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Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Evaluation of a solid remedial wood preservative containing boron and fluorine
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30022
The fungicidal and termiticidal effectiveness of a new rod form of diffusible remedial wood preservative, containing disodium octaborate tetrahydrate/sodium fluoride and marketed as Polesaver Rod, was evaluated in laboratory tests against three species of basidiomycete fungi (Coniophora olivacea, Pycnoporus coccineus, Perenniporia tephropora) and two species of subterranean termites (Coptotermes acinaciformis, Mastotermes darwiniensis). The rods were dissolved in water and various dilutions were used to treat specimens of Eucalyptus regnans sapwood using a full-cell process, providing retention levels which ranged from 1.2 to 37.4 kg/m³. Soil jar decay tests have shown the remedial preservative is toxic to Coniophora olivacea and Pycnoporus coccineus at a retention of 1.2 kg/m³ solubilised total rod and 2.3 kg/m³ for Perenniporia tephropora. Mean% mass loss data showed that a retention between 2.3 and 4.7 kg/m³ was necessary to protect specimens from significant attack by Coptotermes acinaciformis and between 9.3 and 18.7 kg/m³ for the more voracious Mastotermes darwiniensis. Laboratory diffusion tests on several species of eucalypt hardwoods have confirmed the capability of the preservative's active ingredients to diffuse through both heartwood and sapwood in concentrations toxic enough to inhibit fungal growth. In addition, field testing has shown that after eight months, significant radial and longitudinal diffusion of boron and fluorine was achieved from rods introduced into Eucalyptus obliqua pole stubs. Samples taken within the diffusion zone indicated loadings of up to 4.1 kg/m³ of boron and 5.2 kg/m³ of fluoride.
K J McCarthy, J W Creffield, L J Cookson, H Greaves


Preliminary studies on cellulase production by selected Basidiomycetes and the effect of copper-chrome-arsenate on these enzymes
1980 - IRG/WP 1122
The growth of wood-destroying fungi on ligno-cellulosic materials depends on the production of many enzymes, of which probably the most important is the multi component cellulase system. Within this system, at least three different kinds of enzym are believed to be involved in crystalline cellulose decomposition. These are endo-1,4-glucanase, exo-1,4-ß glucanase and ß-glucosidase. Most of the recent research on cellulases has concerned isolation, purification and characterisation of the enzymes and their application in the utilisation of cellulosic waste. Information on the chemical inhibition of cellulases is available but there is little reference to the interaction of wood-attacking cellulases and the preservatives which are used to protect wood. The objective of this work is to study the production and activity of cellulases of selected basidiomycetes and to observe the effect of wood-preservatives on these enzymes. Preliminary studies with copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) are reported here
O Collett


Wood preservation using furanones derived from marine algae
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10506
Halogenated furanones that are analogues of natural compounds extracted from the red seaweed Delisea pulchra were examined in the laboratory for activity against termites and decay fungi. The furanones were found to have broad spectrum activity, some with solution strengths of 0.01% controlling Coptotermes acinaciformis in a filter paper trial, while 2% solutions impregnated into Pinus radiata blocks also gave control. Some furanones prevented growth on filter papers by Perenniporia tephropora (white rot) and Coniophora olivacea (brown rot) at 1% solution concentration. In treated P. radiata specimens, one of the furanones prevented decay by P. tephropora and Trametes lilacino-gilva while there was some decay by C. olivacea. When blocks were artificially weathered and leached, fungi were not controlled. Furanones have potential as termiticides for the protection of house framing, while further research is required for protection against decay fungi in exposed leaching environments.
L J Cookson, R de Nys, P Steinberg, N Chew


A comparative analysis of Coniophora olivacea (Fr. ex Pers.) Karst. and Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr.) Karst. test strains
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20004
Investigations were carried out to compare pure cultures of Coniophora olivacea (Fr. ex Pers.) Karst. used as a test fungus in Australia and other Pacific countries, and Coniophora puteana (Shum. ex Fr.) Karst. which is used in Europe. Comparisons included morphology, growth rate and dry mass of mycelium, decay capacity, influence of temperature, toxic value of CCA and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) in both an agar-plate method (ED50, ED100, LD100), and a modified agar-block method. The fungi were found to be similar in many respects.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Status of the research and development of a new preservative system (EFPL) for pressure treatment of spruce in Canada
1975 - IRG/WP 348
Our work has been to develop a system which would have the stability of the ACA system and the formulation flexibility of the CCA system enabling properties such as fixation of arsenic, water repellency, appearance and cost to be controlled. Our permeability studies of spruce using a method previously developed indicated that an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate is an excellent candidate for the treatment of spruce. Studies of the permeability of spruce sapwood microsections to CCA preservative and to an ammoniacal solution of copper arsenate proved that the ammoniacal system penetrates 1.7 to 1.8 times faster than the CCA system, in the radial direction. The permeability in the tangential direction was on the average 3.8 times better. These results were confirmed by pressure treatments of spruce lumber and spruce roundwood with both preservatives.
J Rak, M R Clarke


Report on the monographic card on Coniophora puteana
1973 - IRG/WP 114
A Käärik


A new wood preservative based on polymerized complexes of aminotriazole with copper acetate
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30169
This paper presents the results of preliminary fungitoxicity tests as carried out on new polymerized complexes of aminotriazole with copper acetate (PCC) against Coniophora puteana and Trichoderma viride. Laboratory tests on wood confirmed the findings arrived at in the screening test on agar medium. Deep penetration into pine wood of compounds studied was observed and particularly so at humidity above the point of fiber saturation (up to 10 mm in manual treatment), as well as good fixation in wood. Together with quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) a strong synergistic effect towards the microorganisms tested was evident. The formulations investigated in the present study seem promising for future use in the wood preservation. Their practical implementation may enable effective control of wood destroying agents.
K J Krajewski, A Lukasiewicz, J Wazny


CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Determination of the preventive efficacy against wood destroying basidiomycetes fungi, EN V 839 - CEN/TC 38 WG 9
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20015
The WG 9 of CEN TC/38 has presented to EC a mycological test to assess efficacy of preservatives applied by surface process. This method is now an experimental standard (EN V 839) which has to be approved by the different european delegations. The following paper is not the standard as it has been proposed but is a presentation of the principle of the method. The experimental standard specifies a laboratory method of test which gives a basis of the assessment of the preventive action of a wood preservative when applied as a surface treatment against Basidiomycetes fungi. This method is applicable to formulations of preservatives in a ready to use form (organic formulations, organic water-dispersible formulations, water-soluble materials). Series of susceptible wood species specimens are treated on longitudinal faces whith the preservative in test using brushing as surface procedure. Test specimens are then exposed by an intermediate mesh to feeder blocks infestedby pure culture of Basidiomycetes fungi in sterile conditions and penetration of fungi is assessed on cross section sawn in the samples at the end of the test.
D Dirol


The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 1
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2389
J Bech-Andersen


Results of co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Preliminary report to Sub-group members
1986 - IRG/WP 2271
A F Bravery, J K Carey


A direct basidiomycetes test methodology. Report on an EWPM ring test
1988 - IRG/WP 2306
Results of an EWPM-ring test using a direct basidiomycetes test methodology are reported. The test is caracterized by using big test blocks and infestation by infected wood under unsterile conditions. The test procedure needs further development work, but the results are so promising that co-operation with CEN and EHC is initiated with the purpose of recognition and standardization.
B Jensen


Extracellular layers of wood decay fungi and copper tolerance
1983 - IRG/WP 1180
Extracellular layers around the hyphae of brown, white and soft rot fungi have been examined using electron microscopy. These layers were isolated for identification. Particular interest was directed towards the extracellular layers of copper-tolerant soft rot fungi.
D M Francis, L E Leightley


The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into mini-blocks (30 x 10 x 5 mm³) to produce decay test samples from various locations within the larger samples. After leaching, sets of replicate mini-blocks were exposed to the decay fungi Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E, Coriolus versicolor FPRL 28A, and Chaetomium globosum FPRL S70K. Equivalent sets of leached blocks, were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine preservative concentration and balance. The results of this study have been used to assess the effect of preservative application method on CCA efficacy. They also indicate how treatment method affects the distribution of the active elements of the preservative throughout the treated wood.
P R Newman, R J Murphy


Decay fungi in Finnish houses on the basis of inspection samples from 1978 to 1988
1989 - IRG/WP 1401
A summary of the causes and sources of fungal damages was made on the basis of decay samples and sample information sent to the Forest Products Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) between 1978 and 1988. About 50-130 decay cases in wood structures were studied annually. In almost 50% of all fungusdamage cases the cause was Serpula lacrymans. The proportion of Coniophora puteana is also high and the occurrence of Antrodia and Poria species is general. The most generally damaged structures were floors. According to sample information water pipe leakages often caused the damage.
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Changes in the degree of decay of lignocellulosic substrate used in a screening test of fungicidal wood preservatives
1977 - IRG/WP 287
This report contains results of investigations aimed at: a) determination of the effect of the kind of substrate and species of test fungus on quantitative changes in used samples prepared from spruce cardboard, and b) comparison of the threshold fungicidal values of come fungicides determined with accelerated method, with values obtained by block method. During performed investigations, the method described in Document No.: IRG/WP/262 was used. Assesment of decomposition degree was based on the loss of weight and amount of NaOH consumption by the substrate.
K Lutomski


Some wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Volume 1 of a collection of monographs
1981 - IRG/WP 1121
One of the first tasks of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation, when it began its work in 1969, was to compile a series of reports on the common decay fungi which can attack wood. This volume, which contains the first of these reports, has been compiled with the help of mycologists and wood preservation specialists in France, Ghana, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. It gives up-to-date information on fifteen common Basidiomycete fungi and indicates the gaps in the world's present knowledge that exist about these.
R Cockcroft


Prevention of brown-rot decay by chelators
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1540
In this work the brown-rot decay was shown to be prevented by chelating the endogenous metals existing in wood by using organic or inorganic chelators or iron-binding siderophores. The fungal growth and decaying ability were significantly decreased by the chelating treatments of the solid wood-based culture medium and pine wood pieces, respectively. The transition metals existing in native wood are proposed to be the key elements in the brown-rot decay mechanism. Of these, especially iron has an important role both in the oxidative degradative pathway and for the growth of the decaying organism. This new method may lead to the development of a specific efficient and non-toxic method for preventing brown-rot.
L Viikari, A-C Ritschkoff


Decay in external joinery in the United Kingdom
1978 - IRG/WP 3116
no abstract available
J G Savory, J K Carey


Monographic card: Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr.) Karst. (Second draft)
1978 - IRG/WP 171
A Käärik


Report on the status of collaborative experiments within the Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2194
This report summarises the results of co-operative work carried out within the Sub-Group on Basidiomycete tests up to December 1982. The principle findings are recorded in the Conclusions Section. Work intended between IRG-13 in Turkey and IRG-14 in Australia is cited under Future Programme. An Annex provides a response sheet for existing and new participants to notify their contributions.
A F Bravery


Effect of asphyxiation on wood decay fungi treated with argon and nitrogen gas
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10452
The effects of low-oxygen conditions, achieved with either argon or nitrogen gas, on the viability of wood decay fungi Coniophora puteana, Antrodia vaillantii and Trametes versicolor, cultivated on PDA medium and infected wood samples, were examined. The fungal cultures were exposed to low oxygen concentration (below 10 ppm) for one to five weeks in hermetically sealed vessels. Anoxic treatment did not affect T. versicolor cultures in the time span of the experiment. Therefore treatment of only C. puteana and A. vaillantii mycelial cultures was extended to 10 and 16 weeks. After treatment, respiration and regeneration of mycelium were tested by measurements of CO2 production and resumed growth of hyphae onto fresh PDA growth medium. The effect of anoxic conditions on the mycelia of treated fungal species was expressed as an increased time needed for regeneration or as a complete absence of growth of inocula taken from the exposed cultures or wooden blocks reintroduced on new nutrient medium. The cultures that were retarded by the low oxygen concentration consequently produced less CO2. For C. puteana cultures, the effects of anoxic treatment became evident in the second week of the treatment. The number of affected cultures rose steadily with the prolongation of anoxic treatment. By the sixteenth week of the anoxic treatment, 80% of the inocula of C. puteana did not regenerate. A. vaillantii inocula regeneration was not affected until after the fourth week of treatment, and similarly for infected wood samples, after five weeks. The influence of anoxic treatment on the cultures of this species was more pronounced on the tenth and especially after the sixteenth week, when 67% of inocula did not regenerate. In general fungal species were differently sensitive to asphyxiation. T. versicolor cultures were not affected by anoxic conditions, caused by either argon or nitrogen gas, and A. vaillantii mycelial cultures proved to be less sensitive than those of C. puteana. In the test with infested wood blocks argon proved to be more effective, compared to nitrogen gas.
C Tavzes, F Pohleven, M Janisek, R J Koestler


A natural exposure weathering test for the evaluation of preservative performance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2400
Natural exposure weathering tests were carried out by externally exposing treated wood samples for varying periodes of time up to 36 months. In the laboratory these samples were assayed for residual preservative effeciveness using Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E. The results indicated a loss in efficacy over and above that determined using artificial ageing procedures such as EN73 (evaporative ageing) and EN84 (water leaching). Results for two TBT based preservatives indicated a gradual loss in efficacy. Results for the organic biocide 2-thiocyanomethyl-thio benzothiazole (TCMTB) gave a more rapid loss in effeciveness indicative of the high levels of microbial actifity present in the samples. This test provides an intermediate evaluation of preservative performance and permanence between artificial laboratory ageing procedures and the necessary field evaluation using an L-joint type test.
J Brown, G R Williams


Some observations on miniaturised soil/block tests
1988 - IRG/WP 2317
Results are presented for miniaturised soil/block tests carried out in 120 ml capacity glass jars. The four test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria placenta) reacted differently to different moisture regimes established by varying the soil moisture content. Acceptable levels of decay were achieved by the three brown rot fungi with soil at 110% whc; however, soil at 150% whc failed to provide a high enough moisture content in the test blocks for decay by the white rot Coriolus versicolor. Overlaying test blocks exposed to Coriolus versicolor with moist sterile vermiculite increased both moisture contents and decay.
J K Carey


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