IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Ten Year Marine Borer Exposure Trial of Chlorothalonil and Emulsified Preservatives in Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30314
Results of a ten-year marine exposure trial at Townsville and Port Stephens are presented. Sawn Pinus radiata and natural round Eucalyptus obliqua specimens were treated with preservatives including creosote (HTC), pigment emulsified creosote (PEC), chlorothalonil, and the oil emulsions of CCA called PROCCA and HYCON. Basic zinc chloride treatment was also exposed at Townsville. Some of the findings were that P9 oil treatment of Pinus radiata prevented teredinid attack over ten years, although specimens had failed to Limnoria. A double treatment of CCA plus oil may therefore be effective. PEC performed sightly better than HTC on an equivalent creosote retention basis. Treatment using 5% chlorothalonil in oil generally gave similar performance to HTC. PROCCA performed better than CCA at equivalent CCA retentions against teredinids, most likely due to the small amount of oil (5%) present in the formulation. Basic zinc chloride provided resistance to marine borers, although treated P. radiata was softened due to the acidity of the treatment solution. One of the better performing timbers was PEC treated turpentine (Syncarpia glomulifera), which was unexpected as retentions achieved were below standard requirements for hardwoods. In the tidal zone, Sphaeroma caused more damage to CCA treated P. radiata at Townsville than Port Stephens, while Limnoria tripunctata was more active at Port Stephens than Townsville.
L J Cookson, D Scown

A determination of the toxic level of ACQ2100 wood preservative for the powder post borer Lyctus brunneus (Stephens)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20029
The sapwood of two Lyctus susceptible Australian hardwoods, messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua L'Herit.) and black bean (Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. et Fraser ex Hook) were pressure impregnated with ACQ2100, a wood preservative, to produce replicates of a range of retentions. Preservative retentions were determined by solution weight uptake at treatment and chemical analyses of selected samples was attempted. After post treatment seasoning, timber specimens were exposed to fresh adult Lyctus (Stephens) beetles and allowed to stand in an environment controlled insectary. After 1.5 times the life cycle time for the insects in control specimens, the trial was evaluated for Lyctus activity. A table of preservative retentions and insect activity is provided. A toxic level of ACQ2100 for Lyctus is proposed.
A R Moffat

Note and literature survey on the "Eucalyptus borer" Phoracantha semipunctata F. (Col.; Cerambycidae), a pest in between forest and wood
1984 - IRG/WP 1228
In the Eucalyptus-forests of Huelva, Spain, Phoracantha semipunctata appears as a severe forest-pest fatal to trees impaired by drought. The population snowballed in two and a half years, millions of larvae reduce the value of wood to "papermill-quality''. One of the intentions of the paper is to collect knowledge for help and cure. A literature survey forms the main part of the paper.
S Cymorek

Boracol 40 - A potential remedial and preservative treatment for lyctids
1983 - IRG/WP 1192
The paper reports on a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of a diffusion formulation, Boracol 40, when applied as a brush treatment: to the surface of Eucalyptus obliqua against the powder-post borer Lyctus brunneus. After a five month bioassay, Boracol 40 has severely retarded the progress of active infestations of Lyctus brunneus and has been 100 per cent effective as a preventative treatment
J W Creffield, H Greaves, C D Howick

Lyctine susceptibility testing and dealing with rarely susceptible hardwood species
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10607
This study examined the lyctine susceptibility of 16 timber species or hybrids. Several of the timbers have been placed previously in a ‘rarely susceptible’ category, but for standards and compliance purposes, such in-between ratings are not acceptable. Timber specimens were spot tested for starch content, and exposed to three species of lyctine beetles in an insectary. New criteria were developed to divide the problematic ‘rarely susceptible’ species, including naming a species non-susceptible if significant attack was limited to 6 mm depth, as this region is routinely lost upon sawing. Lyctine susceptible species were Erythrophleum chlorostachys, Eucalyptus delegatensis grown in Tasmania but not Victoria or NSW, Eu. regnans/obliqua hybrid, Corymbia nesophila, Eu. fibrosa, Eu. grandis, Eu. crebra, Eu. argophloia, Eu. dunnii, Eu. regnans from Tasmania, Eu. saligna, and Eu. grandis/saligna hybrid as both parent species were susceptible. The non-lyctine susceptible species were Eu. cloeziana, Eu. pilularis, Eu. sieberi, and Eu. tetradonta. Starch could be detected using the spot test in 126 of the 129 specimens rating S2 (moderate) or S3 (heavy) for lyctine attack. However, many specimens with starch were not attacked, for reasons unknown but unlikely to include narrowness of pores, for the timber species examined.
L J Cookson, J Carr, N Chew, J W Creffield

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley

Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage

Phoracantha semipunctata Fab. dans le sud-ouest Espagnol: Lutte et dommages
1985 - IRG/WP 1250
L G Tirado

Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino

Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers.
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto

Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana

Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy

A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira

The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman

IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley

Report on International Conference on Marine Biodeterioration, Goa, India, January 1986
1986 - IRG/WP 4127
At the International Conference on Marine Biodeterioration - Advanced Techniques Applicable to the Indian Ocean, there were a number of papers relevant to the aims of Working Group IV of IRG. Abstracts of these papers and a brief commentary on the conference are presented.
S M Cragg

The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker

In-ground performance of two formulations of chlorothalonil after five years of exposure at three test sites in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30101
Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. were each treated to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and installed in-ground at three field test sites in Australia. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been rated for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After five years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens at each site reveal that the performance of all three retentions of each formulation, particularly the two highest retentions, is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, T L Woods, N Chew

Resistance of the wood of Eucalyptus saligna and Paulownia tomentosa against some wood rotting fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10238
Paulownia tomentosa and Eucalyptus saligna are not autochthonous species in Slovenia and we determined the resistance of their wood against our most common wood rotting fungi. The resistance against Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor was determined according to EN 113 and compared to the resistance of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. It was stated, that both paulownia and eucalypt wood samples are much more resistant than beech wood. Especially paulownia wood was outstanding by its natural resistance against tested basidiomycetes.
F Pohleven, M Petric

Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas

A survey to assess the current and future usage of timber in British port structures
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10247
Port engineers responsible for 30 British ports were surveyed by questionnaire or interview to establish current and prospective usage of timber in those ports. The ports surveyed account for about 25% of total cargo handled annually in Britain and being located all around the British mainland, were considered to form a representative sample. The survey identified the hardwoods and softwoods in use for various applications in port structures, the criteria for selecting materials for these structures, the materials considered most suitable for piles and fenders and the types of preservative specified. Additional data was collected on the current condition of structures, incidence of marine borers, experience and training of port engineers and their attitude towards timber.
G S Sawyer, S E M Plaster

New technique for inoculation of wood wafers with fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20113
A pilot study is described for determining the best possible method for inoculating fungi onto the surface of wood wafers for sapstain control studies. Direct inoculation and spray inoculation are compared on water soaked and malt extract broth soaked wood wafers. The best growth of fungal hyphae across the surface of the wood wafers was achieved following spray inoculation onto malt extract broth soaked wood wafers.
J Snow, P Vinden

Imprégnation de bois ronds par déplacement de sève à Madagascar
1975 - IRG/WP 352
M Fougerousse, P Guéneau

Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and species.
L E Leightley

The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. Any preservative should be evaluated by the Ministry of Agriculture before recommendation. Of the preserved woods are Lumbers, sleepers and poles, woods used in constructions and furniture as well. The woods used in furniture, constructions or woodworks are mostly imported from Sweden, Russia, Finland or Korea. Several kinds of woods are imported as Picea sp., Pinus sp., Phagus sp. Local woods used are limited in kinds and amount, as Casuarina sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Acacia sp. Treated woods are potentially increasing in use. There are neither restriction for the use of treated woods, not any regulation concerning the desposal of these woods.
S I M Moein

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