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Steam accelerated borate diffusion: Optimizing dry tie treatment
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40713
A small laboratory study was carried out which demonstrated that dry wood dip treated in a high concentration borate solution could not be subsequently treated properly with oil borne copper naphthenate unless it was subsequently steam treated to accelerate borate penetration into the wood and re-dry the wood beforehand. A larger study with commercial sized cross ties (railway sleepers) was carri...
J-W Kim, J D Lloyd

Protecting Sustainable Wood Infrastructure ̶ Improving the Performance of Poles, Piles, Ties & Timbers with Dual Treatments
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30735
Wood is by far the best structural material in terms of environmental impact, as shown by a number of LCA studies. This environmental impact superiority can be improved if the longevity of the commodity is extended. The main durability concern in large cross-section treated materials is the susceptibility of the heartwood to decay, as it is not typically treatable using traditional methods. This ...
J Lloyd, A Taylor, C Brischke, N Irby, M Manning