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Proposal for further work on environmental questions
1988 - IRG/WP 3494
Although very much is known about the environmental and health and safety aspects on various wood preservatives and treated wood knowledge is still lacking on some important issues. Some examples are: - The fate of wood preservatives in the environment, eg by leaching from treated wood and contaminated soil; - How big is the "problem" of pollution, etc from the wood preserving industry in comparison with that from other sources? - What are the consequences of using alternative materials when particular attention is paid to the environment, health and safety, service life, etc? We propose that the "Health and safety aspects" Sub-group identifies the most important problems regarding the environment, health and safety and that an action plan for further work is presented at the next meeting.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund

Review of remediation methods of sites contaminated by wood preservatives - testing of filter material for use in permeable barrier technology
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50141
Several treatment methods are currently available for treatment of contaminated sites. Soil and water can be treated by immobilisation, separation or destruction of contaminants. It has been common to use intensive treatment methods starting with soil excavation to reach strict purification goals. However, technical and financial reasons make it difficult to reach the desired treatment criteria. As a result, alternative treatment methods are now being allowed. Less intensive in situ methods are being developed, such as natural attenuation, phytoremediation and permeable barriers. A permeable barrier is a passive treatment method for contaminated groundwater. A study was conducted to test various barrier materials for filtering creosote contaminated groundwater. Peat, compost, bark, sewage sludge and sewage sludge pellets were tested out for sorption of phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2,4-dimethylphenol. Peat and compost showed best sorption efficiency. Peat and compost were mixed with sand in various fractions to see if sand can be used to improve hydraulic properties of the filter material.
G Rasmussen, H Iversen, S Andersen

Studies on the mobility of arsenic, copper and chromium in CCA-contaminated soil
1990 - IRG/WP 3571
CCA contaminated soils from six Swedish preservation plants were investigated primarily to study the mobility of arsenic but also that of copper and chromium in the soils. The soil samples represented average types with different amounts of clay, organic matter, arsenic, copper, chromium and different pH. The total soluble amounts of the elements were measured. The pH dependent solubility and the water-soluble fraction were investigated. The fixation capacity of arsenic by treatment with iron and aluminium salts and the toxicity of CCA contaminated soils to ryegrass were also investigated. There is strong evidence that when the soils are contaminated by CCA solution or leachate, a fraction of the arsenic, copper and chromium is precipitated as copper and chromium arsenates or as other salts in the soils. The solubility of arsenic, copper and chromium is pH dependent and the release of these elements increases both with decreasing and increasing pH, with the lowest release at between pH 6 to 7. The elements are released at a constant rate in equilibrium and in proportion to the precipitated arsenates. The water-soluble fraction of the elements are higher in sandy than in clay rich soils. The mobility decreases in the order As>>Cu>Cr. It is possible to fix the arsenic in sandy soils with Fe(II) salts and this is most effective at about pH 5. The growth of ryegrass decreases when the arsenic content in the soil solution exceeds 0.25 mg/L and its growth is totally inhibited when the arsenic content exceeds 1 mg/L.
J Bergholm

Optimisation of an analytical method for the determination of total fluoride in preservative-contaminated soils using water steam distillation and an ion-selective electrode
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20153
This paper describes a simple modified procedure for the quantitative fluoride determination of different origin in a soil matrix using a water steam distillation and an ion-selective electrode. Distillation methods generally require a preliminary preparation step like fusing. The modified method presented here is based on the direct distillation of fluoride so that no further sample preparation is necessary. The separation is carried out in a perchloric acid medium and the analysis takes place by means of a reduced Total Ionic Adjustment Buffer (TISAB) solution. This technique allows also the application of a battery equipment, i. e. simultaneous distillation will be possible. Using a 2-flask system approximately 10 soil samples with two parallels can be analysed per day. The adaptation of the test method, possible checked parameters of influence, the obtained results and observed problems are discussed. The results showed that in general satisfying (>90%) recovery rates can be received.
E Melcher

The growth and metal content of plants grown in soil contaminated by a copper/chrome/arsenic wood preservative
1977 - IRG/WP 3110
Salts of copper, chromium and arsenic are used together in water soluble formulations for the preservation of wood against insect and fungal attack. Copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservatives are of proven efficacy and, used correctly, ensure a useful service life for timber for 30 years or more with little, if any, attendant threat to the environment from the treated wood itself. The preservative treatment site can, however, provide a point of entry for the preservative into the general environment by way of spills and leaks of the treating fluid and run off from treated wood, with resultant contamination of the surrounding soil. The possible effects of the CCA salts on plant growth and metals uptake are the subject of this paper. In a series of greenhouse pot experiments the effects of varying concentrations of CCA in soil on the germination, growth and cropping of beans, carrots and tomatoes was studied. Crops produced by the plants were analysed for their copper, chromium and arsenic contents. Additionally, grasses were grown to assess possible land reclamation difficulties. It was found that soil having a combined copper, chromium and arsenic concentration of approximately 7000 ppm completely inhibited the growth of all the plants tested, while certain concentrations below this inhibited or retarded growth to some degree. Carrots grown in soil containing approximately 1000 ppm Cu, Cr, As (200 ppm As) produced crops containing nearly twice the current recommended limit for arsenic in food. Relating the levels of CCA used in the experimentally dosed soil with the amounts found in soil samples taken from preservative treatment sites, it is apparent that many contaminated areas would not support plant life. Less heavily contaminated soil will support growth and may give rise to crops with arsenic levels higher than those deemed to be safe.
C Grant, A J Dobbs

Plant uptake of CCA components from contaminated soil
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50043
The above ground portions of lettuce and rye grass grown in CCA contaminated soil collected at the base of CCA-C treated poles in service did not absorb appreciable amounts of copper, chromium and arsenic, even at soil concentrations above the recommended levels for soil remediation for agricultural uses. At high soil arsenic levels whole radish plants absorbed more As, but not the other elements. The uptake of all elements by the root portion of rye grass increased with increased soil contaminant levels. The Cr, Cu and As content of lettuce roots was more than double that of the leaves and for copper appeared to increase with increasing soil concentration. Natural growing horsetails (Equisetum) accumulated all three elements in proportion to the soil concentration; cattails did not accumulate the elements appreciably and grass growing close to CCA treated poles had relatively higher concentrations of Cr and As compared to other plants.
P A Cooper, E Jasonek, J-P Aucoin

Electrodialytic remediation of a soil from a wood preservation industry polluted by CCA
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-14
Soil contamination is often found at wood preservation sites due to spills, dripping of excess preservatives and deposition of sludge associated with dissolved salts of copper, chromium and arsenic (CCA). The electrodialytic process is a promising heavy metal soil remediation technique. It is based on a combination of the electrokinetic movement of ions in soil with the principle of electrodialysis. The technique was tested in five experiments using a laboratory cell on a CCA contaminated Portuguese soil. The duration of the experiments varied (from 18 to 125 days) but the dc current density was kept constant (0.2 mA/cm2). The development of the contaminant concentration profiles in the soil after the experiments was investigated. pH and the speciation of contaminants were identified as key parameters of importance to the remediation process. It was found that it was possible to decontaminate the soil to an extent lower than the recommended critical values for copper concentration in soils.
A B Ribeiro, A Villumsen, G Bech-Nielsen, A Réfega, J Vieira e Silva

Wood preservation sites polluted by CCA. Is potassium diphosphate incubation a catalyst for the electrodialytic remediation of these soils?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50106
As part of an evaluation of a newly developed electrodialytic soil remediation technique, we investigated the incubation of a contaminated soil (from a Portuguese wood preservation site polluted with CCA) with potassium diphosphate as a possible catalyst for the removal of heavy metals and metalloids. A chemical sequential extraction scheme (SE) applied to the soil has shown that the potassium diphosphate (0.1 M), used for the attack of forms organically bound, extracted 30% of Cu, 15% of Cr and 23% of As. Two electrodialytic laboratory experiments (E and O) were carried out for 35 days in a laboratory cell, with a current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. In Exp. E the contaminated soil was put in the cell as it was sampled, and in Exp. O, the soil was previously incubated with 0.1 M K4P2O7, for 51 h. The aim was to compare results of process efficiencies by maintaining either acid or basic pH conditions in the soil, both media known to keep solubilization of metals high. Results show that the remediation process was not more efficient in the soil submitted to the pre-treatment, for the considered time length, as total Cu, Cr and Zn soil concentrations were higher after Exp. O than after Exp. E. The K4P2O7 incubation did not succeed in maintaining a basic pH in the soil. However, the soil SE results show that Exp. O put more Cu, Cr and Zn in "soluble and exchangeable forms" than Exp. E. If the process had been run for a longer period, electromigration could have acted more efficiently and these elements are expected to be removed from the soil, increasing the overall efficiency of the process. Addition of extra alkali could have furthered the process.
A B Ribeiro, G Bech-Nielsen, A Villumsen, A Réfega, J Vieira e Silva

A Case Study of Long-term CCA Preservative Leaching from Treated Hardwood Poles in a Humid Tropical Condition
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50324
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated Malaysian hardwoods have long been used as utility poles, posts, construction piles and motorway fencing in soil contact exposed to the threats of decay fungi and termites. Despite global concerns citing predominantly temperate conditions of long-term leaching of CCA toxic heavy metals from wood into surrounding soils and groundwater since the 1990’s, the preservative leaching severity in the tropics has been far less appreciated due to dearth of work in this area. In 2013 (after 30 years exposure), levels of total copper, chromium and arsenic within 20 treated hardwood poles of Sarawak and in soils surrounding these poles, installed in 1980 and 1981 at a plot located in Timber Research and Technical Training Centre, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, were sampled. The ground is waterlogged after heavy rainfall. It is shown that there is insignificant variations of CCA salt retention in wood between 1300 cm above ground and 0-20 cm below ground (P<0.05). Nevertheless levels of these elements are significantly (P<0.05) elevated in soils surrounding, especially up to 25 mm away from, the poles than at distant sampling points (150 – 300 mm) from poles as well as at sites well away from the poles containing very low levels (<6 – 13.4 ppm) of such heavy metals. Metal levels were also highest at the soil surface directly in contact with the poles (0 – 50 mm soil depth position) and decreased with remaining 2 soil depth positions 150 – 200 mm and 300 – 350 mm. Mean extractable arsenic levels ranged from 14.5 to 100.1 ppm, chromium levels from 23.3 to 148.3 ppm and copper from 21.8 to 104.7 ppm. Results, rather than indicating relatively higher CCA leaching, concurred with that reported temperate experience and showed that soil closest to the treated poles are most contaminated, albeit slightly, after 30 years of in-ground exposure.
A H H Wong, W S M Chin

The biodegradation of creosote oil by various species of white rot fungi and bacteria isolated from the contaminated soil
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50334
The aim of the study was to determine biodegradation effectiveness of the selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in creosote oil, by two white rot fungal species (Bjerkandera adusta and Irpex lacteus) and three bacterial species (Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp. OS4 and Rahnella aquatilis). Bacteria were isolated from the soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons from the northern area of Poland. Tests with the fungi (16 weeks) were performed with the use of creosote-impregnated wood samples, while tests with bacteria (5 weeks) were done in liquid mineral medium containing creosote oil as sole source of carbon. The analysis of PAHs loss was conducted using the method of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped in a fluorescent detector (FLD). The obtained results indicated that, the total PAH degradation in the impregnated wood by fungal species was high and reached ca. 64 and 96% for Irpex lacteus and Bjerkandera adusta, respectively. The biodegradation extent of PAHs by bacterial species was lower and reached ca. 10, 12 and 16% for Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas sp. OS4 and Rahnella aquatilis, respectively. On the other hand, the addition of natural surfactant – saponins – had positive influence on the biodegradation extent of PAHs by bacterial species (loss of sum of PAHs reached ca. 25, 34 and 57% for Rahnella aquatilis, Pseudomonas sp. OS4 and Pseudomonas putida, respectively. This may suggest that natural surfactants can enhance the bioavailability of the hydrophobic organic pollutants (such as PAHs) and improve the biodegradation efficiency of creosote oil in the environment. In general, the obtained results showed that the studied microbial species have potential to be used in cleaning-up of creosote-impregnated wooden elements and bioremediation of soils/aquatic environments polluted with creosote oil.
M Sydow, J Zabielska-Matejuk, E Kaczorek, AStangierska, A Kropacz

Bioremediation technology for cleaning-up of the soil contaminated with creosote oil – the overall concept of BIOREM project
2020 - IRG/WP 20-50363
The aim of the communication paper is to present the conceptual framework of the BIOREM project, which started in May 2019. The final result of the entire project will be an innovative bioremediation technology that can be used in areas contaminated with creosote oil – a commonly used wood preservative being a complex mixture of various compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The creosote oil and its components are very effective towards white-rot fungi decomposing wood, but on the other hand, are extremally toxic to plants, animals and human. Therefore, it is important to provide an effective and cheap technology of cleaning-up of the soil environment from the creosote oil. The bioremediation technology, which will be designed during the course of the project, will be based on innovative combination of bacterial and fungal biopreparations with the addition of enzyme preparations. The technology will be first implemented at the polluted area of railway sleeper treating plant located in Koźmin Wielkopolski (Poland) and then made available on the market for other companies dealing with the pollution of grounds with creosote oil.
M Sydow, J Zabielska-Matejuk, A Stangierska

Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace

Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph

Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot

Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto

Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi.
A F Bravery, J K Carey

Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period.
J K Carey, J G Savory

The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves

CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson

Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungus cellar and the results will be presented for the following types of biocides: Tebuconazole in combination with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar), quats with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar) and Cu-organic compound combined with copper and boron (3 years fungus cellar). Figures will be shown on the development of the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) over the years and on an assessment of the stakes according to EN 252.
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph

Laboratory decay test of Burmese in and kanyin treated with three wood preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3210
Laboratory decay tests were performed on samples of In (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.) and Kanyin (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn f.) pressure treated with three wood preservatives - copper arsenic additive (CAA - a variation of ammoniacal copper arsenate), Arquad C-33 (a waterborne quaternary ammonium formulation), and tributyltin acetate (TBTA) dissolved in ethanol. Pressure treatments with each preservative involved a 0.5 - 1 hour vacuum followed by a 4 hour period of pressure. This resulted in a very variable treatment because of the inherent difficulty in treating these woods. The decay tests entailed a slightly modified form of the AWPA M10-77 standard soil-block test using three brown-rot and three white-rot fungi. The untreated In and Kanyin samples were moderately susceptible to decay though weight losses were very variable and some samples of Kanyin (usually the densest and least permeable) were naturally resistant. At the concentrations tested CAA was the most effective in reducing weight losses incurred in the soil-block tests. TBTA was successful in controlling decay caused by all but two of the test fungi. It is suggested that preservative retentions for TBTA conforming to those included in the Candadian standard for bis (tributyltin) oxide would exceed the toxic limit for all the fungi tested
J N R Ruddick, R S Smith, A Byrne

Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility poles were also collected. Water holding capacity, pH, mechanical properties of soil samples were determined for both depth levels. Results showed that Cu, Cr and As concentration in soil samples taken from all three cities in 0-5cm depth was higher than soil samples taken from 30-40cm depth. Cu, Cr and As concentrations were much higher in soil samples taken from city of Rize.
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman

Use of vermiculite as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of treated wood
1989 - IRG/WP 3547
It is considered the possibility of using vermiculite instead of soil as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of wood treated with preservatives for agricultural use. Three organic preservatives were used. It had been tested the behaviour of both, vermiculite and soil in case of preservative leaking due to a leach. So that, assays of germination with cucurbitaceous were carried out, mixing a dose of preservatives with both substrates.
M V Baonza Merino, D Franco

Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson

Laboratory evaluation of chemicals as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1293
Laboratory procedures are described for screening chemicals against subterranean termites. Fast-acting compounds with persistent termiticidal activity are identified in tests using a soil substrate, and slower-acting bait toxicants are evaluated in a series of tests using cellulose substrates.
S C Jones

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