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Accelerated H3 above-ground decay trials in Australia
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20411
An above-ground H3 fungal field trial was installed at five sites (3 in Australia, 2 in New Zealand), with the aim of finding a method that would shorten the time required for evaluating new preservatives and protection systems. One-quarter of the H3 preservative retentions were mostly installed, as first results suitable for registration occur when these reach 70% soundness. Chemical analysis of spare treated specimens gave retentions that averaged 9% lower than determined by solution uptake. This paper provides the exposure results from Australia after one year. At Clayton near Melbourne, untreated Pinus radiata test specimens had highest moisture content in the ‘rot box’ design, followed by the ground proximity and ‘embedded test’, while ‘flat panels’ were driest. Most extensive decay occurred in tests where wood separators between test specimens had been pre-inoculated with Gloeophyllum abietinum (brown rot) or Perenniporia tephropora (white rot). At Innisfail in frames not intentionally pre-inoculated, water-treated P. radiata was extensively decayed when ‘flat panels’ were placed on an aged test frame. Minor decay to water-treated P. radiata occurred in the ground proximity, deck-on-ground and rot box tests. In comparison, no decay was found in the embedded, flat panel (new frame), raised deck, modified double layer and peg tests. The treatments under test included CCA, copper chromate, alkaline copper high quat (AChQ), copper azole, azoles, kerosene, boron, TBTN, and copper naphthenate. Untreated Corymbia maculata heartwood was included as an example for natural durability.
L J Cookson, J Carr


Accelerated H3 above-ground decay testing
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20520
An above-ground H3 fungal field trial was installed at two sites in Australia and one in New Zealand, as well as in two Accelerated Field Simulators. The aim was to find a method that would shorten the time required for evaluating new preservatives and protection systems. One-quarter H3 retentions were installed, as first results suitable for registration occur when these reach 70% soundness. Twelve test methods were examined, some established and others developed for the project. In two methods, feeder blocks pre-inoculated with laboratory-raised fungi were placed next to test specimens in an effort to accelerate decay. The treatments examined were CCA, alkaline copper high quat (AChQ), azoles, kerosene, TBTN, and water. Untreated Corymbia maculata heartwood was included for natural durability. Inspection was annual for four years. The fastest test was the ‘rot box’ at Innisfail, followed by the ground proximity, deck-on-ground and embedded tests. The most reliable tests giving expected relative order of failure were those allowing diversity of fungi rather than those that became dominated by a few, and included those placed close-to-ground or those with increased volume of untreated wood substrate in frames. Pre-inoculation with Gloeophyllum abietinum gave more representative results than those pre-inoculated with Oligoporus placenta.
L J Cookson, D Page, T Singh


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


The use of C CP/MAS NMR in the chemical identification of decayed and undecayed, tropical timber species
1984 - IRG/WP 1224
13C CP/MAS NMR was found to be an extremely powerful tool for elucidating the chemical composition of Eucalyptus maculata, Pinus elliottii and Alstonia scholaris. The differences in lignin composition were different for each timber and discussed in relation to decay caused by soft-rot and white rot fungi. In particular the presence of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin types are discussed.
L E Leightley


X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe.
H Greaves


Isolation and identification of bacteria from CCA-treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1987 - IRG/WP 1317
Bacteria have been isolated from CCA treated Eucalyptus maculata poles which possessed characteristic bacterial decay patterns. Cultures were isolated on a number of different media which had been inoculated with a splinter of degraded wood. Primary tests indicated that most isolates belonged to the genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus. The species Pseudomonas cepacia was most frequently isolated.
G A Willoughby, A C Hayward, L E Leightley


IRG soft rot stake test. Site: 03 Australia. Progress repor
1980 - IRG/WP 1114
IRG soft-rot test stakes were installed in site 03 Australia 16.6.77. The stakes have been inspected twice, (28.11.78 (Johnson, 1979) and 31.10.79) for signs of decay, and used to obtain fungal isolates. The condition of stakes in the supplementary soft-rot test has also been examined.
L E Leightley, D M Francis, R S Johnstone


Soft rot decay of Eucalyptus maculata Hook. in different soils from Queensland, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 1113
In the present work, different Queensland soils were chosen and their gross effects on the decay of treated and untreated Eucalyptus maculata examined. The soils were also amended with various levels of phosphate to study the response of the wood decay mycota to an increasing supply of this nutrient. Phosphate amendment was chosen because of the wide-scale use of superphosphate on Queensland soils and the importance of inorganic phosphate in the carbohydrate metabolism of microorganisms.
L E Leightley, I W Russell


High CCA retentions and the protection of eucalypt power poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3226
Tasmanian power pole material treated to high retentions, was analysed to accurately determine the amount of CCA preservative in the timber. Material from the same disc was subsequently exposed in unsterile soil in order to determine the effectiveness of treatment. Results showed that even at high retention levels, soft-rot attack was not prevented. Fourteen further poles were sampled, but this time gradient sampling was carried out in order to determine the penetration pattern of the CCA salts. These poles were treated to retention levels in the order of 40 kg/m³. Again material from these poles was used for exposure testing. Significant weight loss was found after sixteen weeks exposure. The results indicate that high loadings of CCA present in the sapwood of these eucalypts, have not prevented the onset and progression of soft-rot decay.
L E Leightley, J Norton


Fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in Australian hardwoods: A comparison of three Eucalyptus species
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30107
New environmental guidelines for the management of CCA treatment plants were released in Australia in 1995. This has stimulated interest in techniques for controlling or accelerating the fixation of CCA in freshly treated timber products. The ability to understand, then effectively control and/or accelerate fixation of CCA in treated timber products can be an economic, technical and environmental advantage. Data available on fixation of CCA in timber commodities however, is mainly on softwood not hardwood species. In this paper, the rate of fixation of CCA Type C Oxide in poles of three species of Australian Eucalyptus was monitored over a six week period following treatment. These results will assist in the design of adequate drip pad and undercover storage area for pole treaters in South East Queensland.
J Holmes


An illustrated comment on the soft rot problem in Australia and Papua New Guinea
1977 - IRG/WP 296
A brief survey of soft rot is presented, with particular reference to attack of preservative treated hardwood transmission poles in Australia. Possible explanations of why the preservatives are failing to protect the poles are discussed, together with current efforts to produce control measures. Examples of soft rot in variously treated eucalypt or pine specimens are shown to illustrate the morphological variety of decay as it occurs throughout the Australian scene; the samples of attacked wood range from temperate Victoria to tropical Papua New Guinea.
H Greaves


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 6: Report of third inspection (24 months) in Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 456
This report presents the results of the third inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed at the Goat Island Marine Biological Station of the Maritime Services Board of New South Wales, in Sydney Harbour. The inspection was completed on 5th December, 1979, after 24 months exposure. As on previous occasions, this inspection was carried out in conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) apart from an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. At the conclusion of the inspection, all specimens remaining on the frame designated for removal at this inspection were recovered, re-labelled and despatched to Portsmouth for laboratory examination. The re-designed frames of PVC water-pipe were found to be in good order and can be expected to survive the remaining 5 years of test exposure.
J Beesley


A field method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to attack by subterranean termite
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20035
A method for determining the above-ground resistance of wood and wood products to subterranean termites in the field is described. Termites are aggregated in 20-litre steel drums, each containing a highly susceptible timber substrate. At the centre of each drum, specimens of the test material under evaluation are sandwiched, using circular sections of wire mesh, between two layers of the substrate. The drums are connected by plastic piping to infested trees or to other drums which have previously aggregated target species of termites. Preliminary results in the use of this method are presented in a study comparing the resistance of eight untreated timber species and one species treated with a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation to Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt and Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) in the Northern Territory of Australia. Advantages of this field method are discussed
J W Creffield


Soft rot fungi found in copper/chrome/arsenic treated hardwood power transmission poles in Queensland
1978 - IRG/WP 185
In Queensland the effective service life of copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) treated hardwood telegraph and power transmission poles is being dramatically shortened due to attack by soft rot decay fungi. The Australian Wood Preservation and Pole Industries are funding research into this serious soft rot problem involving C.S.I.R.O. and the University of Queensland. The C.S.I.R.O. is actively engaged with the in situ maintenance of existing hardwood poles, preservative distribution in hardwoods and the development of new impregnation preservatives and impregnation methods. This work has been discussed (Greaves, 1977) and more recent results will be presented at this meeting. The role of the University of Queensland in the soft rot programme is one of identifying and investigating the physiology and ecology of those fungi responsible for soft rot. Detailed examination of twenty transmission poles, with and without remedial. treatments, in localities around Brisbane city have been made. Preliminary results for ten of these poles are presented in this document together with future research proposals.
L E Leightley


The effect of concrete embedment on CCA treated hardwood and softwood timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 3340
Small size stakes of Eucalyptus maculata and Pinus elliottii were treated with CCA to various retentions and embedded in concrete collars containing varying amounts of a fungicide additive. During the 30 month trial period stakes were removed after 12, 18, 24 and 30 months and assessed for residual strength. Stakes which showed significant strength reductions were microscopically examined for the presence and extent of decay. The results obtained suggest that concrete collars provide a stable environment suitable for microbial activity and that the addition of a fungicide will provide protection within the concrete collar. Never-the-less decay is likely to occur outside the levels of the concrete collar especially with treated hardwoods which are recognised as being susceptible to soft rot decay.
L E Leightley, G A Willoughby


An unusual soft-rot decay pattern caused by the Ascomycete Hypoxylon mediterraneum (de Not.) J Miller
1984 - IRG/WP 1222
A distinct pattern of soft-rot decay has been observed for the fungus Hypoxylan mediterraneum (de Not.) J. Miller. This fungus also produced decay patterns typical of brown and white rot decay. The production of characteristic cavities by Hypoxylan mediterraneum was prolific in the hardwoods Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalyptus regnans, but infrequent in the softwoods, Pinus elliottii and Pinus radiata. The chemistry of this decay was investigated using carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR). This technique produced results valuable to the understanding of the timber decay activities of Hypoxylan mediterraneum.
D M Francis, L E Leightley


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 2: Laboratory screening tests using sawdust
1977 - IRG/WP 2101
A technique is described for the rapid screening of toxicants against microorganisms, represented by the brown rot, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and a natural inoculum from soft rotted wood. Sawdust, in this case from sapwood of Eucalyptus maculata, is pretreated with the candidate formulation and moistened before inoculation. Visual scoring of growth can be used to discriminate suitable candidates as early as 1 to 2 weeks. The test can then be continued, and after 12 weeks there is good agreement between weight loss data and surface colonisation scores for all chemicals tested. Of the three formulations tested against Gloeophyllum trabeum, octanoic acid was more toxic than copper sulphate or copper lactate, the same being true for soft rot organisms. All additional preservatives tested against soft rot were better than octanoic acid, with "Busan 30" being better than PCMC or the "Versatic acid 911". Other applications of the test include ecological studies, easy isolation of tolerant organisms, and screening of formulations for remedial treatment of soft rotted transmission poles. Of the miscellaneous formulations screened for the latter, sodium pentachlorophenate, "Blue 7", and "Basilit BFB" seemed the most suitable.
J D Thornton


The micro-distribution of copper/chrome/arsenate in Acer pseudoplatanus and Eucalyptus maculata
1973 - IRG/WP 319
The excellent field performance of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) treated timber has been accepted for many years. The preservative loadings used in practice have been based on field trial results, backed by service tests. The performance of treated hardwoods in trials and practice indicated that provided the required loading and penetration could be achieved the performance would be good. Recent unexpected failures in a few hardwoods treated to specification indicate that some hardwoods behave differently in ground contact from the normal test species with equal preservative loadings. Field evidence with creosote suggests that some discrepancies can occur with other preservatives as well. The immediate problem is confined to a vary few species and in all cases failure has been due to soft-rot at the ground line. Petty & Preston (1968) demonstrated that CCA preservatives penetrate deeply into the tracheid wall of conifers affording excellent protection to the timber. It was decided to investigate the micro-distribution of CCA preservative components in two problem hardwood species, Acer pseudoplatanus and Eucalyptus maculata. If the components were found to be distributed less uniformly than in softwood tissues this could possibly account for the unexpected field performance of these hardwoods in ground contact.
D J Dickinson


Lyctine susceptibility testing and dealing with rarely susceptible hardwood species
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10607
This study examined the lyctine susceptibility of 16 timber species or hybrids. Several of the timbers have been placed previously in a ‘rarely susceptible’ category, but for standards and compliance purposes, such in-between ratings are not acceptable. Timber specimens were spot tested for starch content, and exposed to three species of lyctine beetles in an insectary. New criteria were developed to divide the problematic ‘rarely susceptible’ species, including naming a species non-susceptible if significant attack was limited to 6 mm depth, as this region is routinely lost upon sawing. Lyctine susceptible species were Erythrophleum chlorostachys, Eucalyptus delegatensis grown in Tasmania but not Victoria or NSW, Eu. regnans/obliqua hybrid, Corymbia nesophila, Eu. fibrosa, Eu. grandis, Eu. crebra, Eu. argophloia, Eu. dunnii, Eu. regnans from Tasmania, Eu. saligna, and Eu. grandis/saligna hybrid as both parent species were susceptible. The non-lyctine susceptible species were Eu. cloeziana, Eu. pilularis, Eu. sieberi, and Eu. tetradonta. Starch could be detected using the spot test in 126 of the 129 specimens rating S2 (moderate) or S3 (heavy) for lyctine attack. However, many specimens with starch were not attacked, for reasons unknown but unlikely to include narrowness of pores, for the timber species examined.
L J Cookson, J Carr, N Chew, J W Creffield


Durability of treated wood Corymbia torelliana and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla against subterranean termite
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20563
This work aimed to analyze the durability of woods against termite Nasutitermes corniger Motsch. Fence posts from this study were collected in Pinheiros, north of Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Used the Corymbia torelliana and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla species with 11 and 9 years, respectively and plant spacing of 3.00 x 2.00 m. Were used 72 samples from discs removed the 0.50 m of fence posts basis. The samples had 1,5 x 1,0 x 2,0 cm (Radial x Tangential x Longitudinal), 36 for each species and 18 for position 0 to 1,5 cm and 18 for position 1,5 to 3,0 in radial deep, treated with 2% active ingredients of CCA type C in oxide base, in diameter classes 8-10 cm; 10-12 cm and 12-14 cm in force feeding test. Measured the heartwood and sapwood content, heartwood: sapwood ratio and retention of CCA in wood. The specifications of the test, weight loss, scores attributed the sampless were taken according to ASTM D 3345 (2005). Statistical analysis was performed using t-test for independent samples for characteristics of the wood. The weight losss and the scores awarded to the specimens were processed to satisfy the principles of ANOVA. Used the Tukey test for the sources of variation detected as significant by F test. The results indicated that the larger weight loss are associated with the radial position 1.5 to 3.0 cm. Probably by not receive preservative solution, because of impermeability of the heartwood. In absolute terms the largest weight loss were observed for wood Corymbia torelliana. The preservative treatment provides high strength hardness, confirmed by the scores close to 10. In general the wood Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla presented the best characteristics for the preservation.
D Junior Verly Lopes, J Benigno Paes, P N de Medeiros Neto, G dos Santos Bobadilha