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Creosote immersion treatments in fence-posts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis
1988 - IRG/WP 3488
The method of soaking in creosote was applied to fenceposts of Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis, taking into account its easy use in the field. Absorption, retention and penetration rates were recorded and analysed. Absorption rates were higher in Pinus nigra than in Pinus halepensis, and lowest in Castanea sativa. Thin fence-posts always absorbed more preservative than thick ones. Penetration rates were similar in both pines, and much higher than in Castanea sativa. Retention levels were almost the same in Pinus nigra and Castanea sativa, and lower in Pinus halepensis.
C De Arana Moncada

Improvement of wood decay resistance by tannin impregnation
1991 - IRG/WP 2380
The fungical effect of tannins is appraised after exposure of treated woods samples to wood rotting fungi. A screening-test is carried out with several solutions containing extracts of two kinds of tannins; a condensed tannin derived from Quebracho heartwood (Schinopsis sp.) and a hydrolyzable one extracted from chestnut heartwood (Castanea sativa Mill). If a fungicidal action was indeed found it is not sufficient to offer an alternative to classical chemical preservatives. However, it will be interesting in the future, to use their ability to form insoluble complexes with metal ions to fix within the wood fungicides like copper otherwise easily leached.
D Dirol, A Scalbert

Improvement in dimensional stability against water of the main Spanish timbers impregnated with water repellent organic protectors
1988 - IRG/WP 3468
The study reported the increase of dimensional stability against water of the main Spanish timbers, both broadleaved and coniferous, after impregnation in the autoclave with organic protector, with contains 33.3% water repellent waxes and resins. The proposed Spanish standard, U.N.E. n° 56541 is used, where dimensional stability of the impregnated wood is expressed as a% of that of the non-impregnated wood. Account is taken of the effects of lamination on dimensional stability, cold resorcin glues bring used for lamination. A series of curves representing swelling againts immersion time were thus obtaines, as well as the dimensional stability value for each species. The highest values were achieved with coniferous laminated and the lowest with non-laminated broadleaved timbers (Dimensional stability).
J A Rodríguez Barreal

Main problems of Turkish wooden boat manufacturers
1982 - IRG/WP 485
The best transportation system to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey has been since the earliest history sea transportation. As is well known the historical 'silk road' from Europe to the Far East and China was over the Black Sea and via Trabzon. During the last five years also this same connecting route has become very important for the transportation of food and industrial products from the West to the Middle East. Two other factors that are influencing the building of boats in this region are the local rich forest resources and fishing facilities. It can be pointed out that 80% of the Turkish sea food is produced in the Black Sea region, which amounts to 380,000 tons per year. Therefore the main purpose of boat building in this area can be attributed to the needs of the fishing industry
R Ilhan

Hot and cold treatment in fence posts of Eucalyptus globulus, Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster
1988 - IRG/WP 3489
An analysis is made of the treatment of fence-posts of Eucalyptus globulus, Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster by hot and cold immersion in creosote. The temperatures of the different treatments were 60, 70 and 90°C. The posts were heated for one hour and then allowed to cool for 21 hours 30 min., and finally reheated for 1 hour 30 min. The greatest absorption rates were recorded in Pinus nigra, the results in Pinus pinaster were close, and in Castanea sativa and Eucalyptus globulus they were clearly lower. The highest penetration rates were recorded in Pinus pinaster, followed by Pinus nigra, Eucalyptus globulus and Castanea sativa. The retentions showed the same pattern as the absorptions, but with smaller differences.
C De Arana Moncada, A M Navarrete

The Effect of Heat Treatment on Water Absorption and Dimensional Stability of Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40407
The heat treatment of wood is an environment-friendly method for wood preservation. This process improves wood’s resistance to decay and its dimensional stability. However, mechanical properties decrease in different ration because of density loss as a result of heat treatment. In this study, the effect of heat treatment on water absorption and dimensional stability at different relative humidity of Anatolian Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) was investigated. Wood specimens conditioned at 65% relative humidity and 20oC temperature were subjected to heat treatment at 180°C for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours. After heat treatment, water absorption and dimensional stability were determined. The results show that water absorption and dimensional stability were occurred, decreasing in variation ration in relate with density loss. After heat treatment, water absorption and dimensional stability were decreased with increasing temperature and duration.
G Gunduz, D Aydemir

Performance of recent and old Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10816
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) hardwood is one of the most durable European wood species. In the present research, various aspects that could potentially influence the durability were elucidated, namely: presence of extractives, ring width, and weathering. Simultaneously, properties of wood, which was in outdoor use for 35 years, were elucidated as well. The results indicate that ring width and weathering (35 years of outdoor use) did not influence the durability. None of the used fungi were able to degrade sweet chestnut heartwood in a modified EN 113 experiment. After extraction with methanol or water, specimens lost between 11% and 15% total mass by leaching of extractives. However, extraction only slightly decreased the durability of leached wood. This indicates that other components (besides water and methanol soluble extractives) could be responsible for durability. Furthermore, analysis of 35 years old wood showed that not all relevant properties of the old Sweet chestnut wood deteriorated in the mentioned time frame. This proves that old sweet chestnut hardwood could be potentially reused for variety applications, if necessary.
M Humar, M Žlahtič, N Thaler

Results of the resistance of acetylated wood against marine borers at three Italian sites after five years of sea immersion
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10994
The aim of this research was the determination of resistance of acetylated wood against marine decay in use class 5 (EN 335) in temperate sea waters. The resistance of acetylated Pinus radiata (radiate pine) in solid and medium density fibreboard (MDF) panels is compared with that of the untreated Scots pine, radiata pine and other untreated wood of European species such as Fagus sylvatica (European beech), Castanea sativa M. (chestnut), Quercus robur L. (European oak) and marine plywood, Aucoumea klaineana Pierre 1896 (Oukumè). The field tests were carried out in accordance with EN 275:1992 and started in April 2015. The three Italian exposition sites were Marina of Scarlino, a private harbour, Genoa port and Venice Lagoon. Final evaluation in 2021 showed a great resistance to marine borers of acetylated wood and MDF panels. Nevertheless, the non-treated European species showed and pine radiata, against marine organisms, a low resistance with a completely decay after the first year of exposition.
S Palanti, F Stefani, M Andrenacci, M Faimali, I Guarneri, M Sigovini, D Tagliapietra

Termite Response to Agricultural Fiber Composites: Hemp
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10548
Industrial hemp, Cannabis sativa, is a fiber usable in manufacture of nutritional products, rope, textiles, paper and building products. Due to the illicit recreational uses of Cannabis sativa varieties with high tetrahydrocannabinol content (marijuana), hemp is not grown commercially in the United States. However, it is grown in many other nations, and has been proposed as a replacement for sugarcane and other commodity crops in the United States, including Hawaii. These studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of several potential hemp building products to Formosan subterranean termite attack. Although advocates of the fiber sometimes comment on its relative resistance to insects and decay fungi, there is little to no data available to either substantiate or refute these claims. Termite responses to experimental hemp fibreboards (UF or MDI resins), and to a commercial mineralized hemp building material (Isochanvre) were evaluated in laboratory essays. The hemp fibreboards were readily attacked by termites, although the UF resin was relatively toxic to them in comparison to MDI. Termites also readily consumed the mineralized hemp fibers, although mortality was high. Thus, one can conclude that hemp is susceptible to termite attack. Urea formaldehyde resin in fibreboards and silica, lime or boric acid in mineralized hemp were detrimental to termite survival, but still did not prevent significant attack. Preservative or other treatments appear to be required to protect hemp building products from degradation.
J K Grace

Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of attack of the marine wood boring organisms and to evaluate the protection methods and chemicals currently applied to the fishing boats.
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz

Distribution and penetration of the tung oil in wood studied by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20593
Water repellents as environment-friendly treatments are gaining their popularity as non-biocidal solutions for wood protection. One of the most important water repellents for wood besides waxes and organosilicon compounds are drying oils. Tung oil is one of the best performing oil. However, tung oil, similarly as other oils, does not penetrate deeply into wood, due to its high viscosity. In order to improve penetration of oil into wood, vacuum-pressure procedure was applied. Species chosen for this study are important in Central Europe, namely, sweet chestnut heartwood, European larch heartwood, Scots pine heartwood and sapwood, and Norway spruce heartwood wood. Distribution of oil in wood after treatment was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which was already being successfully applied in wood science. The aim was to employ the MRI technique to elucidate influence of treatment method and wood species on distribution and penetration of tung oil. MR imaging was found suitable method for observation of oil penetration as well. What is more, if the intensity of signal is high enough, the MR imaging revealed not only intensity of the signal, but also distribution and the shape of specimens. Also early-wood and late-wood areas can be seen. In sweet chestnut traheids can be seen through whole specimens.
M Žlahtič, U Mikac, I Serša, M Merela, M Humar