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Current and future options for managing used preservative-treated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50042
The amount of preservative-treated wood available for disposal will continue to increase exponentially in the next several decades as landfill availability declines. At the same time, recent legal ruling on competitiveness among utilities and disposal of ash has clouded the economic outlook for combustion of treated wood for energy recovery. This report identifies current and future options for managing used preservative-treated wood, as well as technological and environmental/regulatory limitations to these options. Re-use, recycling (particularly through the manufacture of wood-based composites), and biodegradation are described as primary alternatives to land disposal and combustion. The report also describes supporting technologies (analytical methods and comminution) for managing used treated wood.
R C De Groot, C Felton


Disposal of Pressure Treated Wood in Construction and Demolition Debris Landfill
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50235
Pressure treated wood is often disposed in landfills in the US, very frequently in construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills. C&D debris disposal facilities in many states are not equipped with liner systems to protect underlying groundwater. In this paper, issues associated with the disposal of metal-containing treated wood in C&D debris landfills are discussed. C&D debris landfills can be biological active systems, dominated by the activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. The leachate is characterized by relatively low biodegradable organic compound concentrations, high salt concentrations, a neutral pH, and a moderately to strongly reducing environment. Simulated landfills containing CCA-treated wood often show relatively high concentrations of As and Cr, but only minimal concentrations of Cu. Cu-based preservatives such as alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) also show minimal copper leaching, suggesting that disposal of Cu-based wood preservatives posees minimal impact to groundwater from Cu leaching.
T G Townsend, B Dubey, J Jambeck, H M Solo-Gabriele


Leaching of Arsenic from Mulch Made from Recycled Construction and Demolition Wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50232
Mulch made from recycled construction and demolition (C&D) wood has been reported to contain chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood and potentially release arsenic in the leachate by rainfall. Such recycled wood mulch is commonly masked with iron-oxide colorant, which is known to combine with arsenic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of arsenic leaching from C&D recycled wood mulch and potential effects of the colorant on leaching rates. Mulch samples observed were paired (dyed and non-dyed) in three groups [untreated wood, 5 % treated wood, and 100 % treated wood]. The leachates were collected for one year and analyzed for arsenic. Arsenic in the leachate from untreated wood mulch was consistently at low levels (< 3 ~ 13 ug/L). The average concentrations from 5 % treated wood mulch were 341 (non-colored) and 258 &#956;g/L (colored). The average concentrations from 100 % treated wood mulch were 4,490 (non-colored) and 3490 &#956;g/L (colored). For the entire one year monitoring period, the colorant reduced the arsenic concentration by 24 and 29 % for the non-colored 5 % treated wood mulch and 100 % treated wood mulch, respectively. The study showed that recycled C&D wood mulch, which contains small percentages of CCA-treated wood, release significantly large levels of arsenic by rainfall and iron oxide colorant reduces the arsenic leaching rate for a short period.
T Shibata, H M Solo-Gabriele, T G Townsend, B Dubey


Diagnostics methods and routes proposalsto define selective sorting of demolition wood wastes
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50177
Wood wastes are more and more often used in different wood waste valorisation industries (panels, wood energy, cement factories, ...). These industries are in progress to include in their processes, wood wastes coming from demolition wood. A state of the art and an analysis have been made to propose : (1) diagnostics methods to carry out a classification of wood wastes on demolition sites and in the sorting sites based on analytical methods, (2) routes to carry out the classification of wood wastes (according to products present in wood wastes : biocides, finishing products, and according to French regulation requirements). Some proposals are discussed.
G Labat, E Bucket, C Fréret, G Deroubaix


Characteristics of treated oriented strand lumber using recycle chips
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40343
The Kyoto Protocol for preventing global warming has come into effect, and the Cabinet Council was decided on the amount of carbon dioxide exhaust to be reduced in Japan. Moreover, the recycling of demolition waste wood is mandated under the “Construction Material Recycling Law” as one of the mechanisms for Japan to form the recycling society. The law encourages the utilization of demolition waste wood as a raw material for wood-based panels as the main recycling method. However, because the amount of demolition waste wood generated from wooden houses is at least twice as high as the demand for wood-based panels, the development of new demand is needed to accomplish the goal. In this study, oriented strand lumber made from crushed demolition waste wood was developed, and the properties were examined. As a result, the developed oriented strand lumber had uniform physical properties, and preservative and anti-termite processing has no apparent detrimental effect. In order to evaluate the feasibility of the developed oriented strand board, it is necessary to consider the performance of nail joints and the effects of actual use conditions. When the materials are used in an actual structure, it is important to understand how the strength performance may change as a result of the conditions under which the structure was built, long-term use, and so on.
T Shibusawa, A Miyatake, K Yamamoto, K Hashimoto, H Sonobe


A Prediction of Arsenic Groundwater Concentrations Influenced by Construction and Demolition Debris Landfills in Florida Containing CCA-Treated Wood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50242
Groundwater fate and transport models can provide an indication of the potential impacts of arsenic from the infiltration of leachate from unlined C&D debris landfills containing CCA-treated wood. A solute transport model, Migration of Organic/Inorganic Chemicals (MYGRT), was chosen to predict groundwater contaminant concentrations at specified locations from a hypothetical source (C&D landfill) that contains CCA-treated wood. MYGRT simulates a single contaminant, generated from a surface source, migrating downward through the unsaturated soil layer, mixing with the underlying groundwater, and then migrating horizontally downgradient through the aquifer. The software incorporates the processes of advection, dispersion and retardation. Because of the slow and complex transport mechanisms involved, groundwater impacts may not be observed for many years. A small fraction of the arsenic from the CCA-treated wood disposed in C&D debris landfills was simulated as leached (17.1%). Although hundreds of years later, exceedances of current and potential groundwater cleanup target levels were predicted.
J Jambeck, T Townsend, H Solo-Gabriele