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An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper-chrome-arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3150
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. We have evaluated the influence of steaming on treatability with a waterborne CCA preservative....
C R Coggins


Proposed test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative in seawater
1975 - IRG/WP 411
R A Eaton


X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
H Greaves


A study of salt imbalances observed in recycled copper/chrome/arsenic preservative solutions in commercial practice
1987 - IRG/WP 3461
The study reported monitored tank solutions, sludge and other by-products using a standard CCA solution, when recycled. This recycling of the CCA solution is quite usual in between any commercial treatment schedules. Salt imbalances were observed and the possible reasons for such phenomena were studied. The paper discusses the procedure followed, the method of sampling the liquid after the charge ...
V R Sonti, S Sonti, B Chatterjee


Fungi associated with groundline soft rot decay in copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood utility poles of Malaysian hardwoods
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1567
Copper-chrome-arsenic treated heartwood from Malaysian hardwood utility poles in service for 8-23 y at two localities in the wet tropical Peninsula Malaysia were surveyed for soft rot in the ground-contact region. Soft rot decay was detected in all the poles. Isolation studies indicated the ability of a variety of microfungi and basidiomycetes to colonize treated heartwood. Most isolates exhibited...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, S C Watkinson


Retention and distribution of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) in pressurised sap-displaced UK grown spruce and pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3366
Increment cores were taken from UK grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Ait), Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong) Carr), and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst) distribution poles treated by pressurised sap-displacement using a 1.8% copper, chrome, arsenic (CCA) solution. Each increment core was sectioned radially and the copper, chrome, and arsenic ...
P D Evans, G M Smith, B King


The volatilization of arsenic on burning copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3111
Small scale burning experiments are described involving copper-chrome-arsenic treated wood. Approximately 20 per cent of the arsenic was volatilised when the wood was burned in air but 60 per cent when burned in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere, this increase is attributed to an increase in combustion temperature. Although a small increase in arsenic evolution was found with an increased concentratio...
A-J Dobbs, C Grant


Preliminary study on relation of wood structure to copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) distribution in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40054
Kempas had been treated with copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservative using full cell process. Analysis of preservative distribution at the micro level in relation to wood structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDXA) analysis. The results showed that CCA elements were detected in all wood tissues at different ratios. Distribution of chemical...
S Ani, S Salamah


Sampling variation in a copper chrome arsenic treated power transmission pole
1990 - IRG/WP 2351
The Queensland Forest Service routinely samples poles treated at all treatment plants throughout the State. Each treatment plant is issued with a Certificate of Registration and the accompanying documents list the different levels of preservative retention required for performance in various service conditions. The posted levels represent the.minimum permissible, and it is to these concentrations ...
J Norton


Safe application of copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 377
All wood preservatives contain biologically active substances and must, by design, be in some measure toxic to man. There is nothing fundamentally difficult, however, about using a wood preservative with complete safety. It depends on knowing the risks to health and/or the environment, which the preservative may present, and planning application accordingly. In this paper we examine these and othe...
I N Stalker, P B Cornwell


The influence of soil pH on leaching of CCA elements from pressure-treated Eucalyptus saligna sapwood: environmental implication
2003 - IRG/WP 03-50203
Evidence is accumulating as to poor distribution and fixation of CCA in tropical hardwoods, and there is therefore a necessity to investigate the permanency of CCA in tropical hardwoods. The relationship between soil pH and leaching of Cu, Cr and As from CCA pressure-treated sapwood of Kenyan-grown Eucalyptus saligna was tested under laboratory conditions. Small sapwood samples were pressure-tre...
R Venkatasamy, D N Okwara


Soft rot test of copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood of three Malaysian timbers
1991 - IRG/WP 2381
Standardized heartwood blocks of kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), keruing (Dipterocarpus sp.) and tualang (Koompassia excelsa) were impregnated with 0 to 6.3% (w/v) CCA and challenged to decay by a mixed inocula of Chaetomium globosum, Glenospora graphii, Humicola grisea, Petriella setifera and Trichurus spiralis in a containerized vermiculite-burial decay system according to draft CEN/TC 38 WG 4....
A H H Wong, R-D Peek


An investigation of the effects of pre-steaming on the treatment of sawn spruce timber with Celcure A, a copper/chrome/arsenic preservative
1981 - IRG/WP 3180
Difficulties in the treatment of spruce using standard vacuum/pressure techniques with both water-borne and organic solvent preservatives are well known. The growth characteristics of spruces (Picea spp) make them attractive candidates for forestry schemes. In 1975 the UK Forestry Commission had about 400 000 hectares, about 20% of total UK forest area, planted with Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)...
C R Coggins


Fixation of copper-chrome-arsenic treated timber: A comparison of leaching methodologies
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50075
Five packs of kiln dried radiata pine heartwood were treated with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative treated, utilising a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Two methods of determining the level of preservative fixation were compared. These included the diphenylcarbazide method and simulated rainfall testing. The fixation levels were generally higher for tests involving simulated rain leaching. F...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


The mechanism of leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives from treated timber in saline waters
1976 - IRG/WP 374
A mechanism for the leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives is proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations and experimental studies using timber subjected to a range of water types of different ionic compositions. Complex formation by copper (II) and chromium (III) with chloride and hydroxide ions is shown to affect the leaching rate. Of even greater importance is the salt effect on ...
J Irvine, S-E Dahlgren


Preliminary PIXE micro-analysis of copper-chrome-arsenic preservative treated Malaysian hardwoods
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20169
The novel nuclear microscopy, essentially the Particle-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) system, was applied for examining the macro-distribution and micro-analysis of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservative in Malaysian hardwoods Koompassia malaccensis, K. excelsa, Alstonia spp. and Dipterocarpus spp., and one temperate pinewood Pinus sylvestris, where the preservative retention differed between the...
A H H Wong, R B Pearce, G W Grime, F Watt


Field evaluation of CCA movement in sap-displaced copper chrome arsenic treated softwood poles
1989 - IRG/WP 3539
Commercial sap-displaced UK grown Scots and Corsican pine, and Sitka and Norway spruce poles were exposed in a field site at Dundee, Scotland and radial distribution profiles of CCA monitored prior to implantation and after subsequent field exposure. Results show that groundline levels of all preservative elements were higher after 1 and 2 years field exposure compared with those recorded prior to...
S D Hainey, G M Smith, A Bruce, P D Evans, B King, H J Staines


Leaching of arsenic, copper and chrome from preservative-treated timber in playground equipment
1984 - IRG/WP 3149
Samples were taken from CCA-treated timber in sand play boxes and other play ground equipment. Sand was also sampled. Sand and wood samples were analysed for copper, chrome and arsenic by AAS. About 20-25% of the arsenic had leached from the timber after 2-4 year's exposure in the playgrounds. Very little of the copper and chrome had been leached. Sand collected in the close vicinity of t...
B Henningsson, B Carlsson


Soft rot fungi found in copper/chrome/arsenic treated hardwood power transmission poles in Queensland
1978 - IRG/WP 185
In Queensland the effective service life of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) treated hardwood telegraph and power transmission poles is being dramatically shortened due to attack by soft rot decay fungi. The Australian Wood Preservation and Pole Industries are funding research into this serious soft rot problem involving C.S.I.R.O. and the University of Queensland. The C.S.I.R.O. is actively engaged wi...
L E Leightley


A technical note on the limitations of atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis of copper/chrome/arsenic solutions according to BS 4072 (1974) and BS 5666: Part 3 (1979)
1988 - IRG/WP 2320
British Standards BS 4072 (1974) and BS 5666: Part 3 (1979) detail an atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of copper, chrome and arsenic in both preservative solutions and treated timber. Use of this technique during a research programme at Aberdeen has highlighted some potential inaccuracies with this method if these standard specifications are adhered to...
A J Pendlebury, J A Petty


The growth and metal content of plants grown in soil contaminated by a copper/chrome/arsenic wood preservative
1977 - IRG/WP 3110
Salts of copper, chromium and arsenic are used together in water soluble formulations for the preservation of wood against insect and fungal attack. Copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservatives are of proven efficacy and, used correctly, ensure a useful service life for timber for 30 years or more with little, if any, attendant threat to the environment from the treated wood itself. The preservative ...
C Grant, A J Dobbs


Leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic treated timber: Simulated rainfall testing
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50074
Six kiln dried radiata pine sapwood packs of timber were preservative treated with copper-chrome-arsenic preservative using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. The packs were then subjected to simulated rain leaching at specified periods after treatment. Higher chromium leachate was obtained when higher volumes of simulated rainfall were applied. Lower chromium leachate was obtained for timber ...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Microwave modification of Yellow Stringybark (Eucalyptus Muelleriana) posts for impregnation with Copper-Chrom-Arsenic (CCA) preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40185
Yellow Stringybark posts with diameters ranging from 60-100 mm were microwave conditioned using a 60 kW microwave (MW) generator. A substantial improvement in heartwood penetration of preservatives and relaxation of growth stresses was indicated such that there was no split formation following drying of the posts. High preservative absorption of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) was achieved ranging fro...
G Torgovnikov, P Vinden


Soft rot test of copper/chrome/arsenic treated heartwood of three Malaysian timbers by the vermiculite-burial method. (+ correction document of 25 July 1990)
1990 - IRG/WP 2354
Heartwood of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated kempas (Koompassia malaccensis), tualang (Koompassia excelsa) and keruing (Dipterocarpus spec.) was found to be susceptible to soft rot in recent pole surveys. Standardized heartwood blocks were impregnated with 0 to 6.3% (w/v) CCA and challenged to decay for twelve weeks by a mixed inocula of Chaetomium globosum, Glenospora graphii, Humicula grisea...
R-D Peek, A H H Wong


The effect of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) treated timber on soil fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 1131
The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of CCA treated wood on the microflora of soil with particular reference to copper tolerant soft rot fungi. The IRG collaborative field experiment was designed to monitor the performance of a range of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot in CCA treated timber (Dickinson 1976) and site 33 of this experiment was use...
R J Murphy, D J Dickinson


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