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Copper naphthenate-treated Southern Pine pole stubs in field exposure. -Part 2: Chemical characterization of full size pole stubs 12 years after treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30246
This study examines the influence of pre-treatment and post-treatment steaming on the character and physio-chemical nature of copper naphthenate in hydrocarbon solvent treated pine in larger, pole diameter, pole stub-length samples. This work is the continuation of two projects that began almost a decade ago. Previous reports indicated that certain morphological changes might occur in small labora...
H M Barnes, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman

Comparative studies on the distribution of lignin and CCA elements in birch using electron microscopic X-ray microanalysis
1987 - IRG/WP 1328
The microdistribution of metal preservatives in treated wood has received considerable research over the last two decades. Despite this, little effort seems to have been made to try and correlate the distribution of CCA elements with respect to naturally occurring wood cell wall components in wood. In the present preliminary study an attempt is made to relate the distribution of lignin in-situ wit...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

Chemical investigation of 23-year-old CDDC treated southern yellow pine
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30141
The effect of 23 years exterior exposure on CDDC treated southern yellow pine was evaluated by the application of solid state analytical instrumentation. Analytical methods including environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM),energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and atomic absorption spectr...
D P Kamdem, C R McIntyre

The effect of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40086
The current study was undertaken to investigate the influence of steam conditioning on Southern yellow pine treated with copper naphthenate (Cu-N). Pre-steamed and /or kiln-dried Southern yellow pine were pressure treated with Cu-N. After treatment, one group of samples were post-steamed. It was found that samples changed color from green to dark-brown after post-steaming. To elucidate the effect ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem, M H Freeman, R D Arsenault

X-ray analysis of selected anatomical structures in copper/chrome/arsenic treated wood
1973 - IRG/WP 320
Application of analytical electron microscopy to problems in wood preservation has been very limited. Indeed, less than ten workers appear to have published their results using the technique, and of these' only two papers deal with energy dispersion procedures in the scanning electron microscope; the others employ the more familiar wavelength dispersive methods of the electron probe....
H Greaves

Occurrence of manganese deposits in test stakes exposed in groung contact situations
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10182
Dark spots and flecks were frequently recognized on the surface and within non-preservative treated hard- and softwood test stakes placed in soil contact. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in conjunction with electron microscopy showed the flecks to be composed primarily of manganese dioxide. Detailed transmission electron microscopy observations indicated intrusion of manganese into the wood ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson, J Volc

Visualization of inorganic element distribution in preservative treated wood by SEM-EDXA
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40208
SEM-EDXA was found to be an effective way of visualizing inorganic element distribution in wood as it was possible to examine some inorganic elements at the same time and map the concentration differences in color. Japanese cedar sapwoods were impregnated by vacuum treatment with CuAz or by pressure treatment with CCA preservatives and then distribution of Cu, Cr and As elements in wood were exami...
H Matsunaga, R Matsumura, K Oda

The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM an...
M Rosenqvist

Preliminary study on relation of wood structure to copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) distribution in kempas (Koompassia malaccensis)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40054
Kempas had been treated with copper/chrome/arsenic (CCA) preservative using full cell process. Analysis of preservative distribution at the micro level in relation to wood structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDXA) analysis. The results showed that CCA elements were detected in all wood tissues at different ratios. Distribution of chemical...
S Ani, S Salamah

Anatomical Characteristics to the Distribution of Water-borne Copper Wood Preservatives in Wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40277
The objective of this study was to understand the micro-distribution of a copper-based preservative in wood in connection with anatomical morphology and to consider the fixation of copper in wood. Bulk specimens and semi-ultra thin sections (0.5µm) obtained from Japanese cedar were treated with a CuAz preservative solution. After fixation, SEM-EDXA was used to investigate the micro-distribution...
H Matsunaga, J Matsumura, K Oda

Fixation and leaching of selected Malaysian tropical hardwood after treated with CCA
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40207
The objective of this study is to investigate the fixation and leaching properties of selected Malaysian tropical hardwood (sentang wood (sapwood and heartwood) and rubberwood) after being treated with copper chrome arsenate (CCA) type-C preservative. The samples were treated with retention level of 0.5%, 2.0% and 5.0%. The samples were leached and the leachate were analyzed by AAS and the amount ...
R Hashim, O Sulaiman, Tan Siew Ching, K Yamamoto

Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis

Cell wall microdistribution of chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate in treated spruce
1989 - IRG/WP 3548
Chloropicrin and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) residues were observed using SEM/EDXA and TEM/EDXA in treated spruce wafers that had been exposed to the vapors of the two fumigant preservatives. Chlorinated residues from chloropicrin were found throughout the wood cell wall, even in acetone extracted material. The residues were most heavily concentrated in extractive materials in the rays, but unlike ...
G F Daniel, B Goodell

Utilization of coconut timber from north Sulawesi, Indonesia. Part 2: Treatability
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40025
Under tropical conditions coconut wood is quickly degraded by mold and blue stain fungi. Low density wood in ground contact is commonly decomposed by wood destroying fungi within a period of only a few months, higher density wood from the outer stem regions within 24 to 30 months (MOSTEIRO, CASIN, SERIBAN 1976; McQUIRE 1975). Moreover, according to McQUIRE (1975) green wood of lower density is hig...
R-D Peek

Diffusion and interaction of components of water-borne preservatives in the wood cell wall
1988 - IRG/WP 3474
This study investigates the rates of diffusion and ultimate distributions of copper and arsenate components of wood preservatives in wood cell walls following vacuum treatment. Adsorption studies of copper on red pine (Pinus resinosa) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood confirm the importance of cation exchange reactions on the ultimate distribution of copper in the wood substance and i...
P A Cooper

Microdistribution of Copper in Copper-Ethanolamine (Cu-EA) Treated Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus spp.) related to density distribution
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40270
The relationship between copper absorption and density distribution in wood cell walls was investigated in this study. The density distribution on layer level was obtained from two approaches: (1) calculation by using data obtained from literature; (2) microdistribution of carbon and oxygen atoms in the wood cell. The microdistribution of carbon and oxygen in untreated southern yellow pine (Pinus ...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem, E Pasek

Microdistribution of water-borne preservatives in blue gum treated by full-cell process
1990 - IRG/WP 3617
The present work deals with the study of the microdistribution of copper, chrome and arsenic elements in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sapwood, treated with a CCA water-borne preservative by full-cell process, with the help of scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersion X-ray analysis technique. The work shows that the retention of CCA elements is high in vessels and vasicentric par...
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, J M Palacios

SEM-EDXA of CCA-treated Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20399
The microdistribution of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative in rubberwood was studied using scanning electron microscope in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDXA). Bulk X-ray analysis showed that there was a high accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in the vessels and lower concentration of the three preservative elements in fibres. Chromium appeared to rec...
I Jusoh, D P Kamdem

Inhibition of Basidiospore Germination by Copper from MCQ, ACQ and CCA Leachates
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10778
The long-term decay resistance of refractory wood shell-treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in above-ground exposures has been attributed to mobile copper that migrates into checks and inhibits the germination of basidiospores. Copper from micronized copper quat (MCQ) has also been shown to migrate into checks suggesting similar performance as a shell treatment, but questions have been ra...
R Stirling, J Drummond, P I Morris