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Biocontrol of Reticulitermes santonensis by entomopathogenic fungi - Improvement of the contamination process
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10359
The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were selected for their potential to control the subterranean termite Reticulitermes santonensis. The research work aims to increase the mortality of termites by improving the contamination process inside a termite colony. The transfer of fungal spores from contaminated termites to a whole colony of termites was thus studied. In a first step, termite workers were contaminated by spores. Then they were introduced in a population of healthy workers at 10%, 25% and 50%. The tests showed that 25% and 50% of initially contaminated termites was sufficient to spread the spores among the healthy termites. The total mortality reached 100% within a few weeks. Experiments were carried out using the two entomopathogenic fungi and different methods of contamination. Results are discussed taking into account the possible development of a bait in the future.
I Le Bayon, D Ansard, C Brunet, S Girardi, I Paulmier

Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino

Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two preparation techniques agreed in the test to determine the mean percentage of void volume filled by liquid both radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process (i.e. machining, sealing, etc.) of the experimental samples and the period of the data collection was quite longer in CES than that for PES in either flow direction.
I Usta

The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used.
P R S Cobham, P Vinden

Wood furfurylation process and properties of furfurylated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40289
The first processes for “furfurylation” of wood (wood modification with furfuryl alcohol) were developed several decades ago. Furfuryl alcohol is a renewable chemical since it is derived from furfural, which is produced from hydrolysed biomass waste. Over the last decade modernised processes for furfurylation of wood have been developed. These new processes are based on new catalytic systems and process additives. Two main processes for production of furfurylated wood have been developed for WPT (Wood Polymer Technology ASA) by the authors – Kebony 100 for high modification levels of hardwoods and VisorWood for lower modification levels of pine. Commercial production according to the Kebony process has been running since August 2000, mainly for flooring. A small Kebony production plant is now in operation in Lithuania. A larger Kebony/VisorWood production plant started up in September 2003 in Porsgrunn, Norway. Several new plants operating according to the VisorWood process, each with an annual capacity of 10 000 m³ or more, are under construction. The properties of furfurylated wood depend on the retention of grafted/polymerised furfuryl alcohol (PFA) in the wood. At high modification levels (high retention of PFA) the enhancement of a wide variety of properties are achieved: an exceptional hardness increase, exceptional resistance to microbial decay and insect attack, high resistance to chemical degradation, increase in MOR & MOE, and high dimensional stability. At lower modification levels many property enhancements also occur, however to slightly lower extent. Notable are resistance to microbial decay and insect attack, increase in MOR & MOE, and relatively high dimensional stability.
M Westin, S Lande, M Schneider

Laboratory investigations about the mobility of some inorganic wood preservatives in soils
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-22
Wood preservatives and components of wood preservatives leached from impregnated wood can enter the soil and thus contribute to the pollution of the groundwater. However, there is lack of understanding concerning the interacting parameters of wood preservative, leachate, soil and soil solution. To characterise of the behaviour of active ingredients and for the assessment of their environmental impact, leaching and diffusion processes are of basic interest with which the concentration of the relevant ions in the soil solution is determined by the reactivity of the ion, and by the type of linkage between the ion and the soil. The concentration and the specific behaviour of the ions in the solid and liquid phases can be investigated using different methods, e. g. using soil column tests (lysimeter). Several designs of lysimeter have been tested with water-soluble wood preservatives and the results been compared with the behaviour of wood preservative components leached from impregnated wood. As a result of the variability of the experimental set-up, of the wood preservatives and of the different soils tested, it became obvious that a standard procedure has to be developed. By means of some examples of varying results the similarities and differences of different procedures are discussed.
E Melcher, R-D Peek

The Phase Out of CCA in the United States
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50194
In mid-February, 2002 the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Christine Todd Whitman, announced that the US treated wood industry will have until the end of December 2003 to end residential uses for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA). Industrial uses of CCA will still be allowed after the December 2003 date. This paper explores the events that led up to the announcement by the US EPA Administrator.
J D Schert

An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain

The collaborative developement of soil acceptance criteria for timber treatment chemicals in New Zealand
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-34
In New Zealand, the issue of potential contamination on timber treatment sites arose in the late 80's due to the long history of use of PCP by the industry. One of the recommendations from the task group set up to investigate the issue was the development of a set of acceptance criteria to define trigger levels for remediation. A technical group from the government, industry and regional councils supported by experienced environmental consultants was formed by the Ministry for the Environment to prepare the criteria. Guidelines for soil and landfill criteria were drafted covering the commonly used preservative products based primarily on human health risk exposure. Guidelines were also developed for specific beneficial uses where other risk exposures may dominant. The guidelines have been peer reviewed and issued in draft form for public comment. Several benefits have flowed from this process namely, a relatively short timeframe, low cost, multiple party ownership, practicality of application and ease of administration.
H C Boyd

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369 1/m). Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in kickback from spruce treatment (~ 750 ppm) was approximately half that in Scots pine kickback (~ 1400 ppm), and were substantially less than TOC generated during treatment of radiata pine (~ 2000 ppm). Extent of CCA fixation (spruce: 93%, Scots pine: 97%) was similar to that obtained with radiata pine (97%). To reduce post-treatment drippage, caused particularly by the refractory nature of spruce, a modified Bethell process was found most appropriate for MPP treatment rather than modified Lowry schedules used with radiata pine. Use of hot CCA solutions did not improve penetration into spruce and some collapse (washboarding) of early wood was a feature of its treatment.
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin

The internal-external diffusion process: Table salt treated poles
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-25
This new technique of preservation of wooden poles consists of keeping preservative in stock, in a reservoir drilled inside the pole, in its whole length. This permits the use of non toxic, common products such as table salt, grease, etc, in the preservation of utility poles, building columns, or the like. Some major obstacles to a good implementation of a good preservation with the classical processes become advantages with the new technique, notably the low permeability of some sorts of wood, and inaptitude to the fixing of a big number of chemicals aimed to provide a durable protection to wood submitted to weather.
L Nitunga

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell process from base (1 m) to apex (3 m) of the tree in sapwood zone. Accordingly, conclusions on indication of the drying process of sapwood and heartwood, and vertical variation of longitudinal flow with effects of moisture were listed separately: (1) Comparison of Drying Characteristic of Sapwood and Heartwood: The two different thickness (300x30x30 mm3 and 300x20x20 mm3) of sapwood and heartwood of Sitka spruce was dried using the suggested drying schedule in kiln. The reduction of moisture was schematically diagrammed according to sapwood and heartwood stakes. The reduction of moisture followed the same downward trend that sapwood (S) loses more moisture than heartwood (H) although the small stakes of S and H lost moisture rapidly compared with the large ones. (2) Vertical Variation of Moisture Content and Longitudinal Permeability: The 90 kiln dried defect free sapwood stakes (150x25x25 mm3) of Sitka spruce was taken from base to apex of the trees at 1, 2 and 3 m above ground level. After having the determination of moisture content in each experimental stake, the treatment was carried out by the full-cell process with CCA preservative (Tanalith-C) using a model pressure treatment plant. Significant differences observed among the tree heights from 1 to 3 m showing that slightly increases of moisture content from base to apex and conversely decreases of longitudinal void volume filled by preservative fluid.
I Usta

Steam conditioning of partially dried radiata and Corsican pine roundwood
1988 - IRG/WP 3499
The effect of partial air drying prior to steam conditioning and its effect on subsequent preservative treatment by the Bethell treatment process was investigated. A high standard of preservative treatment was obtained in both radiata and Corsican pine, irrespective of whether a period of partial drying was imposed before or after steam conditioning.
P Vinden, D R Page, K Nasheri

New developments in wood preservation
1974 - IRG/WP 335
Most of the developments in wood preservation in recent years have been stimulated by changing circumstances, particularly the increasing interest in reducing hazards and environmental, pollution but also the serious difficulties that are now being encountered in obtaining economic supplies of established preservatives. There is perhaps a danger that new controls to reduce pollution dangers may be too severe.
B A Richardson

Inorganic wood preservative levels in soil near a noise barrier treated with different preservatives after 8 years in service
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50234
In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were installed near Stockholm Sweden. The test sections include untreated Scots pine, spruce and larch and Scots pine, treated with different wood preservatives. After 8 years in service, the untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with the soil were significantly decayed, with an estimated service life of about 5-10 years, while the untreated wood above ground is stained but not visibly decayed. Some degradation was detected in wood in soil contact for some of the preserved pine sections treated to AB levels (i.e. use class 3, above ground). Soil samples were collected at three horizontal distances from the barriers (0, 7 and 14 cm) with the 7 cm sample representing the drip line under a protective wedge designed to keep water out of the joints. Samples were collected at two depths representing groundline and the depth of the barrier in the soil (7.5 – 13 cm) and directly under the barrier. Soil samples collected after 8 years showed highest contaminant levels close to the barrier and under the wedge dripline. Arsenic levels in some locations close to CCA treated panels exceeded Swedish and Canadian soil guidelines for agricultural use and copper levels were above residential/park guidelines for some locations near ACQ and Tanalith MCB treated panels.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer, O Söderström

Wood preservatives ecotoxicology on Gammarus pulex (L.) - toward an environmental monitoring method and a getting rid of pollution process
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-9
Wood preservatives can have a strong impact on freshwater invertebrates when used close to aquatic ecosystems. It has been reported in Jura that different arthropod taxa, specially crustaceans, have disappeared along several kilometers downstream from factories using insecticides and fungicides as wood preservatives. The crustacean Gammarus pulex (L.) is a relevant bioindicator to characterize the impact of wood preservatives on freshwater community. It presents a high sensitivity to wood preservatives but a relative tolerance to organic and nutrimental pollution. This abundant and ubiquitous crustacean has a key role in numerous aquatic ecosystems particularly in the decomposition of cellulose and as a prey for several fish species susceptible to be eaten by humans. In this study, we aim on the one hand to determine the adsorption capacity of different substrates of propiconazole, a fungicide widely used in the wood treatment, and on the other, to evaluate the toxicity of wood preservatives for G. pulex in controlled conditions. We hypothesize that the fungicide toxicity may be influenced by different types of substrate used in the test containers, i.e., coarse organic matter and gravel. These results should allow us to go, firstly toward the elaboration of sensors in order to detect product emissions in the aquatic environment, and secondly toward a depuration process in order to decrease the impact on the aquatic communities. These experiments should also allow us to develop a new biological monitoring method for the assessment of the impact of wood preservation on the aquatic ecosystems.
O Adam, F Degiorgi, G Crini, P-M Badot

The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is a factor under genetic control, the study in this article details the effects of density on longitudinal and radial permeability of Sitka spruce from base to apex. Comparison of overall means of both longitudinal and radial void volume filled (%) suggest that longitudinal permeabilities were almost the mirror image of those for the radial permeability along the tree trunk.
I Usta.

A comparison of the effectiveness of a vacuum oven and a wind tunnel in the accelerated ageing of treated wood by evaporation
1989 - IRG/WP 2334
R J Orsler, G E Holland

Ground contact performance of wood treated by the MSU process
1990 - IRG/WP 3609
Environmental concerns have prompted a renewed interest in accelerated fixation schemes for CCA-treated wood. Results from stake tests of southern pine (Pinus sp.) treated using a conventional Bethell cycle are compared with matched stakes treated using the MSU Process. The effects of adding boric acid to the preservative formulation are also discussed. Differences among test plots are discussed.
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, R W Landers

A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures.
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan

Technique for monitoring absorption during a vacuum pressure process
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3696
A laboratory technique was developed and an apparatus constructed which allowed for the direct and continuous measurement and observation of volumetric uptake of water-borne preservative into wood samples throughout a controlled vacuum-pressure treatment process. Fractional filling of void space was calculated. Graphing (fractional saturation) against time allows prediction of optimum cycle lengths with respect to achievable saturation values. Treatability evaluations using this technique were carried out on heartwood samples of six Malaysian hardwood species, kapur, kempas, keruing, punah, rubberwood, simpoh and on sapwood samples of Scots pine as a control. Generally the graphs exhibited two quasi-linear zones showing rapid initial absorption followed by slow absorption over a long period.
A J Pendlebury, J A Petty

Improvement of liquid penetration of wood by precompression under appropriate conditions and recovery process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40014
A new system for enhancing the penetration of liquid into wood using a precompression treatment was designed, and the effects of compressive deformation and recovery on liquid uptake were evaluated. Precompression of up to 60% under appropriate moisture and heat conditions effectively increased the penetration of liquid into refractory wood samples of practical sizes without producing any strength reduction. Water-saturated wood was compressed perpendicularly to the grain at temperature of 30 to 80°C, and two types of pretreated wood were prepared; i.e., set-recovered wood in which loading was released immediately after precompression, and preset-fixed wood which was dried under the influence of a decompressive force. The amount of liquid taken up by set-recovered wood was 2-3 times that taken up by untreated wood. When preset-fixed wood was dipped in liquid and the deforming force was released, liquid penetration was more than 25 times that seen in untreated softwood heartwood. Liquid effectively penetrated even long samples when pressure impregnation was applied to precompressed and preset-fixed wood. No significant reduction of strength was observed for treated wood except for that which had been precompressed up to 60%. Fracture of pit membranes during compression with little damage to unpitted cell-walls and an elastic recovery process were believed to improve liquid penetration with negligible compression defects.
I Iida, Y Imamura

Assessment of contamination of soil and water at a CCA treatment plant: A demonstration project
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50067
Soil, sludge, dust and water samples were collected at a copper/chromium/arsenic wood preservation plant. Contamination of soil, sludge, dust and surface water with copper, chromium and arsenic was detected. Levels of contamination were sufficiently high to require remediation. Contamination originated from preservative solution dripping from recently treated wood. Migration of contaminants was via surface water run-off; poor housekeeping and operational procedures; forklift movements and wind-blown dust.
P N Durrant, D C R Sinclair, G M Smith

Innovations in the treatment of Southern pine heartwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40172
Whereas the sapwood of southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) is readily treatable, the heartwood is essentially impermeable to preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Preliminary studies at the Mississippi Forest Products Laboratory indicate that increases in penetration and retention of preservative in pine heartwood can be obtained by subjecting kiln dried dimension stock to varying mechanical stresses using the patented TASK Process machine. The TASK Process machine incorporates varying levels of compression and/or vibration to mechanically stress lumber.
M G Sanders, T L Amburgey, H M Barnes

Assessment of wood preservation facilities in Canada
1989 - IRG/WP 3557
This document sets out an assessment procedure for the current status of the wood preservation industry in Canada in relation to the Technical Recommendations (TR) documents for the Design and Operation of Wood Preservation Facilities published by the Government of Canada in April 1988. A questionnaire has been prepared in consultation with industry and the Canadian Institute of Treated Wood. An assessment report (state-of-the-art) will be prepared on the basis of the information provided in these questionnaires and discussions.
G Das, V N P Mathur

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