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Efficacy of Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride (DDAC), Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate (DOT), and Chlorothalonil (CTL) against Common Mold Fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30338
The fungitoxic properties of four fungicides, alone and in combination, against four different mold fungi commonly associated with indoor air quality problems were evaluated on two different wood species and sheetrock. The fungicides were chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile) (CTL) in a 40.4% aqueous dispersion, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in two different forms - a 40% glycol solution and a 98% wettable powder, and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) in an 80% solution. The fungi were Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Stachybotrys chartarum. All fungicide treatments on wood reduced growth, sporulation and discoloration of the mold fungi when compared to nontreated specimens. No single fungicide provided total control of all four fungi on wood. CTL provided the best single-agent protection by totally preventing the growth of C. cladosporioides and S. chartarum and reducing growth of A. niger and P. brevicompactum to low levels. DOT in both forms was very effective against A. niger, but provided only sporadic protection against other fungi. DDAC provided good protection against S. chartarum but was not as effective against the other molds. Combinations of the different biocides were more effective than any single agent. DOT + DDAC totally prevented or greatly reduced growth of A. niger, P. brevicompactum and S. chartarum. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most difficult organism to control, but even this was achieved when DDAC was increased to 1.0% with DOT. The most consistent control of discoloration, sporulation, and growth of the fungi on wood was obtained with the combination of DOT and CTL. DOT, alone or in combination with DDAC or CTL, was also very effective against the fungi on sheetrock. The results suggest that by using appropriate products, during construction or after water damage, problems associated with the growth of common molds and their potential health effects can be avoided.
J A Micales-Glaeser, J D Lloyd, T L Woods


The potential of high pressure pulsation processes to treat white spruce lumber with water-borne preservatives
1988 - IRG/WP 3471
Laboratory work using end sealed 4x8x46 cm³ white spruce samples has been done to explore the suitability of three variants of a 2.1 MPa pulsation process for the impregnation of white spruce with CCA. The results showed that the process improved significantly the penetration of the preservatives and reduced significantly cell collapse, when compared with the results of treatment using a 2.1 MPa empty cell process. The comparison of the three variants indicate that the process has potential for further improvements.
J P Hösli, J N R Ruddick


Suggestive remarks for designing of experimental samples and trial devices to treat wood by pre-vacuumed immersion method
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40862
This study was conducted to test the impregnability of wood material according to the pre-vacuumed immersion process and to reveal the usability of cylindrical (plug) samples in impregnation experiments in addition to the cuboid or cubic samples. In this context, cuboids were prepared 30 mm in length, 20 mm in width and 20 mm in thickness, whereas plugs were prepared radially and longitudinally with a diameter of 15 mm and a length of 30 mm. The experimental samples were dried up to the air dry moisture content and were subjected to the surface preparation process according to determine the possible fluid uptake in both radial and longitudinal flow pathways and were impregnated using with three percent concentration of boron compound by normal and pre-vacuumed immersion method. It was observed that the sample preparation techniques for plugs and cuboids were suitable with each other in terms of the mean percentage of void volume filled by preservative fluid radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process of the experimental samples based on the period of the data collection was shorter in plugs than that for cuboids in either flow pathway. And wood samples impregnated by pre-vacuumed immersion method were determined to have a slightly higher preservative fluid uptake than those impregnated with normal immersion method.
I Usta