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Laboratory evaluations of woods from Pakistan and their extractives against Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor
2016 - M Mankowski, B Hassan, A Bishell, G Kirker
Natural durable wood species are those which exhibit innate tolerance to wood decay organisms such as fungi and termites. The goal of this study was to evaluate 4 wood species (Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, Morus alba and Pinus roxburghii) from Pakistan in order to determine their resistance to both a model brown (Postia placenta) and white (Trametes versicolor) rot fungus compared to a durable reference species (Tectonis grandis). In a 12 week soil bottle test, C. deodara and M. alba were found to be resistant to decay, D. sissoo was moderately resistant and P. roxbughii was non-resistant. This resistance was greatly reduced when blocks were leached with a series of solvents. When a non-durable species was treated with extractives from these species, decay resistance did not improve against either brown or white rot test fungi.
M Mankowski, B Hassan, A Bishell, G Kirker


A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume field situations of uniform high termite hazard across field sites. Our testing procedures require the random sampling of soil cores from test soil pads (500 x 500 mm) at several geographically different locations. The soil cores from treated and untreated soil pads are returned to the laboratory and the soil residues in half of the samples examined for each year of test by gas chromatography. The bioavailability of termiticide residues in the remaining soil samples are evaluated by termite bioassays using the field collected subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Both tunnelling distance and mortality are used as indicators of termiticide activity and availability. This paper compares the traditional soil test methods with our new approach, which addresses the problems of security with longevity of test, variability of termite hazard levels at different field sites, and a practical method for managing variables in assessing potential soil termiticides. Importantly, this technique prevents the direct destruction of natural populations of subterranean termites or the indirect contamination by contact from soil residues of termiticides applied in and around active termite colonies.
J R J French, B M Ahmed


The Effect of Soil on the pH of Untreated Southern Pine in Ground Contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10742
Untreated southern yellow pine samples were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and then one, two, four and eight weeks after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH.
C Vidrine, C Schauwecker, L Jin, A F Preston


Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necessitated the development of a more rapid screening technique. A modified sapwood agar media was developed and found to be suitable for testing the extracts. It could be applied to other non-diffusible wood preservatives. Ground white cypress sapwood was impregnated with a range of concentrations of various extracts and gamma irradiated. The treated sterilised sawdust was suspended in water agar. The media were inoculated with a white rot, Lopharia crassa, or a brown rot fungus Polyporus verecundus. Growth of the isolates was monitored for four weeks, enabling dose responses to be accurately determined. Methanol was determined to be the most effective extracting solvent, and toxic threshold values of the methanol extracts were estimated. Fractions of the total extract were also compared. Most fungicidal activity was found in the most abundant fraction, which contained significant proportions of terpenes and other non-polar, low boiling point compounds.
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy


Leachability of active ingredients from some CCA treated and creosoted poles in service. A progress report after 10 years testing
1990 - IRG/WP 3627
CCA K33 TYPE B treated or creosoted poles, 10 pieces of each treatment type, have been monitored from the treatment plant to an electricity line, which was build up in Southern Finland in 1978. Preservative retention was determined by taking borings at four different levels: 1.5 m from the top end, 1 m above ground line, ground line and 0.5 m below ground. Determinations were made before setting up the poles and then after 2, 4 and 10 years in service. Also the soil around the poles and in some cases under the but end was analyzed to find evidence of leached heavy metals or creosote oil. After 10 years service the distribution of creosote has been dramatically changed. Only 1/3 of the originally analyzed creosote (150 kg/m³) was found in the borings taken 1 m above the ground level and 1.5 m from the top of the poles. However, the reduction at ground line and below ground was only 10%. This suggests that creosote oil runs down effectively and finally the flow becomes slower when creosote oil reaches the butt end, where the moisture content is much higher and the temperature lower. Significant quantities of creosote oil, 51 g/kg oven dry soil at the highest, were found in soil around the poles and under the but ends. In CCA treated poles arsenic has been leached out in large quantities at every level. At its highest the average loss was 33% at the ground line. In other parts of the poles the average loss of arsenic varied from 21% to 25%. From the top of the poles the average loss of copper was 11%. The other observation points gave figures near 20%. Chromium had been leached out in considerable amounts only from the ground level, where the average loss of 24% was analyzed. The soil samples around the poles showed some high heavy metal contents. The average amount of arsenic analyzed was 180 mg/dm³ (oven dried soil) and the greatest amount detected was as high as 420 mg/dm³. The copper content was 79 mg/dm³ and chromium 65 mg/dm³ in average.
A J Nurmi


The effect of high and low boron soils on foraging termite behaviour and their metabolic systems
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10602
The highest concentrations of boron are found in ground water and soils of some of the driest climate areas (arid and semi arid regions) in the world. This present study examined the various concentrations of boron levels on filter papers against the subterranean termite species Coptotermes from different provenances and different boron soil levels. The termites were presented with no-choice bioassays and their behaviour to the effects of high and low boron levels were observed. The results indicated that high boron soils affect termite immune systems and we discuss how this ability may affect the use of boron in timber protection.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, P Vinden


Microscopy evaluation of microbial decay patterns in wood stakes after 6 years in soil contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10715
Most studies on wood modification have so far been concerned with service life predictions rather than investigating the decay protection mechanism. Very little is known about the mode of action of these new treatments and about the strategies used by wood degraders in order to utilize the wood material despite a treatment. Access to such knowledge would allow further modification and improvement of durability of these products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the variation in microbial degradation of wood samples exposed in soil, in an EN 252 field, test for six years. Light microscopy was used for assessing degree and type of decay. Wood stakes of furfurylated and copper organic treated P. sylvestris heartwood were compared to untreated stakes of P. sylvestris. Samples for analyses were taken from three different parts of each stakes; below ground level; soil surface region, and above ground level. In general, the degradation and decay by microorganisms was greatest in the soil surface area. Brown rot, white rot, soft rot and tunnelling bacteria were found degrading the wood. Variations in decay were observed between furfurylated wood and copper organic treated wood. White rot decay were most common in furfurylated wood, where as brown rot were only present in copper organic treated wood. Soft rot was found active in a majority of the stakes. Furfurylated stakes treated to a medium treatment level were more resistant to soft rot decay than furfurylated stakes treated to a low treatment level.
A Pilgård, C G Björdal


Seasonal shifts of fungal community structure at the interface of treated or untreated wood and soil
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10721
Many wood species are degraded rapidly in soil by the fungal community. In order to preserve wood and structures in which it is used, chemical preservatives are used. Little is known about the interaction of treated wood and the surrounding soil fungal community. For this work, presented at IRG 41, wooden specimens (Pinus sylvestris sapwood, sizes 25 mm x 50 mm x 500 mm (longitudinal)) were treated with a formulation of chromium-copper-arsenic-(CCA) at two concentrations. Untreated wood of the same dimensions was used as controls. After drying and an appropriate fixation period, the specimens were buried in soi1 up to half of their length at the BAM test site in North East Germany. The interface of the wooden specimens and soil were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2008 and the nucleic acids were extracted. The structure of fungal community was assessed by T-RFLP analyses (terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism) of the fungal ITS (internal transcribed spacer) region. In addition, samples were sequenced to identify fungal community members. Significant differences in the fungal community composition were detected in response to the presence (and concentration) of wood preservatives and to the season. The species identified were predominated by ascomycete fungi, and only at the actual interface of the non-preserved wood and the soil were basidiomyecte fungi detected. The interface to CCA preserved wood was composed of sequences affiliated to the genera Phoma, Peziza and Cladosporium. Patterns of the fungal communities were highly reproducible and the spatial sampling at the test site had only a minor effect on their composition.
M Noll, I Stephan


Structural changes, basidiomycete richness, enzyme activity and proteomic profiling of decay resistant and non-resistant woods over 18 months in soil contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10733
Wood decay fungi damage wood by production of enzymes that attack the structural components. The objective of this study was to better understand which suite of decay genes and proteins are expressed during biodeterioration of three different wood types in forest soil over time. Variation in decay genes and proteins were determined for pine (non-resistant), cedar (naturally durable), and ACQ-treated pine (chemically resistant) in a soil decay bed. Decay was assessed by visual decay ratings, dynamic MOE, and microscopy. There were no significant difference in decay between cedar and ACQ-treated pine over the 18 month period. However, there were significant differences in decay between pine and cedar and between pine and ACQ-treated pine. The fungal mycelia penetrated the cell walls of pine and were continually observed over 18 months, but not in cedar or ACQ-treated pine. Basidiomycetes containing decay genes were detected on pine which also had a greater diversity of fungi compared to cedar and ACQ-treated pine. No basidiomycete genes were expressed and only a few basidiomycetes were identified on cedar which also showed little decay. ACQ-treated pine also showed a little decay however basidiomycetes were present and active. Proteins were first detected on pine and ACQ-treated pine at 6 months and the numbers continued to increase through 18 months, but were not detected on cedar until 14 months. There was greater number of total proteins on pine than cedar and ACQ-treated pine at each time period. From these results, the natural durability of cedar reduced the wood decay community and its activities. It appears that ACQ-treated wood did not stop the growth of the decay fungi and the production of the decay enzymes but the chemical treatment did inhibit the effectiveness of the enzymes thus decay.
Youngmin Kang, S Diehl, L Prewitt, D Nicholas


Copper preservative systems: A rapid investigation into effects of co-biocides and used treating solutions
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30541
The efficacy of various micronized and amine copper preservative systems was evaluated using soil block testing with the copper tolerant brown rot fungi, Postia placenta. The American Wood Protection Association E22 protocol was used to compare the relative efficacy of preservatives by monitoring compressive strength losses of the systems in southern pine wood. As information, the weight losses were also measured and the relative ranking of the systems was the same by either methodology. Generally, the micronized and amine systems with co-biocides performed very well while systems without a cobiocide did not. Used treating liquids obtained from operating plants did not show any significant differences in performance compared to virgin liquids of the same system.
T F Shupe, K Ragon, Q Wu, M H Freeman, C R McIntyre


Copper distribution in soil leached from full scale decking boards during one year
2010 - IRG/WP 10-50265
The distribution of copper in the soil under exposed decking boards after one year has been analysed. The decking boards were impregnated with copper HDO, copper quat and copper triazoles. The decking boards were pine sapwood and pressure treated in a full cell process, fixed by heating and then dried. The samples were not surface treated. Each decking sample of five boards (0.25 m2) was placed on a frame of untreated spruce, 10 cm above the soil surface. In addition to the three treated samples, there was one untreated as a reference. After one year of exposure, the samples were removed and soil samples in different depths were taken. These were later boiled in de-ionised water and nitric acid (pH=2). The solutions were analysed for copper. Only the surface samples (0-2 cm) had elevated copper content compared to the back ground level. The copper fixes hard to the soil and only small amounts of copper will be washed out by rain.
F G Evans


Comparative response of Reticulitermes flavipes and Coptotermes formosanus to borate soil treatments
1991 - IRG/WP 1486
Eastern (Reticulitermes flavipes [Kollarl]) and Formosan (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki) subterranean termite workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to borate-treated sand in an indirect exposure tunneling assay in the laboratory. In the ten day assay period, both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5000, 10000, or 15000 ppm (wt. of compound / wt. of sand) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (Tim-BorÒ) or zinc borate (Firebrake ZB-FineÒ). With Reticulitermes flavipes, significant mortality (85-93%) resulted from workers tunneling through sand treated with 5000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (higher concentrations were also effective), or 15000 ppm zinc borate. Responses of Coptotermes formosanus workers were lesser and more variable, with only concentrations of 10000 and 15000 ppm zinc borate resulting in mortality 70-89%) significantly different from that in the control groups. These results suggest that differences between these two species in tunneling behavior may reduce exposure of Coptotermes formosanus to the borate-treated sand.
J K Grace


Improvements of monitoring the effects of soil organisms on wood in fungal cellar tests
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20093
Accelerated testing the durability of preservative treated timber in a so called "fungal cellar" or "soil-bed" to evaluate its performance in ground contact is widespread practice. In order to obtain a more accurate and reproducible estimate of preservative performance, several institutes, among them the BAM in Berlin, have routinely carried out static bending tests in addition to visual examination. These tests were usually performed with a defined maximum load or deflection path regardless of the remaining degree of elasticity of the test specimens. Recent studies at the BAM revealed that by modifying the method, i.e. by restricting the applied load to the non-destructive interval for each individual test specimen, the calculated modulus of elasticity (MOE) reflect the changing strength properties caused by biological deterioration and allow within a relatively short time valuable predictions on the service life of the treated timber in soil contact.
I Stephan, S Göller, D Rudolph


Field performance of wood preservative systems in secondary timber species
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30152
The objective of this ongoing study is to evaluate the performance of new, potential, and standard wood preservative systems in secondary North American timber species. Eleven preservative systems were evaluated in this study - ACQ Type B, Copper Citrate 2: l, CDDC, chlorothalonil/chlorpyrifos, copper-8-quinolinolate, tebuconazole/chlorpyrifos, RH287, propiconazole/chlorpyrifos, copper naphthenate, CCA. and creosote. Field evaluations are being performed with ground contact field stakes and termite-specific testing in Hawaii, along with laboratory soil bed tests. The major wood species used with all the systems and evaluation methodologies are loblolly pine, northern red oak, tulip poplar, and cottonwood. More limited evaluations (field stakes only) are being conducted with eastern hemlock, red maple, and sweetgum. Information is presented from laboratory soil bed, field termite, and field stake evaluations. There is good correspondence between soil bed and field stake results. The more highly developed preservative systems and those in an AWPA P9 Type A oil carrier tend to perform better, and there can be a strong affect on performance from the wood species.
P E Laks, K W Gutting, R C De Groot


Improved techniques designed for evaluation of fungicides in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans
1985 - IRG/WP 2238
Improved techniques provide a laboratory method for the evaluation of chemicals in soil for control of dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Results with their application to three chemicals were reported. These techniques are useful to eliminate chemicals lacking the necessary toxicity and weatherbility for dry rot control when the chemicals have been applied to the soil.
M Takahashi, K Nishimoto


Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi.
A F Bravery, J K Carey


Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2103
J D Thornton, H Greaves


Soil virulence tests using Scots pine sapwood
1973 - IRG/WP 222
Following the tests reported in Document No: IRG/WP/210, in which soils from different laboratories were investigated for virulence, supplementary tests have been carried out using Scots pine sapwood and an extended incubation period.
J K Carey, J G Savory


The accelerated field simulator (= fungal cellar)
1982 - IRG/WP 2170
G C Johnson, J D Thornton, H Greaves


CCA modifications and their effect on soft rot in hardwoods
1982 - IRG/WP 3201
Decay tests were carried out on wood samples treated with three waterborne compounds all identical in composition but applied in different forms. There were significant differences in the effectiveness of the treatments particularly as regards the control of soft rot.
S M Gray, D J Dickinson


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungus cellar and the results will be presented for the following types of biocides: Tebuconazole in combination with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar), quats with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar) and Cu-organic compound combined with copper and boron (3 years fungus cellar). Figures will be shown on the development of the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) over the years and on an assessment of the stakes according to EN 252.
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


Laboratory decay test of Burmese in and kanyin treated with three wood preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3210
Laboratory decay tests were performed on samples of In (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.) and Kanyin (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn f.) pressure treated with three wood preservatives - copper arsenic additive (CAA - a variation of ammoniacal copper arsenate), Arquad C-33 (a waterborne quaternary ammonium formulation), and tributyltin acetate (TBTA) dissolved in ethanol. Pressure treatments with each preservative involved a 0.5 - 1 hour vacuum followed by a 4 hour period of pressure. This resulted in a very variable treatment because of the inherent difficulty in treating these woods. The decay tests entailed a slightly modified form of the AWPA M10-77 standard soil-block test using three brown-rot and three white-rot fungi. The untreated In and Kanyin samples were moderately susceptible to decay though weight losses were very variable and some samples of Kanyin (usually the densest and least permeable) were naturally resistant. At the concentrations tested CAA was the most effective in reducing weight losses incurred in the soil-block tests. TBTA was successful in controlling decay caused by all but two of the test fungi. It is suggested that preservative retentions for TBTA conforming to those included in the Candadian standard for bis (tributyltin) oxide would exceed the toxic limit for all the fungi tested
J N R Ruddick, R S Smith, A Byrne


Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility poles were also collected. Water holding capacity, pH, mechanical properties of soil samples were determined for both depth levels. Results showed that Cu, Cr and As concentration in soil samples taken from all three cities in 0-5cm depth was higher than soil samples taken from 30-40cm depth. Cu, Cr and As concentrations were much higher in soil samples taken from city of Rize.
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman


Use of vermiculite as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of treated wood
1989 - IRG/WP 3547
It is considered the possibility of using vermiculite instead of soil as substrate in assays on phytotoxicity of wood treated with preservatives for agricultural use. Three organic preservatives were used. It had been tested the behaviour of both, vermiculite and soil in case of preservative leaking due to a leach. So that, assays of germination with cucurbitaceous were carried out, mixing a dose of preservatives with both substrates.
M V Baonza Merino, D Franco


Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


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