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Spruce lumber treatments with ammoniacal solutions of inorganic preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 391
As a part of our work in the Wood Preservation group at the Eastern Forest Products Laboratory in Ottawa to facilitate exploitation of spruce, which is a large timber resource in Canada, we have been studying the treatability of spruce roundwood. A report on this subject was presented to this group last year. More recently, another commodity - spruce timber - has been rapidly gaining the interest of wood treaters, mainly because of its potential use in permanent wooden foundations. We identified this trend and extended our research work to the treatability of spruce lumber.
R Rak

Marine trials with ammoniacal wood preservatives
1980 - IRG/WP 423
Ammoniacal wood preservatives have been known for many years and are considered among the best water-borne systems for protecting wood in ground contact. In recent years attention has been increasingly focussed on these preservatives because of their ability to penetrate difficult-to-treat species better than most other fixed water-borne preservatives. This is particularly important for example, in eastern Canada, where there is an abundance of spruce and a relative shortage of easily treated woods such as pine. Besides being able to readily penetrate wood, the preservative must also be well fixed in the wood. We have concentrated in recent years on improving the already good fixation of ammoniacal copper arsenate and have paid particular attention to increasing the ratio of copper ions to arsenic ions, adding extra anions, and also substituting all or part of the copper by zinc. The preservatives thus formulated are termed copper arsenic additive (CAA), copper zinc arsenic additive (CZAA) and zinc arsenic additive (ZAA). Many of the properties of these preservatives have been reported elsewhere (Hulme, 1979). However, no reports have yet been prepared on their ability to protect wood in sea water. This first progress report indicates how well these preservatives protect wood against marine borer attack in Canadian coastal waters for at least 8 months.
M A Hulme, D P Ostaff