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A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira


Wood preservation in the USA
1982 - IRG/WP 3215
This report is a comprehensive survey of the status of the wood preservation field in the U.S.A. at the start of the 1980s. The importance of wood preservation is discussed and its industry described. Various statistics and analyses regarding the use of treated wood have been compiled. Both pressure and non-pressure applications have been covered, as well as remedial treatments and pest control operations. A list of American organizations concerned with wood preservation have been included, together with the various research laboratories which are studying the biodeterioration of wood and its protection. Information is given on the standards and specifications which are in current use. The report, which is fully referenced, ends by suggesting possible future trends for wood preservation in the U.S.A.
D D Nicholas, R Cockcroft


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced European timber, wood-based fibre, and recycled raw materials. The action will seek to optimize methods for testing and characterizing durability performance against physical as well as biological factors. This will exploit relevant selected results from specific aspects of the preceding COST Action E22 on “Environmental optimization of wood protection” and in the EU thematic network for wood modification. It will also exploit specific achievements from COST Action E18 “High performance in wood coating”.
R-D Peek


LCA applied for wooden products
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50059
This paper presents some of the international developments within ISO and SETAC to standardize and harmonize LCA methodologies. In this framework it is also important to be aware of the problems that companies have to generate and validate data for the complete product chain from cradle to grave. This concerns problems in nomenclature of substances and processes, system boundaries, allocation problems, etc.
A Kloppenburg, A Van Dam


HCB - a new preservative combination for wood pole maintenance
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30122
New combination of heavy creosoted boron (HCB) applied on hardwood and softwood logs at different moisture content revealed successful diffusion of boron in all sapwoods within 7 days and in all sapwoods plus hardwoods within 15 days. The new cost effective paste sterilizes wood through diffusion and suitable for pole maintenance at groundline and above groundline e.g. cut ends, drilled holes, woodpecker's holes etc.
A K Lahiry


Economical analysis of the chemicals used on remediation copper, chromium and arsenic from out of service CCA-treated utility poles in Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50217
There are 20.7 million hectare forested area in Turkey. However, the wood products supplies do not meet demand. One of the wooden products is the utility poles. In Turkey, impregnation of utility poles has been started since 1960's and 5 million utility poles have been used until today since then. Although life time of the utility poles may vary depending on climatic conditions, average service time of utility poles used in Turkey is about 25 years. Therefore, it is estimated that each year 200.000 m3 utility poles are out-of-service and they need to be replaced. In recent years, because of the unwanted effects of out-of-service CCA treated utility poles either during their storage or being recycled, there is a urgent needs to find a way removing Copper, Chrome and Arsenic from out-of-service CCA treated utility poles. For this purpose, many scientists have been studying on remediation of CCA treated wood. In this study, oleic acid, chromotropic acid and citric acid were used to remove Cu, Cr and Ar from CCA treated wood samples. The objective of this study is to determine the chemical that provides the maximum Cu, Cr and Ar removal from CCA treated wood as well as the cost effective one.
E D Gezer, D Toksoy, Ü C Yildiz


Preservative treatment of different thatching materials for low cost housing
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40144
Preservative treatment were made in seven different roofing materials with Copper-Chrome-Boron (CCB) at different concentration by soaking process. These were paddy straw, wheat straw, jute stick, sungrass, ulu grass, sugercane leaf and Nipa fruticans. It was observed that retention of preservative chemicals varies from species to species at the same concentration. From the service test it was observed that by using low concentrated solution at minimum immersion period, durability of the thatching materials can increased which is economically acceptable and enviromnental pollution is also minimized.
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury


A new approach to the maintenance of wooden railway sleepers. (Final Report)
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3724
The micro-environment of wooden railway sleepers was investigated to assess their condition, to determine the necessary treatment, repair and replacement criteria. In the final report the secondary preservative treatment of wooden sleepers with solid boron rods is discussed; the complete development of an in-situ, non-destructive test method based on structural dynamics analysis is described. The maintenance of wooden sleepers using these techniques and the resulting cost benefits within the railway industry are also discussed.
W Beauford, A M Brown, D J Dickinson


Information from the COIPM wood group. (With Appendix: Préserver les matériaux en milieu marin sauvegarder l'environment marin telles sont la vocation et la mission du C.O.I.P.M.)
1989 - IRG/WP 4156
During the last COIPM Meeting, up to date information on cooperative work to test the resistance of plastic wrapping for pilings were submitted and discussed. In 1986 untreated wood samples wrapped with shrinkable polyolefin sleeves were submerged in 9 stations, situated in temperate and tropical waters. After 1 or 2 years of immersion the samples showed no sign of penetration by marine borers and the surface of wraps was intact. The samples showed moderate to extensive fouling on their surface The control samples in Mediterranean Sea were destroyed within a year. The degree of attack by marine borers and the characteristics of the sites (temperature, salinity, pH) are reported in Tab.1. A study on the biodegradation of waterlogged archeological woods from a 2,500 year old shipwrech was presented. The shipwrech, probably a Greek merchant boat, was detected many years ago near the Isola del Giglio in Tyrrhenian Sea and partly brouht up. The wood samples recovered belong to the ship-planking and to some tools and instrumets, even musical instruments such as flutes. The woods show a severe marine borer attack. At the moment the wood specimens are preserved in water with a fungicide solution. The various decay patterns of the cell wall were illustrated by photos and dias. This study is carried out by Wood Institute of Florence in collaboration with the Archaeological Museum and includes the identification of wood species (three sofwoods and ten hardwoods), their biodegradation and the conservation treatments. A classification on the wood natural resistance against marine borers in Mediterranean Sea and in temperate waters was discussed. This classification was prepared by the Chairman for the Working Group 2 "Natural durability" of CEN/TC 38.
A Gambetta


The use of low cost X-ray fluorescence instruments in the determination of copper chromium and arsenic in preservative treated wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2278
Internal quality control in timber treatment plants can be pursued by analysis of preservative treatment solutions and treated timber. Treaters must proceed with costly and lengthy analyses through analytical laboratories. An alternative approach for the timber treater, is to use low cost analysers (L.C.A.'s) based upon x-ray fluorescence. Detailed comparisons have been made between standard methods (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) and L.C.A.'s for the analysis of CCA treated timber. Results indicated that no difference was found between different formulations. One L.C.A. tested provided more consistent results than those generated by standard methods. Average results provided by the L.C.A.'s were both higher and lower than standard methods. This finding may be related to the retention of preservative being tested. The results indicate that L.C.A.'s promise to be extremely useful to the timber treatment industry.
J Norton, L E Leightley


COST Action E31: Management of Recovered Wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-26
The COST (European Co-operation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research) Action E31 (2002 to 2006) is a multi-disciplinary forum for the exchange of information on “Management of Recovered Wood” with the main objective to improve the European management of recovered wood towards a higher common technical, economic and environmental standard. Researchers of 20 European countries – Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom - are involved in the Action, which is subdivided in 2 Working Groups: 1) European management of recovered wood: analyse the current systems of wood recovery in Europe, i.e. technical and legal aspects, environmental impacts, recovered wood potential 2) Treatment options for recovered wood: Analysis of different current and future treatment options for recovered wood based on technical, economic and environmental criteria The Purpose of COST Action E31 “Management of Recovered Wood” is: - analysis of management approaches for recovered wood in European countries - examine potentials of recovered wood as secondary raw materials and energy sources - improvement of databases on technical, economical and ecological information - identify promising approaches for implementation of advanced management systems The scientific innovation and relevance is: - development of new guidelines for the management of recovered wood - improvement to evaluate existing and possible new treatment options for wood recovery - improvement of the methods to assess the use of recovered wood in new products - investigation to further increase the use of wood recovered as a secondary material - development of methods to improve the data collection. Results and conclusions are: - bring together a multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural ‘team’ - establish a European forum for the management of recovered wood - give a comprehensive overview of the different management options for recovered wood - advance the methodology for environmental, technical and economical evaluation - develop tools for the comparison of different management options for recovered wood Next events are: • Joint workshop “Greenhouse Gas Aspects of Biomass Cascading - Reuse, Recycling and Energy Generation” with IEA Task 38 “Greenhouse Gas Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems” 25 April in Dublin • 2nd COST Action E31 Conference “Management of Recovered Wood –Strategies Towards a Higher Technical, Economic and Environmental Standard in Europe” in Bordeaux 30 September to 1 October 2005 Further information is available on http://www.ctib-tchn.be/coste31
G Jungmeier, B Hillring, A Frühwald, M Humar


COST Action E37. Sustainability Through New Technologies For Enhanced Wood Durability -
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40417
The main overall objective of the Action was to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability to sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and performance classification of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeked to improve and consequently to increase the cost-effective use of components manufactured from sustainably produced European timber, wood-based fibre, and recycled raw materials. The Action seeked to optimise methods for testing and characterising durability performance against physical as well as biological factors.
R-D Peek, J Van Acker


Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20535
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consists of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. When comparing EN 84 preconditioning (two weeks water leaching) with natural preconditioning (1 year in field, above ground) according to CEN/TS 15397, no significant difference could be noted for untreated controls, thermally modified wood or CCA impregnated wood. However, for wood treated with a metal-free organic preservative, a clear difference could be seen where much of the efficacy seen after EN 84 preconditioning is lost when natural preconditioning is used instead. In the field tests, the control pine performs similar in all fields whereas both thermally modified and preservative treated wood performs much better in the Nordic fields than in the Mid- and Southern European fields. The thermally modified wood performs almost as poor as the controls in the Southern European fields, whereas the organic preservative treated wood performs well in these fields. In the six Mid-European fields, the organic preservative treated and thermally modified wood performs equally poor but much better than the controls. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, B Mazela, E Melcher, R Möller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


COST Action FP0904 – Increasing the Understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Wood Behaviour and Processing
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40646
The polymeric components of wood and its porous structure allow its properties to be modified under the combined effects of temperature, moisture and mechanical action – so-called Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) treatments. Various types of processing techniques, including high temperature steam with or without an applied mechanical force, can be utilised to enhance wood properties, to produce eco-friendly new materials and to develop new products. During these THM treatments, wood undergoes mechano-chemical transformations, which depend upon the processing parameters and material properties. An investigation of these phenomena requires collaboration between groups from different wood disciplines; however, to date research has been rather fragmented. COST Action FP0904, which started in 2010 and runs until 2014 aims to apply promising techniques in the fields of wood mechanics, wood chemistry and material sciences through an interdisciplinary approach to improve knowledge about the chemical degradation and mechanical behaviour of wood during THM processing. This will help overcome the challenges being faced in scaling-up research findings, as well to improving full industrial production, process improvement and the enhancement of product properties and the development of new products.
D Jones, P Navi


Cost effective extension of service life of bridge tie (sleepers) - Effectively applying borate during Boulton conditioning and treatment with copper naphthenate
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30637
Current longevity of creosote treated wooden bridge ties in the South Eastern US is about 15 to 25 years, which is well below of the average service life of 33-50 years of railroad ties. Such short service life increases costs associated with maintenance of railroads including bridge down time for tie replacement as well as the cost for the new ties themselves. Because of this, many railroads are seeking non-wood alternative ties, even at vastly elevated initial cost. The objective of the study was to see if it is possible to apply borate as part of a dual treatment with copper naphthenate, in order to increase the service life of wooden bridge timbers at minimal additional cost. Green hardwood ties were ported, borate treated, and then Boulton treated with copper naphthenate at a commercial tie treatment plant in Pennsylvania. Diffusion of borate within the wood appeared to be significantly enhanced by the elevated temperature and steam generated during the Boulton cycle and subsequent pressure treatment with copper naphthenate. The achieved retention and penetration of borate and copper naphthenate met AWPA standard retentions and AREMA guidelines. The longevity of ties should be significantly increased by protecting the heartwood with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) and the sapwood with copper naphthenate. The results suggested that hardwood ties can be successfully treated with borate during a Boulton cycle and should allow the continued effective use of sustainable wooden bridge timbers.
J D Lloyd, T Chambers, J-W Kim


Bamboo: A poor man’s timber
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10852
Bamboo, known as poor man’s timber in the past gained some importance in the last decade when TIFAC under Department of Science & Technology and Ministry of Agriculture awoke to find a better future for this unique gift of nature. Until then it was considered a good for nothing grass suitable only for making paper and building effigies of Ravan, Kumbhkaran and Meghnath year after year at Dussehra festival. Bamboos played a vital role in rural and tribal areas, where modern materials like bricks, steel, and cement were not available/(affordable). No wonder Late Dr. A. Purushotham accepted the Challenge and undertook pioneering research on treatment of bamboo for improving its durability and enhancing fire resistance to enable poor villagers and tribes residing in remote areas build durable hutments. He erected several structures using bamboo and mud during 1950s, some of which are surviving even today without much maintenance. These results were highlighted during several presentations in seminars/ workshops organized under Indra Awaas Yojna of the Govt. of India but found no response despite the fact that this was the only available technology which could fit into the budget of this mass housing scheme in rural and tribal areas. Today we find bamboo in its new Avtaar. The credit for this goes to National Mission for Bamboo Applications (NMBA) under TIFAC. NMBA made good initial efforts to promote preservative treatment of Bamboo by providing soft loans/grant-in-aid to several bamboo processors around the country. The initial enthusiasm however proved to an air bubble and focus changed to high end products with the change in top profile of NMBA. Many building products like Medium Density Fiber boards, Flooring tiles, Bamboo ply, Corrugated roofing sheets (to name a few) have been developed. Whereas properly treated solid or split bamboo has no equal, bamboo composites have yet to establish there reliability for durability and integrity. In a country, where wood based composites are faring so badly, it will be doubtful if bamboo based composites costing more than their wood based counterparts would perform any better. Our Architects and Engineers have little exposure to wood/bamboo as a building material in their academic pursuit. We really do not have any Timber Engineer in the country and even research in Timber Engineering in FRI is limping. Nevertheless a number of elegant structures coming up around the country prove high versatility of bamboo as a material. Will they match the elegance of our poor bamboo hut smiling in FRI Wood Preservation Plant premises? Certainly not! If bamboo composites become a hit, there will be a bamboo shortage hiking its price so that no bamboo will be available at economical costs to even bamboo handicraft units taking away employment of many poor bamboo processors in small scale and tiny sectors. To upgrade bamboo to meet potential of higher end use, we must ensure supply by raising more plantations.
S Kumar


Introduction of the COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20567
COST Action FP 1303 “Performance of bio-based building materials” successfully started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for the four year programme. COST Actions provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative research, e.g. in the frame of Round Robin tests. The idea of this respective test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as possible in order to collect performance data reflecting the range of climatic exposure conditions. Furthermore we wanted to consider performance in its manifold meaning, i.e. optical, aesthetical, moisture and functional performance and durability. In contrast to traditional Round Robin tests aiming on comparative evaluation and validation of results from different test laboratories, this initiative aims on collecting performance data under climatically different exposure conditions. Therefore it was required to provide weather data from the respective test sites to allow establishing relationships between climate conditions and the following measured, which shall be evaluated regularly: decay, discolouration, development of mould and other staining fungi, corrosion, formation of cracks and moisture performance (if data logging device is included). Further details about the test and the first outcomes are presented in this paper.
M Humar, C Brischke, L Meyer, B Lesar, N Thaler, D Jones, S Bardage, C Belloncle, J Van den Bulcke, J M Abascal, G Alfredsen, D Baisch, B Brunnhuber, G Cofta, E Grodås, E Frühwald Hansson, M Irle, H Kallakas, J Kers, M Klamer, P Larsson Brelid, A B Maider, K C Mahnert, E Melcher, R Möller, M Noël, L Nunes, G A Ormondroyd, S Palanti, N Pfabigan, A Pilgård, A O Rapp, P Schumacher, E Suttie, T Teppand, M Touza, J Van Acker


Performance of bio-based building materials – viewpoints from the first year of COST Action FP1303
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20572
Maintaining and expanding the market potential for bio-based building products in indoor and outdoor construction uses remains a key activity for industries in the forestry and biotechnological sector, particularly in Europe. Whilst there are ongoing activities within IRG for collecting and populating a database on performance on wood, the performance data for many other (i.e. non-wood) "environmental friendly" building materials are lacking as well as suitable comprehensive test methodologies to determine their resistance against mould, stain, and decay. The similarity in terms of decay hazard, resulting response on climatic loads and thus performance of different bio-based building materials has not yet been recognised adequately, and in order to overcome this problem within Europe, COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) established the Action FP1303 entitled “Performance of biobased building materials”, which from 2013-2017 will provide a platform for networking and scientific exchange between different disciplines, such as material sciences, wood technology, biology, biotechnology, building physics and engineering. Through the activities in this Action, there will be a coordinated effort to put the issue of biodegradability of organic building products on the agenda, combined with consumer demands and preferences. These will help define service life prediction and performance models, will consider aesthetical aspects as well as the functionality of building assemblies. These will ultimately contribute to the control and prevention of any imminent threat to use bio-based building materials, which in turn could severely damage a pan-European low carbon building agenda. This paper outlines some of the activities undertaken within the first year of the Action, and describes some of the planned activities in the coming years.
D Jones


Wood Protection and Environmental Performance of Products - Impacts COST Action FP1407 Aims to Bring
2016 - IRG/WP 16-50323
Though many aspects of wood modification (chemical, thermal, impregnation) treatments are known, the fundamental influence of the process on product performance, the environment, and end of life scenarios remain unknown. To contribute to the low-carbon economy and sustainable development, it is essential to integrate interactive assessment of process parameters, developed product properties, and environmental impacts. Therefore, a group of researchers joint in a COST Action FP1407 “Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific and environmental impact approach”. The main objective of the Action FP1407 is to characterize the relationship between wood modification processing, product properties, and the associated environmental impacts in order to maximize sustainability and minimize environmental impacts. The Action aims to provide the critical mass of Europe-wide knowledge needed to achieve the future developments in the field. The networking, multi-disciplinary, exchange of knowledge, and scientific excellence, as well as the expertise of industrial members, will enable comprehensive research and development of modification processing and products design with emphasis on their environmental impacts. This paper will briefly introduce the mechanism COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) and the key research areas, work plan and secondary objectives of this Action FP1407 with the focus on environmental impact assessments. The life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental product declarations (EPDs) are introduced with examples of LCA studies of wood products. The paper concludes with discussion about the impacts of the Action FP1407 in the field of environmental performance of wood products.
A Kutnar


10 year Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30718
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consisted of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. The laboratory test results were reported in an earlier IRG paper (IRG/WP13-20535) but are included also in this paper in order to facilitate the comparison with the field test results. As expected, the decay generally developed more rapidly at the southern European compared to the northern European field sites. However, the rank order of the different test groups concerning average decay ratings were the same for most field sites – Untreated pine sapwood controls had the highest decay ratings followed by TMT-UC2 (Thermally Modified Timber treated for use class 2 application), TMT-UC3, metal-free organic preservative in low retention, metal-free organic preservative in high retention, CCA in medium retention, and finally CCA in high retention that had very low decay ratings. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397. When evaluating the test methods it was clear that CEN/TS 15397 before the EN 113 test in laboratory seems to give far more relevant results than EN 113 after preconditioning according to EN 84 (water leaching for 2 weeks). The double layer field test does not function the way it was meant after failure ratings were reached for one or more stakes within a test group leading to collapse of the deck. This has occurred not only at the Southern European field sites but also in some cases for mid-European and Nordic test sites. After this type of collapse has been reached it is doubtful whether there is any point with continuing the test and therefore the test has now been terminated in some fields.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, E Melcher, R Moeller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


COST FP 1303 Cooperative Performance Test – Results after two years outdoor exposure
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20620
COST Action FP 1303 ‘Performance of Bio-Based Building Materials’ started in October 2013 and an ambitious program was set up for four years. Among this a collaborative field test was planned. The idea of the cooperative performance test was to distribute a fairly simple test set up to as many places in Europe as possible in order to collect performance data reflecting the full range of climatic exposure conditions within the COST zone. Performance tables were exposed on 15th September 2014 at 27 different locations around Europe. A folding table with boards consisting of three different materials (i.e. Norway spruce, English oak and thermally modified spruce) was shipped as ready-to-use test object. Significant colour changes and growth of blue staining fungi were found after two years of outdoor exposure. Also first signs of decay occurred on Norway spruce samples exposed in Hamburg, Germany.
B Lesar, M Humar, C Brischke, L Meyer-Veltrup, D Jones, N Thaler, J M Abascal, G Alfredsen, B Brunnhuber, E Grodås, M Irle, J Kers, M Klamer, K-C Mahnert, E Melcher, S Palanti, M Noël, E Suttie, N Pfabigan, M Touza


Dual Borate and Copper Naphthenate Treatment of Bridge Timbers:- Potential Performance Enhancements and Cost Savings
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40797
Dual treatment technology combining diffusible preservatives with oil borne preservatives, widely used for crossties in the USA, has now also been commercialized with bridge ties/timbers. In order to understand the implications of these changes, the historic service life of creosote treated bridge timbers in northern and southeastern USA were considered as well as field test data for both creosote and copper naphthenate. These were used to estimate potential future service life. Estimates on life expectancy with added borates were also made from published data on performance. Cost benefit analysis based on creosote and copper naphthenate costs as well as assumptions made from field test efficacy data suggest cost savings of up to $20 per timber per year of additional service. Service life extension and the resulting cost savings could be achieved in a number of ways: change preservative from creosote to copper naphthenate; increase active ingredient retention; and/or add dual treatment protection. A preservative change from creosote to copper napthenate would be the simplest and lowest cost way of increasing service life of bridge timbers, with potential savings to both treater and railroad. An increase in copper retention could also give significant life extension, could be carried out at little additional cost and without increasing bleeding. The addition of borate to protect the heartwood also provides significant assumed increase bridge tie life, and can be used with either creosote or copper naphthenate treatments.
J Lloyd, C Brischke, R Bennett, A Taylor


Developments within COST Action FP1303 related to the modification of wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40847
COST Action FP 1303 (Performance of bio-based building materials) was established in 2013 with the main aim to improve the knowledge on the performance of bio-based materials used as building products and the assessment of factors influencing these, with the aim of increasing their service life. This Action has helped in understanding the interlinked relationships between durability, product aesthetics, fibre-moisture relationships, decay hazards and achieving a better understanding of the biology and mechanisms influencing the growth of fungi and other degrading organisms and the consequent damage in terms of discoloration and decay of wood and bio-based building materials with building design and maintenance. Within this COST Action performance is considered in its manifold meaning, i.e. optical, aesthetical, moisture and functional performance and durability. Numerous studies into the performance of modified wood was presented by researchers during the 4-year duration of the Action, and this paper aims to provide an overview of some of the work presented by the more than 260 scientists that took part in the Action activities.
D Jones