IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Remedial treatment of joinery. Comparison of distribution of organic solvent preservative and ammonium bifluoride
1978 - IRG/WP 3115
It is some years since it was recognised in the United Kingdom that there was a problem of premature decay in untreated external joinery. Consequently, recommendations for preservative treatment were made by the Building Research Establishment, Princes Risborough Laboratory. In addition, the National House-Building Council has also included the preservative treatment of external joinery in its requirements. Thus, a large proportion of external joinery manufactured in the U.K. is now preservative treated, mainly in double vacuum impregnation plants. There still remain, however, relatively new buildings where preservative treatment has not been specified and where fungal decay is a problem. Decay occurs most frequently in the lower horizontal members such as cills, and the lower rails of opening lights. The damage is often most severe at the joints, where entry of water is facilitated by exposure of end grain. In some circumstances such as in Local Authority buildings where some of the more exposed joinery has already decayed, it has been considered economic to treat the remaining sound or near-sound joinery in situ in order to prevent future attack and to arrest any slight decay that may already be present. This treatment is normally applied by injecting organic solvent preservative under pressure in the region of the joints and where considered necessary along the lower horizontal member. As an alternative method of treatment, we have investigated the possible use of ammonium bifluoride, since diffusion of gaseous hydrogen fluoride may be expected to penetrate more extensively into wet timber than organic solvent preservative. The work described below was carried out in order to assess the comparative penetration of fluoride and organic solvent preservative in redwood (Pinus sylvestris).
J M Taylor

Translation of titles of papers listed in Document No: IRG/WP/311
1972 - IRG/WP 312
BAVENDAMM W and W EHLERS: Investigation under conditions similar to those obtained in practice on the impregnation of structural timber by means of brushing and spraying. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 12 (1954) 183 185. BAVENDAMM W and H ANOZYKOWSKI: Investigations under conditions similar to those obtained in practice on the impregnation of structural timber by means of short period dipping and open tank treatment. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 14 (1956) 218 222. BAVEDAMM W: The absorption of preservative by structural timber using manual methods, Holzschutz im Bauwesen, Berlin, W Ernst and Son (1957). BAVENDAMM W and H WILLEITNER: Investigations on the practical application of the bored holes method for the impregnation of structural timber, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 15 (1957) 411 416. BAVENDAMM W and W SCZESNY: Investigations on the practical application of the hot-and-cold open tank process for the impregnation of structural wood, Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff, 15 (1957) 381 384. BAVENDAMM W and U SIUTS: Investigations on the practical application of the bored holes pressure method for the impregnation of structural timber, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 16 (1958) 430 435. BAVENDAMM W and W SCHNEIDER: Investigations on the practical application by brush and open tank for the impregnation of structural timber with bifluorides, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 17 (1959) 284 291. BAVENDAMM W, H WILLEITNER and P KAUNE: Experiments on the treatability of pine and spruce of different cross-sections, Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 23 (1965) 363 368.

Detection and estimation of Hylotrupes bajulus L. wood damages by ultrasonics
1990 - IRG/WP 2350
To evaluate the validity of the ultrasonic application in the detection and evaluation of wood damages produced by Hylotrupes bajulus L. larvae, some laboratory tests were made with small wood samples. The pulse through transmission method was used. The transit time of ultrasonic pulses in transversal sections, radial and tangential, of the samples was measured. The increment of the transit time of ultrasonic pulses with respect to clear wood gave to this method the way to estimate the damage grade.
G Prieto

Hole delimination inside round timber via ultrasonic techniques
1990 - IRG/WP 2358
A fast and economic circular scanning method to localize and evaluate holes inside round timber is presented. This method consists in measuring transit times of the ultrasonic wave by fixing the transmitter probe in the perimeter of the sample, then moving the receiver probe every ten degrees until completion of the circle. The scanning is done with a cheap and light instrument. Tests are made with clear wood samples. First, each sample is scanned by this method. Second, the process is repeated after drilling different holes in the samples. Results show that the method allows to quantify holes size and position in a fast and reliable way.
G Prieto, A Fernández Cancio

The Development of a novel method to preserve reeds using an environmentally friendly timber preservative and a unique engineering design.
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40335
Reeds are used in the construction of bush lodges in Northern Kwa- Zulu Natal, South Africa. Fungal, insect and ultra-violet damage to these reeds is posing a severe problem. Within a space of two years, the reeds are attacked and have to be subsequently replaced; a time consuming and costly exercise. A novel method has been used to successfully preserve these reeds with an environmentally friendly preservative containing disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in a water-based polymer system. The polymer allows for uninhibited diffusion of boron into the reeds, whilst the polymer cures to form a continuous protective film. By making use of two strategically drilled holes, which are 2 mm in diameter, the preservative is introduced into the reed shafts and nodes. The boron successfully diffuses into the walls of the reeds and is prevented from leaching out of the reeds. The water-based polymer provides sufficient protection against excessive ultra-violet damage. The test site, which is situated in the Hluhluwe Game Reserve in Northern Kwa-Zulu Natal – South Africa, has been monitored for nearly two years and there are no sign of insect or fungal damage to the reeds. Over the two-year period, the reeds were periodically inspected for deterioration in colour and deterioration in structural integrity.
K Govender, K G Moodley