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Electrodialytic remediation of creosote and CCA treated timber wastes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50190
There is a growing concern about the environmental issue of impregnated timber waste management, since an increase in the amount of waste of treated wood is expected over the next decades. Presently, no well-documented treatment technique is yet available for this type of waste. Alternative options concerning the disposal of treated wood are becoming more attractive to study, especially the ones ...
E P Mateus, A B Ribeiro, L Ottosen


Report of meetings of remedial treatments Sub-group held in Madrid, Spain during 27-28 April 1988
1988 - IRG/WP 3502
J N R Ruddick


The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. A...
S I M Moein


Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated ...
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins


Marine performance of preservative treated Southern pine panels. Part 2: Exposure at Mourilyan Harbour, Queensland, Australia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10337
Southern yellow pine panels treated with ACQ type B, ACQ type A, CCA type C, creosote, and copper naphthenate have been exposed at Mourilyan Harbour, north Queensland, Australia for almost 6 years. These panels have been inspected and rated for fouling and attack by Teredinid, Limnoria, Martesia, and Sphaeroma during this exposure. After 70 months exposure, overall performance of ACQ type B was eq...
A R Zahora, A F Preston, K J Archer, S Kleinschmidt


A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Wood Preservatives Science Issues: US EPA’s Perspective
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-2
The USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), Antimicrobials Division (AD), regulates the use of chemicals registered as wood preservatives in the United States. An overview of the registration and re-registration process is presented. The wood preservatives data requirements include toxicological, human exposure, ecological, and environmental fate data. A detailed discussion of wood preservati...
N Elkassabany


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to m...
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. A final report after 60 months' testing
1989 - IRG/WP 3534
Remedial treatment of CCA treated utility poles of Pinus sylvestris with incipient decay was carried out in 1983 and the results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3388 while microbiological studies 12 and 28 months after treatment as well as chemical analyses of poles treated with boron rods or boric acid paste 28 months after tr...
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Performance of preservative-treated timber against biodeterioration in Indian waters
1984 - IRG/WP 4106
Results on the investigation on the durability of panels of 32 timber species, pressure-treated with various preservatives and exposed along the Indian coast for varying periods upto a maximum of 15 years, are summarised. Panels of even non-durable timber gave excellent results against biodeterioration after treatment. Their life was comparable to that of treated durable timber. The preservative t...
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain, M C Tewari


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. A progress report after 28 months' testing
1988 - IRG/WP 3481
Remedial treatments of CCA-treated poles in service with incipient soft rot were carried out with boron rods, boron/glycol solution, boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste and a commercial product (DFCK paste) respectively. The micro-flora before remedial treatment and 6 months after as well as the spread of chemicals in the poles were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3388. In this progress report...
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Fouling organisms as indicators of the environmental impact of marine preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50063
This study evaluates the use of fouling organisms (epibiota) to assess the environmental impact of preservative treated wood. This paper presents initial findings from treated panels exposed for 6 months at Sagres, Algarve, Portugal. Panels were treated with CCA, two copper-containing quaternary ammonium (ACQ) formulations and creosote, with nominal retentions from 10 to 40 kg/m³ (creosote 25 pcf...
R M Albuquerque, S M Cragg


Marine performance of preservative treated Southern pine panels. - Part 1: Exposure in Newport, Oregon
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10368
The ability of selected wood preservative to protect southern pine sapwood against marine borer attack was evaluated over a 6 year period in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. The site exposed the wood to potential attack by both Teredo navalis and Limnoria spp. Both creosote and CCA provided excellent protection at moderate retentions, while ACQ produced slight differences in performance depending on the coppe...
R G Rhatigan, J J Morrell, A R Zahora


Effect of test site location on in-ground preservative performance after 6 years
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20231
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 4.1 kg/m3 of CCA and Fagus sylvatica with 6.1 kg/m3 of CCA. Both wood species were also treated with a copper plus triazole preservative (3 kg/m3 of copper) and chlorothalonil plus chlorpyriphos in oil (4.8 kg/m3 chlorothalonil). Furthermore, P. radiata was treated with ammoniacal copper plus a quaternary ammonium compound (2.6 kg/m3 copper) and a 60/40 ...
R N Wakeling


Microwave modification of Yellow Stringybark (Eucalyptus Muelleriana) posts for impregnation with Copper-Chrom-Arsenic (CCA) preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40185
Yellow Stringybark posts with diameters ranging from 60-100 mm were microwave conditioned using a 60 kW microwave (MW) generator. A substantial improvement in heartwood penetration of preservatives and relaxation of growth stresses was indicated such that there was no split formation following drying of the posts. High preservative absorption of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) was achieved ranging fro...
G Torgovnikov, P Vinden


Is Field Test Data from 20 x 20mm Stakes Reliable? Effects of Decay Hazard, Decay Type and Preservative Depletion Hazard
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20327
Effects of decay hazard, decay type and preservative depletion hazard on the performance of variously preservative treated 20 x 20 x 500 mm Radiata pine and Fagus sylvatica test stakes across 13 field test sites in New Zealand and Queensland Australia were determined. Radiata pine treated with an ammoniacal copper quaternary preservative (ACQ) (1.56% m/m a.i.) and copper chrome arsenate (CCA) (...
R Wakeling


40 year results from the largest preservative in-ground stake trial conducted in Australia
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30624
The final results from Australia’s largest preservative in-ground stake trial are listed. There were eight test sites, six in Australia and two in Papua New Guinea. The preservatives tested include low and high temperature creosotes, PCP and various water-borne preservatives including CCA and copper chromate. The main timbers examined were sawn Pinus radiata sapwood, sawn Eucalyptus regnans hear...
L J Cookson


Recycling of used railroad ties via two-staged pyrolysis for fractionation of wood preservatives and bio-oil: pyrolytic characterization by TGA and Py-GC/MS
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50311
Creosote and copper naphthenate (CuNap) (in an oil carrier) treated railroad tie materials (crossties or sleepers) were initially heat-treated at 200 – 300 oC and subsequently pyrolyzed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to recover wood preservatives and produce a higher quality bio-oil. Preservative-desorptive temperatures at 200 a...
Pyoungchung Kim, J Lloyd, Jae-Woo Kim, N Labbe


Treatability of beechwood railway sleepers with potential creosote substitutes
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40790
Maintenance of an efficient railway infrastructure still requires the use of wooden railway sleepers, particularly because wooden sleepers have more favourable properties for intensified vibrations than concrete or steel sleepers. Creosote, used for decades for the impregnation of railway sleepers, will possibly no longer be available for this application due to European legislation. This reveals ...
N Pfabigan, E Habla, R Gründlinger


Dual Borate and Copper Naphthenate Treatment of Bridge Timbers:- Potential Performance Enhancements and Cost Savings
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40797
Dual treatment technology combining diffusible preservatives with oil borne preservatives, widely used for crossties in the USA, has now also been commercialized with bridge ties/timbers. In order to understand the implications of these changes, the historic service life of creosote treated bridge timbers in northern and southeastern USA were considered as well as field test data for both creosote...
J Lloyd, C Brischke, R Bennett, A Taylor


COPPER NAPHTHENATE: A Product for All Seasons: Protecting the Americas’ Infrastructure for Over 100 Years and Potential for Expanded Usage in Europe
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30738
This paper is a brief review of the history and use of the wood preservative Copper Naphthenate, with a focus on use patterns within the USA and opportunities for expansion in Europe and Canada. This paper reviews how copper naphthenate has performed to preserve and protect cellulosic and wooden items essential to critical infrastructure, and why it is the ideal choice for use in the replacement o...
M H Freeman, J A Brient, M Manning


Economic and Alternative Preservative Research with an Overview of its Impact on the Dynamics of Wood Tie Markets and Railroads
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30751
This presentation will discuss the Railway Tie Association’s (RTA) efforts in economic research for the North American wood tie industry, along with decades-long research into improving wood preservation processes and its resulting economic impact for railroads. Ongoing research is continuing to expand the knowledge-base by comparing existing standard creosote (C) and borate-creosote (B-C) dual...
J C Gauntt


Field trial with poles of Scots pine treated with six different creosotes
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30115
In the middle of the 50's field trials with creosote-treated poles were started in France, Germany and Sweden. The trials were initiated by WEI (Western-European Institute for Wood Preservation). Six different creosotes were used and 40 poles per creosote were installed at each test field. Results after 39 years of exposure in Simlangsdalen, Sweden are reported. Poles treated with a heavy...
Ö Bergman


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons ...
B R Richards, D A Webb


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


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