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The evaluation of the occurrence of soft rot in creosoted wooden poles
1988 - IRG/WP 1368
The occurrence of soft rot decay in creosoted wooden poles for overhead power lines was investigated by collection of field samples, their subsequent microscopic examination and statistical analysis of the data collected. Examination of samples collected from 296 poles revealed that approximately 15% of the pole population studied (Eastern Electricity Board) showed the presence of soft rot decay. Further, it was found that of undated poles, (those emplaced before 1953,) 17% displayed soft rot attack.
A Wylde, D J Dickinson

Nondestructive Evaluation of Oriented Strand Board Exposed to Decay Fungi
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20243
Stress wave nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being used in our laboratory to evaluate the performance properties of engineered wood. These techniques have proven useful in the inspection of timber structures to locate internal voids and decayed or deteriorated areas in large timbers. But no information exists concerning NDE and important properties of wood composites exposed to decay fungi. For our pilot study on several types of wood composites, we examined the relationship between nondestructive stress wave transmission, decay rate and the bending properties of OSB exposed to the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum (MAD-617). The following measurements were taken: stress wave transmission time (pulse echo test method), static bending test (ASTM D3043-95), and decay (expressed as percent weight). Stress wave measurements correlated with strength loss and with increasing rate of fungal decay. Stress wave NDE has great potential as a method for inspection of wood composite load-bearing (in-service) structures, detection of decay in laboratory tests, assessment of chemical additives to improve wood composite durability, and prediction of long term composite performance.
B Illman, V W Yang, R J Ross, W J Nelson

Cu, Cr and As distribution in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50214
In this study, the main objective was to asses the distribution of Cu, Cr, and As in soils adjacent to CCA treated utility poles in Eastern Blacksea Region of Turkey (Trabzon, Rize and Artvin ) and determine the influence of soil composition. Surface (0-5cm), subsurface soil samples (30-40cm) were collected near CCA-treated utility poles and control soil samples away from CCA-treated utility poles were also collected. Water holding capacity, pH, mechanical properties of soil samples were determined for both depth levels. Results showed that Cu, Cr and As concentration in soil samples taken from all three cities in 0-5cm depth was higher than soil samples taken from 30-40cm depth. Cu, Cr and As concentrations were much higher in soil samples taken from city of Rize.
E D Gezer, Ü C Yildiz, A Temiz, S Yildiz, E Dizman

Studies on the destruction by marine borers of fishing boats along the north-eastern Black Sea coasts of Turkey
1980 - IRG/WP 451
Marine wood-boring organisms are attacking fishing boats along the northeastern coasts of the Black Sea, Turkey. The damage and the intensity of attack of Teredo navalis L in fishing boats were studied.
O A Sekendiz, R Ilhan

Extending the useful life of creosoted electricity distribution poles in service
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-16
Creosoted transmission poles have provided good service over many decades in a whole range of environments. The use of save biocides for secondary treatments has the potential to extend the life of such poles. These techniques, together with a full understanding of the modes of failure, make it possible to establish new strategies to further improve the environmental benefits of treated wooden poles.
D J Dickinson, B Calver

Mycological testing of plywood and board materials. Part 1: Review of information supplied by IRG members
1978 - IRG/WP 284
In December 1975 IRG members were asked for published information, information of current work in progress and views on mycological test methods for board materials. The object was to stimulate discussion and possibly establish a joint research effort within IRG in order to establish a meaningful test with reproducible results.
C R Coggins

Results on termite resistance of building materials against Coptotermes formosanus by choice test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10275
Various building materials, included wood species, wooden board materials, thermal insulation materials and fire-protection materials, were tested for grading of termite resistance against Coptotermes formosanus. The dimension of most specimens were 2x2x2cm3. Ten repeats were prepared. The specimens were put between Akamatsu sapwood control specimens on a laboratory cultured mound colony of termite, Coptotermes formosanus. After 1 month of attack to termite, the specimens were removed from the mound colony and cleaned up. Then these final mass were weighed. The grading of termite resistance was initially estimated by mass loss of specimens. This grading was corrected by visual observation. Japanese 3 domestic species, cypress pine, Alaska- ceder, kapur and mahogany were indicated rather high termite resistance. In the case of Siberian red pine and Gmelina, the valued of termite resistance were shown variable. Tropical species plywood, inorganic board and radiata pine MDF, were shown rather high termite resistance. Other board materials were shown rather less termite resistance. Most of commercial soft wood plywood and OSB were very sensible against termite. Most common thermal insulation materials in Japan were estimated very sensitive against termite. In the case of fire protection materials, expanded concrete was rather good against termite but plaster board was very sensible against termite.
K Suzuki, K Hagio

Contribution to the testing of wood based board material
1982 - IRG/WP 2176
R G Lea

Wood-destroying insects found in the Eastern Black Sea sub-region of Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1153
The Eastern Black Sea subregion has important forest resources. The settlement areas are scattered at the countryside. That's why a good deal of wood and timber is used in the construction of buildings without sufficient protective measures in the rural areas. In the forests and rural buildings 52 wood-destroying insect species have been specified 35 of which are new in this subregion and 14 are new in Turkey.
O A Sekendiz

The effect of storage or simulated internal use on the durability of wood based panels to decay fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20106
Wood based panels such as particleboard and medium density fibreboard are experiencing a steady increase in use, in areas from structural to decorative applications. Understanding the "natural" durability of these panel products against basidiomycete fungal decay is therefore of great importance. Various methods have been proposed or are under development to test the durability/susceptibility of various panel products to decay. Our research has shown that if the fungal exposure methods detailed in the current European pre-standard (DD-ENV 12038:1996) are used to test boards fresh from manufacture, the susceptibility ratings observed are significantly lowered by the buildup of inhibitory substances in the test vessels. The effects of storing the boards before testing, in order to remove this effect have been studied with repeat biological tests carried out at intervals of 6 months. Our results show that even after 6 months storage the effect is reduced but not totally removed. The time after manufacture and the storage conditions are clearly significant variables affecting the "durability" of test specimens taken from the boards and therefore the incorporation of an appropriate preconditioning stage into the test is essential so that the effect is avoided.
S F Curling, R J Murphy, J K Carey

Performance of chromated copper arsenate-treated aspen fence posts installed in Forintek's Eastern test plot from 1951 to 1963
1984 - IRG/WP 3272
Aspen poplar fence posts were pressure treated by the full cell process using three formulations of copper chrome arsenate wood preservative. A total of one hundred and fifty nine of the posts were installed in service in Forintek's Chalk River post plot from 1951 to 1962. During the 1982 general inspection of the post plot all 159 posts were still in service. A groundline inspection was carried out on the material to determine the extent to which decay had progressed during this period. Samples were taken from the surface of tanalith C treated posts and subsequent microscopic examination revealed that soft rot attack was present in the outer portion of posts. The groundline area of posts treated with (K 33), CCA type B and (greensalt) CCA type A were in generally good condition after 22 years and 31 years respectively. Rate of decay was highest for CCA-C tanalith treated posts at 0.3 mm per year with a retention of 3.04 kg/m³ oxides.
C D Ralph

Termites in Eastern Canada: An updated review and bibliography
1990 - IRG/WP 1431
This report updates Document No. IRG/WP/1333, issued in 1987. The current distribution of termites in eastern Canada and current termite control practices and controversies are explained, and current research is very briefly summarized. Since 1987, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) has been discovered in several more municipalities in the province of Ontario, and in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In October 1989, a well-established drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) infestation was also found in the framing of one house in Toronto. Restrictions on soil pesticide applications for subterranean termite control have increased since 1987, and research on termite biology and control has progressed at the University of Toronto. A comprehensive bibliography of publications, technical reports, and theses concerned with termites in eastern Canada is included in this report.
J K Grace

Decay resistance of high performance biocomposites based on chemically modified fibres
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40120
Different partners within the framework of a European research project produced high performance biocomposites aiming at the utilisation of board materials as durable products both in dimensional and biological degrading circumstances. This paper summarises test data, which indicate the potential of board materials produced with modified fibre material. The chemical modifications applied cover a range of technologies, which were selected for scaling up experiments. Acetylation, as well as alternative methods like maleiation, phthalylation, succinylation, oxidation and silylation were investigated. Fibre source, density variation and the use of several types of glues were parameters of the total set-up. Basidiomycete testing was carried out using specific methodology for board materials elaborated in CEN standardisation committees.
V Rijckaert, J Van Acker, M Stevens

Field testing of soil insecticides as termiticides
1986 - IRG/WP 1294
This paper reviews field methods used to evaluate soil insecticides as termiticides by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gulfport, Mississippi. Field tests are conducted on a minimum of five "nationwide sites" in the United States to determine the efficacy of chemicals in various soil types and against different termite species. Test results of selected insecticides are presented.
R H Beal

Use of the Pilodyn to assess deterioration of treated aspen waferboard after 30 months of outdoor exposure
1986 - IRG/WP 2254
Samples of preservative treated aspen waferboard exposed outdoors for 30 mo. were compared using pin penetrations of the 6 Joule Pilodyn. These results correlated well with rankings of treatment performance based on more laborious standard mechanical tests, and demonstrate the potential for use of the Pilodyn as a tool to evaluate wood composites in test exposures with minimal destruction.
E L Schmidt, M G Dietz

The secondary treatment of creosoted electricity poles with fused boron rods
1988 - IRG/WP 3485
After preliminary trials selected poles were treated at the groundline with fused boron rods. Early samplings showed that movement was slow in the dry heartwood but after six years the distributions obtained indicate that the system has merit for the treatment of the heartwood of poles in service.
D J Dickinson, P I Morris, B Calver

Preliminary evaluation of borate baits and dusts for eastern subterranean termite control
1990 - IRG/WP 1433
Borates are of potential use in the development of baiting systems for subterranean termite control. In the 15-day laboratory assays reported here, the oral toxicity of disodium octaborate tetrahydrate to Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) was evaluated under choice and no-choice conditions. These assays suggest a range of 2500 to 5000 ppm to be applicable in developing baits, and that concentrations greater than 5000 ppm may deter feeding. Laboratory assays with borate dusts (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, zinc borate, and a fine-grain zinc borate) are also reported. In a toxic variation of mark-release methodology, these materials are passed among the test group by grooming foragers exposed to the dust. In these assays, 10% of the test group was exposed to the borate dust, then released placed in contact with unexposed workers in a simulation of a field release. Zinc borate treatment elicited the greatest mortality (99-100%), although disodium octaborate tetrahydrate also elicited mortality significantly greater than that in the control groups. These results suggest that less soluble borates may be more efficient dust toxicants, and that capture and dust-treatment of a portion of the foraging termite population could elicit high mortality among termites contacting the treated individuals after their release back into the colony.
J K Grace, A Abdallay, J M Sisson

Biodegradation of acetylated southern pine and aspen composition boards
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40020
This objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the acetylation treated wood fiber, Phenol-formaldehyde resin content level, two wood fiber species, three fungi species on the dimensional stability and decay resistence of high density composition boards. A standard ASTM method was used to evaluate weight loss and thickness change. The linear shrinkage and expansion of each species were also determined. All specimens were exposed to decay chambers for 16 weeks. Test results indicated that most of the main factors significantly influence the thickness and length changes and the decay resistance of the high density composition boards.
P Chow, T Harp, R Meimban, J A Youngquist, R M Powell

Eastern subterranean termite responses to three soil pesticides
1990 - IRG/WP 1432
In laboratory assays simulating field conditions, tunneling and mortality of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) workers were evaluated in sand treated with aqueous solutions of formulated chlorpyrifos, isofenphos, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Chlopyrifos and isofenphos were evaluated at concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm (weight of active ingredient / weight of sand), and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate at 2500 and 5000 ppm. No tunneling was observed in sand treated with chlorpyrifos, and high termite mortality suggested vapor and/or high contact toxicity. Tunneling was initiated in isofenphos-treated sand, and termites subsequently died in the tunnels from contact toxicity. At both concentrations, termite mortality from isofenphos exposure was equivalent to that with chlorpyrifos, but the shorter tunnel length at the higher isofenphos concentration (1000 ppm) indicated a concentration-dependent rate of mortality. Greatest tunneling was observed in sand treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate. Low and variable mortality with this compound at 2500 ppm are attributable to its slow toxic action and, possibly, difficulty in obtaining an homogenous distribution. Tunneling was not inhibited at 5000 ppm, but mortality was comparable to that observed with 1000 ppm chlorpyrifos, although slightly less than with 1000 ppm isofenphos. Termiticides having different repellency/mortality profiles are potentially useful in termite control.
J K Grace

Studies on the destruction by marine wood boring organisms of fishing boats in the Eastern Black Sea of Turkey
1977 - IRG/WP 427
The present paper concerns the problem of fishing boats which are attacked by wood boring organisms in the Black Sea of Turkey. The aims of this study are: 1) to identify the marine wood boring organisms attacking fishing boats in the Northern Black Sea of Turkey; 2) to identify the wood species that are used in boat building construction and assess their durability; 3) to assess the degree of attack of the marine wood boring organisms and to evaluate the protection methods and chemicals currently applied to the fishing boats.
R Ilhan, O A Sekendiz

Termites in Eastern Canada: A brief review and assessment
1987 - IRG/WP 1333
The distribution of termites in Canada is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in Ontario province. Municipal and provincial termite control programs are discussed and current treatment practices are described. Previous research on Reticulitermes flavipes in Ontario is briefly reviewed, with reference to a number of unpublished reports and publications of limited distribution.
J K Grace

Health and safety aspects of the use of wood preservatives in Sweden
1977 - IRG/WP 396
The Act on products Hazardous to Health and to the Environment (Swedish Code of Statutes SFS 1973:329) came into force on 1st July 1973. The Act cancelled and superseded the Poison Act, the Pesticides Act and the PCB Act from 1962, 1962 and 1971 respectively. Regulations for the implementation of the Act are contained in the Ordinance on Products Hazardous to Health and to the Environment (SFS 1973:334) and also in an Amendment of the Ordinance (SFS 1973:1050). A comprehensive summary of the Act and the Ordinance prepared in common by the Swedish Ministries of Agriculture and Foreign Affairs has been deposited in the IRG/WP Secretariat. Much of the information given below as regards the Act is derived from this booklet.
B Henningsson

Treatment of wood-based panel products with volatile borate
1990 - IRG/WP 3616
The paper presents recent developments in the use of volatile borate esters for the preservative treatment of wood based board materials. Several advances on previous reports are discussed. In laboratory studies, treatment times of approximately ten minutes at 20°C on boards at equilibrium moisture content provided full penetration and retentions of 1% wt/wt boric acid. Biological tests have been conducted on a wide variety of boards treated by the vapour boron method. In all cases a retention of 0.7% wt/wt boric acid gave complete protection from decay. These results are considered with regard to parallel studies on solid wood by colleagues at the Forest Research Institute, Rotorua. The advantages of vapour boron treatment for wood based board materials are discussed.
P Turner, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson

Worldwide in-ground stake test of acetylated composite boards
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40088
Acetylated wood composite stakes are being tested in ground contact (graveyard test) in seven fields around the world. Three types of acetylated wood composites were prepared: spruce fiberboard in Sweden, aspen fiberboard in Madison and rubber wood particle board in Indonesia. Two levels of acetylation were used, a high level of ~20% acetyl content and a low level of 10% acetyl content. Control boards of unmodified wood fiber/particle were also included. Stakes for the in-ground testing were taken from the boards and the size of each stake was 5x30x1.25 cm3. The stakes were put out in four continents: one test field in USA, one in New Zealand, two in Indonesia and three in Sweden. After three years of testing, results show that acetylation of wood provides excellent protection against fungal attack and minimizes swelling.
R M Rowell, B S Dawson, Y S Hadi, D D Nicholas, T Nilsson, D V Plackett, R Simonson, M Westin

Wood protection by surface treatment of two borate preservatives, TIM-BOR® and BORA-CARE®, for the formosan subterranean termite and eastern subterrean termite
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10044
TIM-BOR® (disodium octaborate tetrahydrate: DOT, Na2B8O134H2O) and BORA-CARE® (40% DOT in ethylene glycol) are two borate products marketed for treating wood in use by brushing or spraying onto the wood surface. The active ingredients presumably diffuse into wood by the 10-15% existing wood moisture. Few data, however, are available to demonstrate the diffusion rate. Su & Scheffrahn (1991) suggested that diffusion rate of BORA-CAREä is quite slow but may be enhanced by the moisture brought in by termites into wood. As there is an increasing interest in using these products for remedial control of subterranean termites, there is a need to understand how do they behave. The object of this study is to examined the termiticidal effects of borate surface-treated wood against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Koller).
M Toroko, N-Y Su

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