IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Non-destructive detection of the presence and behaviour patterns of wood-destroying insects
1988 - IRG/WP 2302
An apparatus, designed for the automatic recognition of the presence and of specific behaviour patterns of wood-boring insects, is introduced. From a wood sample, a mixture of noise and action induced substratum vibrations is picked up, amplified, filtered and translated into a sequence of computer-readable numbers which are passed to a microcomputer-based signal-pattern-recognition. If an incomin...
M Pallaske

Long-time efficacy of some soil termiticides tested according to “Modified Ground Board Test”
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10935
Field trials of efficacy of soil termiticides available in Thailand were started back in the 1980s at four different locations representing different unique weather types of the country. The method used in the trials (Modified Ground Board Test) is the compulsory test for every soil termiticides aiming to be registered for termite control in Thailand. The ongoing record reveals that some particula...
C Vongkaluang, K Charoenkrung, N Same Rain

Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher

Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the ge...
G Ozanne

Copper naphthenate performance: A new way to look at old data
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30215
Although copper naphthenate has over a 50-year test history, it is still considered as a "new" preservative in the United States when it is used for utility poles. It has also been extensively used in remedial treatments for poles and has considerable retail or over-the-counter sales. The test history includes a number of different tests and a rationale for evaluating this data and comparing the p...
C R McIntyre

The evaluation of synergistic effects of chemicals on fungicidal efficacy in crossed-paper tests
1991 - IRG/WP 2383
The mixing effects of wood preservatives were evaluated using the crossed-paper technique. Two filter paper strips (0.7 x 8 cm²) were treated by soaking with different chemicals [fungicides, a termiticide (chlorpyrifos or phoxim), a surface-active agent, a synergistic agent, and a stabilizer], and placed at right angles to each other on a fully grown mycelial mat of a test fungus in a Petri dish....
Dong-heub Lee, K Tsunoda, M Takahashi

Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher

Boron treatments for the preservation of wood - A review of efficacy data for fungi and termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30037
Boron treatments have been used for many decades for protection of timber from biological attack and also as a fire retardant treatment. In recent years there has been an increased interest in boron treatments as an option for protection of structural timbers' e.g. timber framing used in termite risk areas. This paper reviews efficacy data for both fungi and termites relevant to this end-...
J A Drysdale

A collaborative test to determine the efficacy of polyurethane coatings on wood samples exposed in the marine environment
1984 - IRG/WP 4113
Aims are: a) to determine the effectiveness of elastomeric polyurethane as a protective coating against marine wood boring animals in a range of tropical and tempreate sites; b) to compare the adhesion of polyurthane coatings on different wood species exposed in seawater; c) to record the severity of attack in failed samples and to identify the causal marine organisms....
R A Eaton

Soft-rot ultrastructure
1981 - IRG/WP 1138 (+ Addendum)
The stages of growth of soft-rot fungal hyphae in birch cell walls has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. These observations are compared with time-lapsed cinemicrographic studies on infection and cavity development within wood cell walls which show a start-stop hyphal growth pattern. The fine structure of hyphae during each stage of the decay process shows that hyphae penetratin...
M D C Hale, R A Eaton

Effect of protective additives on leachability and efficacy of borate treated wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30290
Borate preservatives have been used extensively in many countries as an effective means for protecting wood against fungal and insect attack especially in interior environments. Under exterior conditions, borate compounds have a main disadvantage as they can be leached from treated wood as a result of their water solubility. In this study, we compared the potential of different additives for re...
A Mohareb, J Van Acker, M Stevens

Local preservation with difluoride pills: Life-time of preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40127
A brief history of the situation in the Netherlands with respect to the preservation of joinery is given. Already in the eighties in the Netherlands many spruce window frames were treated with difluoride pills. One of the possible disadvantages of this kind of diffusing preservatives is the high leaching rate found in laboratory situations. The leaching rate in practice is influenced by many facto...
W J Homan, C Blom, B W Holleboom

Determination of the preventive efficacy against wood destroying basidiomycetes fungi, EN V 839 - CEN/TC 38 WG 9
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20015
The WG 9 of CEN TC/38 has presented to EC a mycological test to assess efficacy of preservatives applied by surface process. This method is now an experimental standard (EN V 839) which has to be approved by the different european delegations. The following paper is not the standard as it has been proposed but is a presentation of the principle of the method. The experimental standard specifies a ...
D Dirol

A wood preservative for the future: Copper dimethyldithiocarbamate
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30045
The development of a new wood preservative, copper dimethyl-dithiocarbamate (CDDC) is reviewed in this paper. CDDC is formed in situ by dual pressure treatments. Laboratory and field efficacy trials, physical and chemical properties of the preservative solutions and treated wood, and plant handling characteristics of the system are examined....
D K Stokes, M H Freeman, T L Woods, R D Arsenault

CCA Chemistry
1983 - IRG/WP 3268
A Pizzi

Errata to Document No: IRG/WP/3276
1984 - IRG/WP 3285
W E Conradie

Water-based wood preservatives for curative treatement of insect-infested spruce constructions
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30171
On laying down sanitation measures for wooden constructions infested by wood boring insects, we must take into account static risks for the construction - and, thus, for the security of the user - as well as risks for humans and environment due to the chemical preservative compounds of the treated wood. Analyses on many roof constructions made with spruce (Picea abies L.) have revealed that Hylot...
E Graf, P Manser, B Lanz

Microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion as a soil termiticide
1991 - IRG/WP 1478
The efficacy and the mode of action of a microcapsule formulation of fenitrothion against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated. The physicochemical property that this formulation does not allow the active ingredient to diffuse through the capsule wall contributed to a long lasting efficacy and safety for the men spraying. The residual effect of the fenitrothion microcapsule in soil was...
H Teshima, T Itoh, Y Abe

The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into...
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals - II. Performance against soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30174
Pine sapwood modified with various anhydrides and with butyl isocyanate was tested for its resistance to soft rot decay. Small stakes were exposed for 20 months in unsterile soil in a fungal cellar test. Wood modified with butyl isocyanate performed better than any of the anhydrides tested, with a threshold level of protection (less than 3% weight loss) at 12% weight percent gain (WPG). Stakes ac...
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams

Radio frequency heating times for sterilization radiata pine solid piles
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40815
In this work was sterilized wood packaging material of radiata pine, stacked as solid piles without stickers, for determining the heating times using radiofrequency treatment. The experiments were performed in a radio frequency semi-industrial equipment. The results showed that the radio frequency heating times increases with wood volume and that radio frequency treatments were faster than convent...
H Esquivel, V Sepúlveda, J Torres, L Salvo, R A Ananías

Testing of termiticides in soil by a new laboratory method with regard to Phoxim for replacement of chlorinated hydrocarbons
1986 - IRG/WP 1292
In comparison to chlorinated hydrocarbons insecticides of the compound classes organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids were tested according to an earlier described soil-test in the laboratory. The following termite-species were used: Heterotermes indicola, Reticulitermes santonensis and in addition Reticulitermes flavipes, Reticulitermes lucifugus, Reticulitermes speratus and Coptotermes for...
R Pospischil

Tentative method of testing wood preservatives against blue staining
1977 - IRG/WP 259
The blue stain of sawn wood is still a real problem in Poland. Although a preservative based on sodium orthophenylphenoxide has been introduced into sawmill practice, and the technology of wood protection developed with it, new information has been obtained concerning blue stain in wood material destined for export. In order to select new chemicals or to improve the effectiveness of the ones in cu...
E Tarocinski, O Lewandowski, M H Zielinski

Time dependent over-uptake of etherificated melamine resins
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40109
Waterbased methanol-etherificated melamine-formaldehyde resins can increase the fungal resistance of the treated wood though they are known to be non-toxic. Therefore melamine-resins are at the present an object of research activities of European projects and of some companies. The paper highlights the importance of quoting the duration of the diffusion when immersed in the treating solution, as m...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek

Efficacy of some extractives from Pinus heartwood for protection of Pinus radiata sapwood against biodeterioration. Part 1: Fungal decay
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30072
Chemical compounds thought to contribute to the natural durability of heartwood of Pinus spp. were either chemically synthesised in the laboratory or extracted from the heartwood of Pinus elliottii or Pinus caribaea. These compounds included the stilbenes, pinosylvin and its mono- and di-methyl ethers, and the flavonoids, pinobanksin and pinocembrin. Small blocks of Pinus radiata sapwood were impr...
M J Kennedy, J A Drysdale, J Brown

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