Your search resulted in 166 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Environmental situations on wood preservation industries in Japan
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-21
Because of environmental civil oppinions, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan, reviesed "the standards for sawn lumber" in 1994. For the possibilities of the use of preservatives out of CCA, by the using of the hazard levels, new products like ACQ, DDAC and emulsified zinc-naphthenate can be used in the standards. Since 1994, the permitable limit of the arsenic in the waste wa...
Preservative leaching from copper-chrome-arsenic treated timber: Towards an international standard for environmental monitoring
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50076
A review of standards and legislative requirements around the world relating to environmental contamination from copper-chrome-arsenic wood preservative indicates a plethora of methodologies for expressing and determining contamination levels. The imposition of arbitrary quarantine periods for treated timber, or special fixation processes, appear to be applied without a rational analysis of what l...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden
Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility ...
Moisture content levels and decay of hemlock
1986 - IRG/WP 1287
As a model of decay conditions of wooden members in wooden houses, a decay test was set up in which samples of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) under 4 moisture levels were examined. Each week the samples were weighed and if the weights indicated that their moisture contents were lower than the expected levels, distilled water was added. Every 8 weeks 3 samples from each condition were oven dr...
The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of ...
P Esser, J Cramer
Environmental status of wood preservation in the UK
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50018
The environmental status of wood preservatives and treated wood in the UK is summarised. The current legislatory position with respect to approvals, supply, use and waste disposal is considered. The bibliography at the end of this paper contains details of all publications referred to together with other relevant information although this cannot be exhaustive....
Loss of preservatives from treated wood during service
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3734
During the 23rd IRG conference in Harrogate the matter of preservative losses from treated wood during service was raised. We were asked to collect information in this field and ask now for help from you. Many tests have been carried out at a laboratory scale to study fixation and leaching from wood treated with different preservatives. Very little, however, is reported on losses of preservatives ...
M-L Edlund, D Rudolph
Programme section 5, Environmental aspects
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50099
Programme section 5, Environmental aspects
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50077
The registration of wood preservatives under the Pesticides Act of 1962 in the Netherlands
1976 - IRG/WP 364
J Van der Kolk
Programme Section 5 Environmental aspects
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50138
Successive collections of Basidiospores from wood decay fungi (in vitro) show variation in germination levels on common media
1978 - IRG/WP 191
In the course of various preliminary experiments in which spore germination levels of 6 decay fungi on malt and water agar were recorded as controls, it was noted that one could not reliably obtain an expected level of spore germination for any particular fungus. Inconsistent 'control' spore germination levels of a fungus greatly complicates large scale experiments in which compa...
E L Schmidt, D W French
Rates of emission from CCA-treated wood in the marine environment: measurement, modelling and requirements for further research
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-12
Accurate estimates of rates of emission of leachate from preservative treated wood are crucial for realistic predictions of the environmental impact of its use in maritime construction. Estimates are available for some commonly used preservatives, but these vary widely. Though variable, these measurements suggest that emission generally decreases exponentially with time. Part of the variation is d...
S M Cragg, C J Brown, R A Albuquerque, R A Eaton
Quantitative determination of Chromium: A comparison of three instruments
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50053
A comparison is made between three instruments for measuring levels of chromium in the leachate of copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) treated timber. These include an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer and the RQflexâ. The RQflexâ is a new hand-held instrument which measures chromium by dipping a ReflectoquantÒ strip into the leachate and inserting the stri...
S Walley, P R S Cobham, P Vinden
Environmental impact of CCA poles in service
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50087
Soil samples from different depths and distances from CCA treated utility poles in Canada were analyzed for copper, chromium and arsenic content for a number of soil types, two wood species red pine (Pinus resinosa) and jack pine (P. banksiana) and different pole ages in service. A limited number of poles were equipped with water traps to collect rain water that dripped down the poles and where su...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, J-P Aucoin
Regulations of pesticides (including wood preservatives) in the United States
1977 - IRG/WP 397
G B Fahlstrom
Environmental issues: Messages for the wood preservation industry
1985 - IRG/WP 3353
A review of the origins and structure of environmental legislation throughout those territories of the world where wood preservation is a major industry is given. The implications of media, industry and legislation interaction is discussed and suggestions made as to the key issues the wood preservation industry should concentrate its attentions on in the immediate future....
D G Anderson, P Waldie
An introduction to environmental aspects of groundwater arsenic and CCA treated wood poles in Bangladesh
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50081
The environment comprises biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Therefore, environmental science is a multi-disciplinary study, includes life sciences, physical sciences, chemical sciences, geology, geography, meteorology, forestry, agriculture, soil science, hydrology, ecology, public health, engineering etc. Tremendous industrial and mining activities, deforestation and population ...
A K Lahiry
Inorganic wood preservative levels in soil near a noise barrier treated with different preservatives after 8 years in service
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50234
In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were installed near Stockholm Sweden. The test sections include untreated Scots pine, spruce and larch and Scots pine, treated with different wood preservatives. After 8 years in service, the untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with the soil were significantly decayed, with an estimated service life of about 5-10 years, while the u...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung, M-L Edlund, J Jermer, O Söderström
Oxygen index levels and thermal analysis of wood treated with melamine-formaldehyde-boron combinations
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30135
Melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin was impregnated into scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) specimens with aqueous solutions of 5, 10 and 20% concs. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) was added to MF resin at the concentration levels of 0.25, 1.00 and 4.70% to each level of resin concs. BA and BX mixture was prepared at the 5:1 (w/w) ratio considering resultant pH of solutions and better fire resistance. U...
M K Yalinkilic, W-Y Su, Z Demirci, E Baysal, M Takahashi, S Ishihara
The role of communication in the field of environment protection: A case study "Wood Protection"
1990 - IRG/WP 3574
Trends in environmental management in industry. Implications for wood preservation activities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-34
J A De Larderel
A review of environmental emissions from building and construction materials in comparison with preserved wood
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-11
A review of the public domain literature concerning emissions to the environment from materials which are used in the construction of buildings (e.g. Concrete, Asphalt, Galvanised Steel), in comparison with preserved wood, and a review of the approaches taken by the construction sector in assessing the risk from environmental emissions, in comparison with the approaches taken by the wood preservat...
E F Baines
Restrictions or environmental taxes as regulatory means - How will they influence the use of pressure treated wood?
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-28
In all the Nordic countries except Norway, we have environmental restrictions on the use of pressure treated wood. In Norway we expect environmental taxes on a large number of various products in 1998/99 - probably also pressure treated wood with one or more of the heavy metals copper, chromium and arsenic. The paper will discuss how this can influence the use of pressure treated wood and cause a...
F G Evans
Fully impregnated poles for a minimum environmental impact: Eucalyptus poles
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-24
The classical processes for preservation of wooden poles (vacuum-pressure and Boucherie processes) allow the impregnation of the sapwood only. The new radial-axial injection process has been applied to Eucalyptus poles, and has led to impregnation of both sapwood and heartwood. Further more; preserving product is injected both through the groundline area and through the bott end. This allows the...