Your search resulted in 32 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical...
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung
New developments in wood preservation
1974 - IRG/WP 335
Most of the developments in wood preservation in recent years have been stimulated by changing circumstances, particularly the increasing interest in reducing hazards and environmental, pollution but also the serious difficulties that are now being encountered in obtaining economic supplies of established preservatives. There is perhaps a danger that new controls to reduce pollution dangers may be...
B A Richardson
Distribution of cellulases in the body of Coptotermes formosanus and the probability that the termite uses glucose as an energy and carbon sources
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10202
We assayed extracts of the digestive system and of the whole body of Coptotermes formosanus to determine where the various cellulases, glucose, and related substances were concentrated and to detect pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the hindgut-removed body in order to verify its full cellulolytic system. About 20%, 18% and 36% of the total exo-1,4-ß-glucanase activity of C. formosanus were dete...
S Itakura, H Tanaka, A Enoki
EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst...
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek
Effects of surfactants and ultrasonic energy on the treatment of wood with chromated copper arsenate
1977 - IRG/WP 3108
Sugar pine stakes 1'' x 1" x 16" were treated by a hot-water bath followed by soaking in cold CCA solution for 10 to 30 minutes. A similar number of stakes were treated by a cold-cold bath. Half of the stakes were subjected to ultrasonic energy during the CCA bath. The mean absorption for stakes given the hot-cold bath was 18.52 pcf (297 kg/m³) and 4.64 pcf (74 kg/m³) for those...
C S Walters
Efficiency of wood impregnation processes
1980 - IRG/WP 3151
Many wood impregnation processes have been in use for a very long time, up to 150 years, but they have not been progressively modified. This paper considers impregnation processes in relation to current requirements, particularly impregnation efficiency and energy consumption. The term 'pore' is used throughout in its physical sense and is not confined to botanical 'pore...
B A Richardson
Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of organotin preservative solutions and treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3125
One technique frequently used for the quantitative analysis of material containing inorganic compounds is energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It has been shown previously that this technique can be readily used to determine the retentions of chromated copper arsenate and ammoniacal copper arsenate treated wood. This paper reports the results of a preliminary study to determine wheth...
J N R Ruddick
The Effect on Biological and Moisture Resistance of Epichlorohydrin Chemically Modified Wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40224
Southern pine solid wood and fiber were chemically modified with epichlorohydrin to help in understanding the role of moisture in the mechanism of biological effectiveness of chemically modified wood. The solid wood had weight gains from 11% to 34%, while the fiber had weight gains from 9% to 75%. After modification, part of the specimens were water leached for 2 weeks or extracted for 2 hours ...
R E Ibach, B-G Lee
Environmental consequences of various materials in utility poles - A life cycle analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3726
A model for environmental life cycle analysis, LCA, has been created to compare environmental impact from transmission poles, made alternatively of concrete, steel, aluminium and pine wood treated with CCA type B or creosote. The main pollution sources and energy use are included in the LCA. One pole size, 12 meters long, is presented in the study, a so called "45 kV" pole. Poles of different mate...
M Erlandsson, K Ödeen, M-L Edlund
Determination of bis-(N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper in different matrices by photometer, thermal energy analyzer and HPLC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20179
For the quantitative analysis of bis (N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) three analytical methods are used. The employment of the different methods depends on the matrices involved. For several years now, the colorimetric determination of Cu-HDO by photometer has been applied to solutions and concentrates of wood preservatives. In principle, the technique consists of a quantitative conve...
J Wittenzellner, W Hettler, M Maier
CCA-treated Wood Disposed in Landfills and Life-cycle Trade-Offs With Waste-to-Energy and MSW Landfill Disposal
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50231
CCA-treated wood as a solid waste is managed in various ways throughout the world. Although some wood is combusted for the production of energy in the U.S., more often than not, CCA-treated wood is disposed in landfills. In other countries, wood, often including CCA-treated wood, is combusted for the production of energy. This paper is presented in two parts. Part I evaluates the impact of CCA-tre...
J Jambeck, K Weitz, T G Townsend, H M Solo-Gabriele
Environmental characterisation of retification process by-products (liquid and gaseous wastes)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-10
In order to reduce environmental risks during the service life of the treated wood and to find new alternative developments on the durability of wood, some research and technology development have been made on thermal treatment. The retification process is one of these processes. The retification process induces chemical modification of the lignin and cellulosic components and modifies the intrins...
G Labat, E Bucket, S Legay, C Yriex, P Marchal, E Raphalen, M Vernois, R Guyonnet, H Besset, E Fredon), G Vilarem, L Rigal, C Raynaud
Evaluation of rapid methods for detecting wood preservatives in waste wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50024
For the disposal of wood waste under ecological sound conditions information about its hazardous potential is required. Several analytical methods are available for the detection of most elements in wood preservatives. Industrial process conditions, however, demand methods with very short turn around times. In this research several methods of analysis were judged on their speed and accuracy. A num...
W J Homan, H Militz
High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 2: A mechanical test for the detection of fungal decay
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20339
The suitability of the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test for detection of early fungal decay was examined. The HEMI – test characterizes the treatment quality of thermally modified wood by stressing the treated material by thousands of impacts of pounding steel balls. This method differentiates between heat treatment intensities, which are expressed by structural changes of the wood. Simil...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp
High-energy multiple impact (HEMI)-test – Part 1: A new tool for quality control of thermally modified timber
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20346
Thermal modification processes improve durability and dimensional stability of wood, but the strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised and need to be considered with respect to industrial quality control. Results from standard dynamic strength testing, such as impact bending tests, suffer from high variability, and therefore require a high number of replicates. To overcome ...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher
Evaluating the Process of ACQ-Treated Woods with TGAand CEM Analysis
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20374
To provide an understanding of the fundamental thermal behaviour and the disposal-end products of ACQ-treated woods, this study is comprised of two categories of examination. The first is related to the use of TGA under different thermal decomposition conditions (nitrogen or air, and 5 or 40 oC/min), and the use of EDX to examine certain residual elements of the char. The second applies the CEM ...
Han Chien Lin, Tsang-Chyi Shiah, Jung Ting Tsai
Mechanical strength of wood from the Vasa shipwreck
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20381
Samples from three ancient ship wrecks (Vasa, Elefanten, and Gröne Jägaren) and recent oak samples as reference were examined with regard to mechanical strength using the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) - test method, which delivers the resistance to impact milling (RIM) of a material. Adoption and optimisation of the test method for the particular sample size of the wooden drilling cores was...
A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher, T Nilsson, C Björdal
The effect of gamma radiation on selected wood properties
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40394
As an easy, fast, and effective sterilisation method, gamma irradiation changes molecular structures not only in pest’s living cells, but also in wooden cell walls. Radiation-induced depolymerisation causes significant changes in some properties of wood crucial for restoration and for laboratory testing of wood-preservative effectiveness. The influence of gamma radiation concerning total amount ...
R Despot, M Hasan, A O Rapp, C Brischke, C R Welzbacher
Thermal treatment of Nigerian-grown Albizzia zygia and Funtumia elastica wood in soy oil medium.
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40413
Thermal treatment in soy oil medium is one of the techniques used as a substitute to the chemical treatment in wood preservation. However, the effects of this technique vary from one species to another and hence the need to investigate the response of individual species to it. Thermal treatment of air-dried Nigerian-grown Albizzia zygia and Funtumia elastica wood was carried out in a vessel contai...
Estimating the heat treatment intensity through various properties of thermally modified timber (TMT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40459
The suitability of different measures for prediction of the heat treatment intensity was investigated. Therefore, the resistance to impact milling (RIM), the lightness L*, the equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and the total amount of soluble carbohydrates (TSC) of heat treated specimens were correlated with corresponding fungal resistance achieved by heat treat...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp
Influence of heat treatment intensity on the structural integrity of 14 timber species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40586
Thermally modified timber (TMT) is characterized by improved durability and dimensionally stability, but strength properties, especially the dynamic ones, are compromised at the same time. Because dynamic standard tests require high efforts and time, the high-energy multiple impact (HEMI) –test was developed for the fast and reliable characterisation of the structural integrity of TMT, showing a...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, G Maier
Utilization of thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS to characterize volatiles formation kinetics during wood thermodegradation
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40587
Identification of volatile degradation products produced during wood mild pyrolysis is important to have better insight on thermodegradation mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS is an attractive tool to characterize and quantify products formed during wood thermodegradation indicating an higher susceptibility of hardwoods to thermodegradation compare to so...
K Candelier, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Kamdem, P Gérardin
Surface energy characterization of thermally modified wood using inverse gas chromatography
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20532
The objective of this work is to characterize surface energetics of thermally modified wood. Such information may be useful for a better understanding and predictions of adhesion properties between the modified wood and other material systems, e.g. coatings, adhesives or matrices in composites. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to study the surface energy characteristics of thermally modif...
S Källbom, K Segerholm, D Jones, M Wålinder
The Chelator Mediated Fenton System in the Brown Rot Fungi: Details of the Mechanism, and Reasons Why it has Been Ineffective as a Biomimetic Treatment in some Biomass Applications – a Review
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10828
The chelator-mediated Fenton (CMF) reaction requires the action of two types of chelating compounds. The first chelator, oxalate, solubilizes and then sequesters iron, and the second chelator reduces iron. Iron reduction must be controlled near the fungal hyphae to prevent damaging Fenton chemistry from occurring in that location. Similarly, iron reduction must be promoted within the wood/plant ce...
B S Goodell, M Nakamura, J Jellison
Changes in mechanical and chemical properties of wood exposed outdoors
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20550
The aim of this study was to investigate differences in certain mechanical and chemical properties of three different wood species (common beach (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and copper-ethanolamine (CuE) impregnated Norway spruce (Picea abies)) that were exposed in use class 3 (CEN, 2006) for periods between 4 and 30 months. The results show, that changes in the investigated me...
N Thaler, C Brischke, D Žlindra, V Vek, M Humar