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Introduction to a field demonstration of various instruments and methods for the detection of defects in poles
1984 - IRG/WP 2228
H Friis-Hansen


Principles and procedure of the planeing test
1981 - IRG/WP 2162
Small end-sealed samples of pine-sapwood (1.5 x 2.5 x 5 cm³) are treated by brushing and afterwards different parts of the treated surface are removed. The remaining part of the sample is tested against either insects or fungi. If no attack occurs sufficient amounts of biocides have been penetrated at least beyond the zone which has been removed. In spite of some problems the test seems the only ...
H Willeitner, M Gersonde


Vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisms in the Trondheimsfjord (Western Norway)
1981 - IRG/WP 467
Results of a detailed study on the vertical distribution of fouling and wood-boring organisms of Trondheimsfjord at an interval of 3 m from intertidal level to a depth of 30 m, has been presented, based on data collected from two series of panels, exposed from 15 March 1977 to 15 July 1977 (Series I) and from 22 July 1977 to 13 March 1978 (Series II). The intensity of fouling generally decreased w...
L N Santhakumaran


Annotated check-list of the Limnoriidae
1990 - IRG/WP 4160
The crustacean isopod family Limnoriidae comprises 51 species of marine borers. A list of species is provided, together with notes on the species known distributions, depth ranges, and habitats. There is also a brief account of the phylogeny of the group....
L J Cookson


Effect of incising depth and density on treatment of Douglas fir, hem fir and spruce-pine-fir lumber with CCA, ACZA or ACQ
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40093
Incising markedly improves both the depth and uniformity of preservative treatment of refractory wood species, but there are few studies directly comparing the effects of incising depth and density on penetration and retention of commonly used waterborne preservatives in wood species from the western United States. The effects of two incision densities (7300 and 8900 incisions/square meter) at two...
M Anderson, J J Morrell, J E Winandy


Comparative moisture uptake of Douglas fir and radiata pine structural lumber when exposed to rain wetting as an indicator of relative decay resistance
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20285
Trials were undertaken to determine the relative resistance of radiata pine and Douglas-fir to wetting when exposed to the weather. Douglas-fir samples were obtained from one Central North Island and three South Island sources and had a heartwood/sapwood mix typical for each resource. Radiata pine sapwood and heartwood samples were obtained from a Central North Island source. Material was exposed...
M E Hedley, G Durbin, L Wichmann-Hansen, L Knowles


Observations on the morphology, ecology and biology of Xylophaga dorsalis (Turton) (Mollusca: Xylophagainae) in the Trondheimsfjord (Western Norway)
1981 - IRG/WP 475
The paper deals with various aspects of the systematics, ecology and biology of the little known pholad wood-borer, Xylophaga dorsalis (Turton) of the Trondheimsfjord (Western Norway). Diagnostic characters of the species have been given based on examination of fresh living specimens and accommodating the several morphological variations. A key to the identification of Norwegian species of Xylopha...
L N Santhakumaran


Depth of foraging of subterranean termites in tropical Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10141
Stakes of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) of varying lengths to 800 mm were inserted vertically in the soil with all but their lower 100 mm sheathed in a capped UPVC tube representing a physical barrier to termites. In one series of trials, termites were encouraged to aggregate at the upper ends of the tubes, in order to determine whether they would descend to the lower end of the barrier. In a...
L R Miller, M Hoschke, M Neal


Method to determine the depth of penetration of the biologically active components of wood preservatives
1978 - IRG/WP 2108
A time-saving method for determining the depth of penetration of the biologically active components of wood preservatives is described. The test specimens were obtained by cutting thin slices from the wood either parallel or perpendicular to the treated surface. The slices were then exposed to fungal attack. A good correlation was found between the test results obtained by the modified German Stan...
H-P Sutter


Microscopic FT-IR depth profiling study of photo-induced degradation in wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20229
FT-IR microspectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in the chemical composition at various depths from the photo-irradiated surface of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) sapwood. The radially cut wood face was exposed to artificial solar radiation from a xenon light source at 375 Wm-2 (in a 300 - 700 nm spectral range) for up to 600 h. The IR depth profiling spectra showed that the artificial ...
Y Kataoka, M Kiguchi.


Penetration Depth of Borates in Historic Wooden Structures in Virginia City Montana
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30475
Virginia City, Montana contains some of the best preserved examples of gold boom construction in the United States. Unfortunately, even the dry climate and fortuitous lack of fire have not prevented decay from claiming parts of the historic fabric. This project aims to determine if borates should be integrated into the preservation plan of the Montana Heritage Commission. Solutions of disodium ...
A A Turner


Natural Durability of Fence Poles from Fourteen Semi-Arid Land Species after Six-Month Exposition
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10724
A sample of thirty fence poles from each of fourteen tree native species from Northeast Mexico were tested in ground contact in a wood-cemetery area located in Linares, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The samples were submitted to six treatments (control, debarked, chemical treated, used cooking oil, thermal and creosote) and randomly distributed in five blocks. The effectiveness of using a bark gauge tool ‚Ä...
A Carrillo, F Garza, V Bustamante, S Sandoval, H Villalón


Methods for Studying Penetration Depth of Wood Protection Products
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20432
EN 152 is an accepted standard in Europe for measuring how deep a wood protection product penetrates into the surface of treated pine wood. The method has provided consumers with a wide assortment of products that meet the specifications outlined in the standard. Because the test takes 8 or more months to carry out, artificial ageing procedures have evolved in order to standardize and speed up the...
K Hansen, L Sites, D D Nicholas


Effectiveness of Copper Indicators in Treated Wood Exposed to Copper Tolerant Fungi
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20554
Wood treated with a copper based wood preservative will typically turn a green color. While the depth of copper penetration can be readily discerned from the green color of the copper it is standard practice in research and commercial treating plants to make use of a color reagent such as Chrome Azurol S, Rubeanic acid or PAN indicator to reveal the penetration more clearly. When copper treat...
L Jin, K Brown, A Zahora, K Archer


Influence of pressure phase impregnation time on the uptake and distribution of wood preservatives in Scots pine material of diverse treatability
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40752
In spite of the general opinion that Scots pine sapwood is easy to impregnate considerable variations in treatability are reported. In order to study impregnation results of diverse Scots pine sapwood treated with increasing process times, Scots pine sapwood from two different predefined treatability groups was impregnated. A copper solution was used as impregnation agent in ten different vacuum p...
K Zimmer, B Kerfriden


Response of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier wood to beetles tunneling in Southern Nigeria
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10918
Terminalia mantaly (TM), is extremely susceptible to beetles attack, as evidenced by the many scars and/or tunnels on nearly all the trees in the Southern Nigeria. However, information on the responses of wood to insects tunnelling is poorly known for tropical species. To examine the response of TM stem wood to beetles tunnelling in the University of Port Harcourt, we scheduled field observational...
G A Adedeji, U Zakka, A A Aiyeloja, A I Ochuba


Sensitivity of copper indicators for detecting preservative penetration
2023 - IRG/WP 23-20701
Chrome azurol S (CAS), 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN), and rubeanic acid (RA) are the three copper indicators currently used by the timber industry to assess preservative penetration. Although only the American Wood Protection Association (AWPA) standards specify indicator sensitivity, it is unclear how those limits were developed. The sensitivity of each copper indicator was determined in solu...
T Yi, J Norton, S Meldrum, J J Morrell


The appropriateness of central one-ninth or core retentions as a means of demonstrating penetration compliance
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40976
Treatment quality is in general terms dependent upon the preservative retention, and how the preservative is distributed throughout the cross-section of the treated article in question, i.e. the penetration of the preservative. Of these two fundamental qualities that are intrinsically linked to treatment quality, penetration is in general terms the most subjective. The determination of retention i...
D Humphfrey, B Skewes