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Termite standards questionnaire survey. Second Report
1989 - IRG/WP 1395
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the survey continue to be summarised. Again, highlighted in this second report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of the termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage
Termite standards questionnaire survey - First Report
1988 - IRG/WP 1354
Information contained in replies received from IRG members responding to the termite standards questionnaire survey are summarised. Highlighted in the results of this first report are the major termite species in the various zoogeographical regions, their damage ranking to timber-in-service, the chemicals used in control methods, and the status of termite standards in the respondent countries.
J R J French, J P La Fage
Work programme of CEN/TC 38 (April 1999) and European publications
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20165
Scope of the CEN/TC38: Standardization of the characteristics of natural or conferred durability of wood and its derived materials against biological agents, including the characteristics of protection products and associated processes to obtain this durability. This applies in particular to: - the identification of hazard classes-, - the test methods (wood preservatives and treated wood and wood based materials) and interpretation of the results; - the specification of wood preservatives and treated wood by classes of hazard including processes-, - quality control methods-, -terminology.
Interim balance after 20 months of lap-joint exposure
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20164
The application of natural resins and integrated resin systems to improve the performance of Pinus sylvestris was assessed in a lap-joint test according to DIN V ENV 12037 (1996). Lap-joints of Pinus sapwood were exposed at the test field in Hamburg (Germany) in May 1997. The treated lap-joints were assessed with regard to the performance of the resin treatments out of ground. The exposure of lap-joints showed that much more information can be obtained by this testing method than from laboratory testing methods which are usually applied to determine the biological resistance. Suggestions are made with regard to the assessment and handling of the lap-joints.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek, A J Nurmi, E P J Beckers
Termite field evaluations in hawaii: A brief review of methods and issues
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10131
The severe termite hazard in Hawaii, principally due to the presence of the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki), has long required the use of preservative-treated lumber in building construction. This hazard has also favored and stimulated field research in Hawaii on methods of protection from termite attack, including evaluation of soil insecticides and treated wood under rigorous conditions. The fact that Formosan subterranean termites are not distributed randomly and homogeneously across a given field site, as with fungal spores, but forage in a rather unpredictable fashion, has lead to the use of a number of different methods of field evaluation in order to "accelerate" termite attack or simulate conditions of end use. Rationale, advantages and disadvantages are discussed in this review.
J K Grace
Application of DNA fingerprinting methods to identify biocontrol strains of fungi imperfecti
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10068
We have analyzed a number of biocontrol strains of Trichoderma harzianum and other Trichoderma strains with the methods DNA fingerprinting and PCR fingerprinting to differentiate and identify these strain which is not possible with morphological or biochemical methods. We could differentiate even gamma-ray induced mutants from each other as well as different strains form the same and different species. The gamma-ray induced mutants are patented strains of Trichoderma harzianum and are used for biocontrol of wood-decaying fungi. The ability to differentiate the mutants is very important to identify the patent strain in nature because its "fingerprint" is unique and different of wildtypes of the same strain. Furthermore the two methods can be used to follow the path of a strain genotype in nature which could be of importance for ecological questions. We found that "DNA fingerprinting" as well as "PCR fingerprinting" are powerful methods for this task although PCR fingerprinting is faster.
A Schlick, K Kuhls, W Meyer, E Lieckfeld, T Börner, K Messner
A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimetric procedure developed for assay of CDDC was verified by comparison to AWPA Standard analytical techniques.
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith
Subterranean termite foraging behaviour and the development of baiting methods used for termite control by the Division of Forest Products
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10058
Given the premise that alternatives to current subterranean termite control measures using organochlorine insecticides and arsenic trioxide have been actively researched by our Division for over ten years, emphasis on baiting methods in controlling these termites has been a major facet of our research. Recently, the new Australian Standard (AS 3660 -1993) was released which outlined the use of physical barriers (Granitgard and Termi-Mesh) as alternatives to soil chemical barriers. However, baiting methods have as yet not been incorporated into the standard. This paper describes the development of baiting techniques in laboratory and field experiments designed over the years to complement, and substitute for, the current soil chemical barrier approach. The goal is to bait or aggregate termites to a point source. In this situation, the termites may be fed bait toxicants that act as slow-acting stomach poisons, or dusted with toxicants that have a similar mode of action. The outcome is to affect colony destruction. Suggestions are offered to indicate the advantages of baiting techniques over soil chemical barriers. Furthermore, such techniques are used to rapidly evaluate potential termiticides and refine future termite control for the pest control industry.
J R J French, J W Creffield, B M Ahmed
Shorter-term biological control of wood decay in pre-seasoning pine roundwood as an alternative to chemical methods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1555
Previous studies on the long-term control of decay in creosoted transmission poles, using Trichoderma and other antagonistic moulds, have met with limited success. However, it is possible biological control is more suited to control of decay on shorter time scales. An earlier study, focusing on pre-seasoning treatment of transmission poles showed that favourable porosity increases could be brought about by an isolate of Trichoderma. Furthermore, it was evident that considerable improvement could be made in developing antagonistic strains of Trichoderma. A study further investigating the use of antagonistic primary mould fungi as biological control agents is outlined.
M W Schoeman, D J Dickinson
Estimating the age of subterranean termite attack and damage in buildings
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10727
This paper describes physical and experimental methods and a mathematical model (Rotramel 2003) to assist in estimating the age of subterranean termite attack and damage to building structures. Timber, building and termite management industries have to develop new strategies to assess and estimate termite attack and damage in the current climate of global warming. A case study will be used as an example of this approach, which is particularly fruitful in producing scientific data together with termite experts’ opinions over many years of termite experimentation in laboratory and field studies. We recommend developing such approach for termite inspections and treatments to be adopted by the architect, building, and termite management industries and their insurers, and be incorporated into Australian Standards and gazetted by the Building Council of Australia. Such an approach will be particularly fruitful to resolve disputes as to who is responsible for the costs of replacement and repair to subterranean termite attack and damage in Australia. Suggestions are offered to determine relative age and identification of individual termite species using other scientific techniques, particularly near-infrared spectroscopy, that would also present immense opportunities for various evolutionary studies on the dynamics of natural populations of termites and their microbial symbionts.
J R J French, B M Ahmed Shiday, J Thorpe
TMT–Interlab–Test to establish suitable quality control techniques - Structure and first results
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40503
As a result of growing quality demands from manufacturers and end-consumers of thermally modified timber (TMT) recent scientific research activities are increasingly focussed on modification mechanisms and by this on the development of suitable quality control methods. To deepen the knowledge in modification mechanisms and to obtain a larger variety of scientific data for TMT depending on the treatment intensity, a worldwide interlaboratory test series with TMT was started with nine research institutions involved, each contributing with their own most appropriate techniques and experiences. Therefore European beech and Norway spruce were thermally modified with different treatment intensities at Leibniz University Hannover and allocated to the involved partners. Basic treatment and material characteristics of the TMT used in the tests are presented in this paper and show that the decrease in mass by thermal modification (dm) is a suitable measure to describe the treatment intensity both for beech and spruce. Furthermore, color values and static mechanical strength properties proved to be highly correlated with dm. Consequently a strength prediction of TMT by color values appears applicable. Furthermore, correlations of dm with other target properties and further indicator measures are promising.
C R Welzbacher
Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb
Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace
Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage
The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer
Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner
Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on.
M S Cavalcante
Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden
Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto
Physical properties of ß-1,4-Xylanase produced by Postia (=Poria) placenta: Implications for the control of brown rot
1987 - IRG/WP 1318
The degradation of hemicelluloses is an early event in wood decay by brown-rot fungi. An understanding of the physical properties of hemicellulases may suggest target mechanisms for the development of new control agents. Endo-b-1,4-xylanase was partially purified by column chromatography from wood decayed by Postia (= Poria) placenta. The enzyme was extremely resistant to denaturing conditions; no loss of activity was detected after 2 h in 9 M urea or 6 M guanidine-HCl. Boiling the enzyme for 5 min in 2.5% SDS + 0.5% b-mercaptoethanol reduced its activity by 65%, as measured by the production of reducing sugars. The activity of a-D-galactosidase, another enzyme detected in large quantities in the decayed wood, was reduced by 98% under these conditions. Optimum pH and temperature ranges were pH 2-6 and 50-60°C, respectively. The enzyme appears to be a glycoprotein containing 50-60% carbohydrate (w/w); the carbohydrate moiety may protect the enzyme from adverse environmental conditions. The control of brown rot by in situ inactivation of xylanase may not be feasible because of the enzyme's extreme stability.
J A Micales, F Green III, C A Clausen, T L Highley
Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French
Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungus cellar and the results will be presented for the following types of biocides: Tebuconazole in combination with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar), quats with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar) and Cu-organic compound combined with copper and boron (3 years fungus cellar). Figures will be shown on the development of the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) over the years and on an assessment of the stakes according to EN 252.
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph
Report and recommendations of the National Termite Workshop held in Melbourne on the 17 April 2002.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10478
There are two parts to this Report. Part One summaries the outcomes of an industry workshop organised to better scope the subterranean termite problem, identify knowledge gaps including R&D gaps and identifying strategies including cost-effective co-ordination mechanisms for addressing the issue. Part Two is a brief review of the current state of knowledge on subterranean termites of economic importance to the wood products industry in Australia.
B M Ahmed, J R J French
Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson