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Report of field test results for dichloro-n-octyl-isothiazolone: A potential new wood preservative
1988 - IRG/WP 3495
In a previous report (IRG/WP/3306) we presented preliminary laboratory test results on 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolone (RH 287). Laboratory data indicated toxic threshold values for RH 287 ranging from 0.37 to 0.50 kg/m³. In this report we present field test results on an IRG L-joint test and an in-ground stake test for RH 287, pentachlorophenol and biocide free test units. (a) L-joint test: After 39 months exposure (Starkville MS.) units pressure treated with 0.05 kg/m³ RH 287 rated 9.7 out of 10. Units dip treated in a 0.5% ai solution of RH 287 rated 10 out of 10. Biocide free controls exposed in the same series rated 5.3 out of 10 after 39 months (b) Stake test: After 48 months exposure in two southern US test plots stakes treated with neat RH 287 in toluene at 4.6 kg/m³ rated between 8.6 to 8.8 out of 10 for decay and 9.1 to 9.8 out of 10 for termite attack. Biocide free control stakes rated O out of 10 for decay and 1.1 to 4.8 out of 10 for termite attack after 48 months. RH 287 continues to show promise as a potential new wood preservative. Results to date were obtained in samples treated with neat RH 287, Formulation of RH 287 into treatment systems specifically designed for above ground or ground contact applications should only improve the already excellent activity seen with RH 287.
D E Greenley, B M Hegarty


Resistance of the wood of Eucalyptus saligna and Paulownia tomentosa against some wood rotting fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10238
Paulownia tomentosa and Eucalyptus saligna are not autochthonous species in Slovenia and we determined the resistance of their wood against our most common wood rotting fungi. The resistance against Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor was determined according to EN 113 and compared to the resistance of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. It was stated, that both paulownia and eucalypt wood samples are much more resistant than beech wood. Especially paulownia wood was outstanding by its natural resistance against tested basidiomycetes.
F Pohleven, M Petric


Comparison between the Hylotrupes bajulus strains of different European laboratories
1980 - IRG/WP 1118
In several European countries, wood preservatives of the same formulation are subjected for the quality label to particular tests according to standards established by the CEN. The different laboratories which carry out these tests have had their cultures for many years. The insects are kept in optimal nutritional and climatic conditions and have always mated amongst themselves. On the one hand, eradicant tests made with the same preservative in different laboratories have not always yielded the same results, and on the other hand, the Comitte of European Homologation has been trying to establish a single label for the European Community according to which it will be possible to carry out tests by any national laboratory of the participating countries. If the results are satisfactory, this will enable an approval certificate to be provided for the sale of these products throughout the countries of the Community. It is very important to be certain that the behaviour of insects and the insecticide resistance of the different insect strains are identical. For this, the best test seemed to be the determination of the toxic value of the wood preservatives against Hylotrupes bajulus (Linnaeus) new-hatched larvae, according to the European standard EN 47.
M-M Serment


Virulence tests with fungal strains used in EN 113 CEN ring test. Results with Coniophora puteana (Schum.ex Fr.) Karst
1986 - IRG/WP 2249
D Dirol


Tebuconazole - a new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1991 - IRG/WP 3680
The great potential of Tebuconazole for wood preservation is demonstrated. Test carried out by official institutes shown that Tebuconazole is particularly effective against wood-rotting basidiomycetes strains. The efficacy of Tebuconazole against the brown rot Gloeophyllum trabeum is outstanding: the toxic value measured in accordane with EN 113, without·ageing, after leaching (EN 84) and after evaporative ageing (EN 73) are below 0.051 kg/m³.
O Exner


Investigation on different variation factors in the results of mycological test and means to reduce and avoid them
1986 - IRG/WP 2264
In order to clarify the causes of the dispersion observed in the results obtained with mycological tests made in accordance with standard EN-113, different factors assumed to be sources of the variations were studied. These included the moisture content of the test samples during the test, the influence of certain technological properties of the wood, the virulence of the fungus strains, the method by which the test pieces were treated and the effect of the solvent, and behaviour of the wood fungus in contact with the wood preservative. It turns out that certain factors which were supposed to be important are actually secondary (humidity). On the other hand, the virulence of the strains is a major problem and requires a serious examination. Treatment by dipping with a ready-to-use product might avoid errors due to obligatory dilutions. In the end, wood species other than beech and Scots pine be used. However, one must not lose sight of the fact that there is a risk that the toxic values may not always be identical.
D Dirol


Toxic values derived from EN 113 tests - are they determined by the virulence of a test fungus? - Results from a round robin test -
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20176
The virulence of Coniophora puteana BAM Ebw. 15, the obligatory test fungus on softwood in tests according to EN 113, is known to be rather inconstant at least in some laboratories. The mass losses of untreated Scots pine sapwood blocks in an EN 113 test may range from below 20% to up to more than 50%. Possible reasons for these differences as well as the impact of a low virulence on the toxic values of a preservative under test were discussed and a round robin test with subcultures of C. puteana Ebw.15 and of Poria placenta FPRL 280 of different virulence and origin was carried out. Subcultures of both test fungi considered as either virulent or weak were distributed by there laboratories of origin. All test specimens originated from one laboratory. They were treated with a CCB salt by another laboratory and distributed to the partners. The results show that the virulence of identical subcultures may differ remarkable most probably depending on the culture conditions of the laboratories involved.In the case of P. placenta differences in virulences did not cause different toxic values in the round robin test. In the case of C.puteana, however, different toxic values were obtained. Furthermore, this fungus showed an increased sensitive behaviour to varying test conditions. A virulence <40% of C. puteana generally reduced the toxic value at least by one concentration.
H Leithoff, R-D Peek, H V Borck, R Goettsche, H Kirk, M Grinda


Tebuconazole - A new triazole fungicide for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 3629
The main cause of economic damage to timber and millwork worldwide are Basidiomycetes (brown and white rot). After testing a wide range of triazole derivatives for their effectiveness against decay fungi, Tebuconazole, a triazole compound, was selected. The physico-chemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological data of this substance are described. Tebuconazole is unleachable, light-stable, heat-stable and suitable for use in both solvent-borne and water-borne formulations. Tests carried out by official institutes show that Tebuconazole is resistant to both leaching and evaporation. Toxic values measured in accordance with EN 113 and EN 73 (e.g. Gloeophyllum trabeum: 0.03-0.08 kg/m³ a.i.) reveals the great potential of Tebuconazole to protect treated wood against decay fungi.
R Gründlinger, O Exner


Pyrethroids: Isomerism and efficacy
1986 - IRG/WP 1284
Pyrethroids are drawing increasing attention to the wood preservative formulators because: ( 3; 6) a) pyrethroids reveal good efficacy against a large variety of wood boring insects by contact. b) pyrethroids show good long term efficacy because of their high stability in timber. c) mammal toxicity is relatively low ( e.g. bats) (9). d) pyrethroids are almost odorless. It was found that different methods of pyrethroid synthesis result in different ratios of isomers (1). Special effort was put into the proof of the reciprocal relationship between cis-percentage of an isomeric pyrethroid mixture and its toxic value against wood boring insects. Permethrin (52645-53-1), an ester of the chlorine derivative of phenoxybenzylalcohol and vinyldimethylcyclopropancarboxylic acid is on the market as a (±) cis/trans-isomeric mixture between 60:40 and 25:75. The ratio 25:75 compromises between efficacy and toxicity.
R Gruening, R Pospischil, S Cymorek, W Metzner


Some Experiences with Stake Tests at BAM Test Fields and in the BAM Fungus Cellar Part 1: Comparison of Results of Visual Assessments and Determinations of Static Moduli of Elasticity (MOE)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20319
With examples of routine in-ground stake tests differences are shown in the performance of wood preservatives at the BAM test fields Lehre and Horstwalde and in the BAM fungus cellar. Signs of attack of micro-organisms were assessed visually according to EN 252. Periodical determinations of static moduli of elasticity (MOE) revealed the influence of the attack on the elastic properties of the wood specimens. The course of visible signs of attack and the residual MOE corresponded sufficiently in the fungus cellar. At comparable decrease rates of the MOE the visible signs of fungal attack developed slower at the test fields than in the fungus cellar. The stake dimensions distinctly influenced the accelerating effect of the fungus cellar.
M Grinda, S Göller


Resistance of DMDHEU-treated pine wood against termite and fungi attack in field testing according to EN 252. Results after 30 months
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40354
The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness against decay and termite attack of pine sapwood treated with pure and modified DMDHEU in a field test according to European Standard EN 252. Some of the treatments tested were able to increase, within the period of the test reported (30 months), the resistance of the wood both to micro-organisms and termites. The curing process seems to be the key factor for this increase as WPG (weight percent gain) of the modified wood alone was not sufficient for the prediction of the long-term performance.
S Schaffert, L Nunes, A Krause, H Militz


Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20535
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consists of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. When comparing EN 84 preconditioning (two weeks water leaching) with natural preconditioning (1 year in field, above ground) according to CEN/TS 15397, no significant difference could be noted for untreated controls, thermally modified wood or CCA impregnated wood. However, for wood treated with a metal-free organic preservative, a clear difference could be seen where much of the efficacy seen after EN 84 preconditioning is lost when natural preconditioning is used instead. In the field tests, the control pine performs similar in all fields whereas both thermally modified and preservative treated wood performs much better in the Nordic fields than in the Mid- and Southern European fields. The thermally modified wood performs almost as poor as the controls in the Southern European fields, whereas the organic preservative treated wood performs well in these fields. In the six Mid-European fields, the organic preservative treated and thermally modified wood performs equally poor but much better than the controls. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, B Mazela, E Melcher, R Möller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


10 year Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30718
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consisted of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. The laboratory test results were reported in an earlier IRG paper (IRG/WP13-20535) but are included also in this paper in order to facilitate the comparison with the field test results. As expected, the decay generally developed more rapidly at the southern European compared to the northern European field sites. However, the rank order of the different test groups concerning average decay ratings were the same for most field sites – Untreated pine sapwood controls had the highest decay ratings followed by TMT-UC2 (Thermally Modified Timber treated for use class 2 application), TMT-UC3, metal-free organic preservative in low retention, metal-free organic preservative in high retention, CCA in medium retention, and finally CCA in high retention that had very low decay ratings. The best compliance between field performance and laboratory test results is obtained when comparing the average results from the field tests with results from EN 113 tests with Postia placenta after natural preconditioning according to CEN/TS 15397. When evaluating the test methods it was clear that CEN/TS 15397 before the EN 113 test in laboratory seems to give far more relevant results than EN 113 after preconditioning according to EN 84 (water leaching for 2 weeks). The double layer field test does not function the way it was meant after failure ratings were reached for one or more stakes within a test group leading to collapse of the deck. This has occurred not only at the Southern European field sites but also in some cases for mid-European and Nordic test sites. After this type of collapse has been reached it is doubtful whether there is any point with continuing the test and therefore the test has now been terminated in some fields.
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, E Melcher, R Moeller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen


Results of chemical analyses in the field of wood preservation in the Bundesanstalt für Materialprüfung
1973 - IRG/WP 321
The results of qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of wood preservatives are often the basis for evaluating the various works in the field of wood preservation. In the past 10 to 15 years a number of such works was carried out in the Bundesanstalt fur Materialprüfung, Berlin-Dahlem, dealing with the identification and effectiveness of wood preservatives and with methods of wood preservation. Fundamental realisations were made which will be summarised below. It seems advisable to differentiate between inorganic and organic chemical wood preservatives and methods of analyses. These are two distinct fields which differ also with regard to the analytical techniques applied.
H J Petrowitz


Comité International Permanent pour la Recherche sur la Préservation des Matériaux en Milieu Marin. Information from the Wood Group
1980 - IRG/WP 460
E G B Jones


Insect resistance of preservative treated tropical plywood against Lyctus
1990 - IRG/WP 1453
Seven plywood types composed of tropical wood species, vulnerable to Lyctus, were treated with various commercial water-borne and oil-borne preservatives. A wide range of preservative retentions was obtained by treating boards with dip treatment, steeping, double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnations. Selected samples were subsequently tested for their insect resistance against Lyctus africanus during 6 to 8 months according to European Standard EN 20. All control samples were attacked, except one Obeche plywood exhibiting only 50% attack. Water-borne preservative solutions containing arsenic, boron or fluoride could not prevent attack at common retention levels for interior use e.g. lower than 5 kg/m³. Quaternary ammonium compounds showed no insecticidal efficiency, up to 3 kg/m³. TCMTB at 1.5-1.7 kg/m³ proved to be able to reduce slightly the susceptibility for insect attack. Organic insecticides gave the best results, with nearly no attack for plywood treated with lindane or cypermethrin. In spite of a preservative uptake of 25 to 30 kg/m³, endosulfan only could reduce attack by 50%. Protection by permethrin at 0.1% a.i. required a retention of 28 kg/m³. Besides the fact that variability in wood species and composition of the plywood are leading to different retention levels, variation in penetration and distribution of a.i., and as a consequence to a different insect resistance of the impregnated boards, some poor results were directly related to inadequate insecticidal activity and/or concentration of a.i. in some commercial formulations for Lyctus control.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Pallaske


Studies on accelerated ageing procedures with TBTO-treated wood
1985 - IRG/WP 2244
The efficacy of various procedures for accelerated ageing of organotin based wood preservatives in treated wood has been investigated. It was found that leaching of the treated wood samples in water according to the European Standard EN 84 was not satisfactory for organotin based preservatives and is probably also unsuitable even for other types of organic solvent preservatives. Keeping tributyltin oxide (TBTO) treated samples in a heating cabinet at 70°C for five weeks, however, had a considerable effect on the breakdown of TBTO and the subsequent decay test. Therefore, an ageing procedure involving a heating period should be considered for all organic solvent wood preservatives. The investigation also confirmed that elevated temperatures accelerate the degradation of TBTO and that there is a strong correlation between the percentage of TBTO in the wood and its resistance against decay.
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, W Hintze


Results of stake tests on wood preservatives (Progress report to 1974)
1975 - IRG/WP 361
A number of field stake trials on preservative-treated wood have been carried out at Princes Risborough Laboratory from 1928 to the present day, and many of the tests still continue. This paper presents in detail the results obtained to date, covering about 15 000 individual test stakes exposed over the period.
D F Purslow


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. &apos;78 to 11 Oct. &apos;79
J R De Palma


Temperature influence on the growing velocity and cellulolytic activities of Poria placenta strains from several locations
1986 - IRG/WP 2263
The differences observed on the FPRL 280 Poria Placenta strain at several Research European Laboratories for determining up the fungicide effectiveness of wood preservative has carry us to do a comparative study about the cellulolytic activity and growth velocity of each of this strains at different temperatures (22, 24 and 28°C). The results show significative differences when the temperature is changed.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya


Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of European oak heartwood (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor) was tested according to european standard EN 113. The experimental material consists in 23 oaks robur and 26 petraea oaks sampled from 9 French regions. For each tree, 3 twin samples were taken off from heartwood situated at 1.30 m from the bottom of the tree. Different effects were tested by hierarchic variance analysis: "species", "forest within species" and "tree within forest". The tree effect is very significant for biologic natural resistance. Variability between species was also demonstrated. Although the species effect is significant, it&apos;s relatively weak compared with tree differences (it was declared significant 5%). Durability classification was determined according European standard EN 350-1. 69.2% of petraea oak trees are classified as high durable, 19.2% durable, 7.7% moderately durable and 3.8% slightly durable. In the case of robur oak 91.3% of trees are classified as high durable and 8.7% durable.
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller


Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 600 mm³ (T x R x L). About 30 preservatives mainly water born but 20% of oil born preservatives included, were examined for this test. We checked the damage rating every year by the observation. The service life of the preservative treated stakes were estimated at the period when the average damage rating of stakes were reached beyond 2.5 . Creosote oil, creosote oil mixed heavy oil (75:25 and 50:50) and creosote oil mixed coal tar (75:25 and 50:50) are still sound conditions for 33 years. CCA (JIS K 1554 Type 1) 2% and Tancas C 2% are still sound conditions for 28 years. Because of soft rot, the treated Buna specimens were shorten as ones of treated Sugi.
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka


Depletion of boron and copper from CCB treated test specimens using different leaching protocols
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50208
The objective of this study was to measure the depletion of inorganic wood preservative components regarding the proposed OECD guideline "Estimation of emissions from preservative-treated wood to the environment: laboratory method for wooden commodities exposed in the use class 4 and 5" as part of the project "Investigations concerning the influence of test parameters on the release of biocidal actives from treated timber in leaching tests". Pine sapwood specimens (50x10x150) were pressure impregnated with CCB according to European Use Class 4. Before leaching all samples were stores 4 weeks for fixation. In addition leaching tests were performed according to the European Standard EN 84 by means of EN 113 blocks. Parallel investigations were carried out between two laboratories to assess the repeatability and comparability of the methods. The results of chemical analysis of leachates taken at different time intervals show that similar depletion rates were determined for copper and boron independent on the leaching protocol used. However, the loss of copper as well as chromium in short term dipping experiments was often lower than the detection limit. Furthermore it can be stated that the difference between parallels was higher for the results which were obtained for the OECD guideline that EN 84. A comparison of both laboratory results indicate that a quite good repeatability is given in case of the CCB treated material.
E Melcher, R-D Peek, U Schoknecht, R Wegner


Preliminary results of investigations on screening test of chemical compounds suitable for the preservation of lignocellulosic materials against biodeterioration
1976 - IRG/WP 262
This paper investigates the possibilities of reducing the time needed for the determination of the effectiveness of chemical compounds from the point of view of their eventual application to lignocellulosic materials for preservation against decay and soft-rot.
K Lutomski, S S Neyman


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