapwood and beech and tested against Coniophora puteana. The preservatives were diluted with either acetone. benzene, chloroform or xylene. Slow drying in vapour of the solvent was used for all solvents. In addition quick drying was used for benzene and chloroform and freeze drying for benzene. The results were not conclusive regarding any influence of the solvent and drying method on the toxic limit. There was a trend that the toxic limit of the pentachlorophenol concentrate is decreased by the use of acetone as solvent. An influence of acetone on the toxic limit of tributyltinoxide could not be stated. The results regarding an influence of the drying method on the toxic limit of the preservatives were variable. There is some evidence that the toxic limits are lowered by freeze drying. As this effect is not present in all cases, the differences in the established toxic limits are probably due to normal variation in results and not associated with the drying method.
T Hof


Collaborative soft rot tests: Summary of comments on 'Proposals for a standardized soil burial test'
1971 - IRG/WP 202
J G Savory


Wood preservation in East European countries
1989 - IRG/WP 3527
The paper discusses the main problems of wood preservation in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German DR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the USSR. The main types of wood preservatives produced have been presented, as well as the state of standarization to test their properties. There have been considered methods of wood treatment in use and application range of treated wood.
J Wazny


Collaborative soft rot tests: Results of analyses of soil samples
1976 - IRG/WP 263
C R Levy


Collaborative soft rot experiments 1974. Preliminary analysis of results
1975 - IRG/WP 251
J K Carey, J G Savory


Standardisation of sapstain tests - A challenge
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2403
In the last decade many new anti-sapstain products have been tested world-wide under laboratory and field conditions. Several extensive test programmes have been executed with different non-standardized test methods and procedures, with the result that the biological findings cannot be compared with each other. In this paper, gathered recommendations will be given in order to standardize test methods. These recommendations are based on questionnaires which have been sent to institutes throughout the world. For the realization of such a (standarized) test methodology, co-operation between test institutes, industry and working groups is necessary. This co-operation might also be useful for improving the treatment and application methods in the field. Standardization of sapstain methods is a challenge for Working Group II.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver


Collaborative soft rot tests: Tests conducted at Princes Risborough and Delft on soil samples from collaborating laboratories
1972 - IRG/WP 210
The laboratories which took part in the original collaborative soft rot test (Savory and Bravery, Holz u Org 5 (1) 58-90, 1970) sent samples of the soil used in the original test to Princes Risborough. Portions of this material were sent to Dr Hof for soil analyses at TNO and the remainder was employed at Princes Risborough for the conduct of comparative tests of soil virulence when used as a combined inoculum and nutrient source against beech and pine blocks as in the standard soil burial method. The Princes Risborough tests were conducted on untreated beech and pine sapwood by the methods laid down in Document IRG/WP/208 with the following exceptions: - No leaching was carried out; all test blocks were sterilised and 100 gm of soil were used per test block (2 blocks per 450 ml test bottle). As noted below, the initial soil moisture contents in the test bottles were rather high and incubation at 30°C was maintained for 6 weeks only in initial tests. The soils were moist when received. Their water holding capacities (WHC) were determined by the method given in IRG/WP/208 and are recorded in Table 1 column 2. Inadvertently moisture contents of the test bottles were raised slightly above the established WHCs as indicated in Table 1 column 3. Final moisture contents of the soils (column 4) approximated more closely to the soil WHCs. None the less the final moisture contents of the test blocks (columns 5 and 7) were high and weight losses were not as high in the beech as had been anticipated. In a second test, in which the CTB sand sample was tested along with FPRL soil as control, soil moisture contents were adjusted precisely to the established WHCs. The results for weight losses in the FPRL soil in this instance come up to expectation. Despite the relatively low weight losses in the first test, there were statistically significant differences between some of the soils. In an attempt to ascertain the cause of the low weight losses a further series of tests were carried out using FPRL soil samples. Sets of six replicate blocks were exposed by burial in soil as indicated in IRG/WP/208. Soil moisture contents were adjusted to give a range from relatively dry to very moist and after burial of the test blocks the test bottles were incubated at 30°C for 14 days only. On completion of incubation moisture contents of the test blocks were determined. The results are presented in Figure I. It becomes apparent that with beech there is a tendency towards waterlogging of the test blocks as soil moisture contents approach the WHC, so it would appear that waterlogging has probably invalidated the test results obtained with beech. In contrast waterlogging with pine does not begin until soil moisture contents are in excess of the WHC. Sufficient soil was available to permit a further test with pine blocks using the full 16 week incubation period required by the Document IRG/WP/208. Results from this test are not yet available.
J G Savory


Collaborative soft rot tests: Statistical treatment of results of soil analyses
1971 - IRG/WP 29
Institutes taking part in the collaborative experiments already reported forwarded samples of the soils employed in the tests to the Forest Products Research Laboratory, England. The soils were then autoclaved sterilised under uniform conditions and sent to the Department of Forest Soils, the Royal College of Forestry, Stockholm, Sweden. The results of the soil analyses are given in Table 1, together with the per cent weight losses recorded by the individual Institutes for untreated test blocks buried in unsterile and sterile soils respectively. An analysis of variance has been carried out on the full table of weight loss data and the results are given in Table 2. An analysis of variance was also carried out on the data from a group of four Institutes that statistically appeared to constitute a different population. The results of this analysis are given in Table 3. F tests of significant difference were made on each of Tables 2 and 3 and the results of these are given at the foot of the respective tables.
A F Bravery


Wood Preservation in Belgium
1981 - IRG/WP 3170
The report reviews wood preservation activities in Belgium and notes the number of authorized treatment depots has doubled during the past five years. It lists the timbers that are allowed to be used for joinery and constructional building purposes and the preservatives and treatments with which these timbers may be protected. In Belgium not only have the wood preservative product and its treatment method to be approved, but the depot where the timber is to be treated has to be authorized as well. Belgian procedures for approving the use of a preservative are detailed, together with the various chemicals that have been accepted, and the concentrations at which these may be used. A survey has indicated that during 1980 four times as much sawn timber and joinery were treated by long term immersion with water-borne preservatives than were impregnated under pressure, although of the total sawn timber treated nearly 60% was treated with organic solvent preservative either by deluging or dipping. The report lists the various brands of wood preservative products, together with their relevant specifications, which have been authorized and the names and addresses of the treatment stations with the names of the products which each employs. The organizations which influence and control wood preservation activities in the country are noted as well as the various research centres where different investigations into the subject are carried out. For wood preservation most of the Belgian Standards are derived from the European Standards.
M Stevens, R Cockcroft


Wood preservation in Brazil
1978 - IRG/WP 3126
Wood preservation was stablished in Brazil by 1902 in order to provide treated sleepers for railways, since there was a shortage of durable hardwoods in area served by railways. The growing need of sleepers and poles together with the availability of Eucalyptus spp. contributed for the development of wood preservation. Many wood preservation plants started to be stablished in 1957, and in 1977 their total number was 34, most of them for treatment of sleepers and poles with pentachlorophenol, creosote, CCA and CCB, all made in Brazil. Wood preservation research has been carried out since 1931, but there are few specialists in Brazil. Federal Governmental laws, Brazilian standards, the stablishment of ABPM (Brazilian Wood Preservers' Association), and the IBDF-IPT-ABPM Contract are the main causes for recent development of wood preservation in Brazil.
M S Cavalcante


Further discussion of biological durability assessments of acetylated wood from several European institutes
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40340
In the last decade, interest in the development of wood modification systems has increased in Europe. Alongside several industrial initiatives for heat treatments, there have also been scaling up and pilot plant projects for chemical wood modification. Between 2000-03, the European Commission funded the "Thematic Network on Wood Modification". This paper features a re-evaluation of work undertaken within that project, assessing the performance of acetylated radiate pine. This re-evaluation comes at a time when acetylated radiate pine is due to be commercially launched. This corresponded with one of the key decisions of the Network, in that modified wood should be regarded as a new wood species, and tested accordingly, with particular emphasis on biological durability and dimensional stability.
D Jones, W Homan, F Bongers