IRG Documents Database and Compendium


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Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino


The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman


Influence of the peeling on the absorption in the sap displacement method
1990 - IRG/WP 3626
Results of tests on the Eucalyptus and pine fenceposts treated by sap displacement method are presented. Freshly cut post 2 m in length and 8 to 16 cm in diameter were placed for 6 days with their butt ends down in water soluble preservative solution (CCF) to a depth of about 65 cm, and these were inverted and kept in the same way for 3 days more. The treatment began a few hours after felling. The absorptions obtained in partially and totally barked fenceposts were compared. In both timber species, the barked fenceposts absorbed approximately two and a half times more preservative than the other fenceposts partially barked.
M V Baonza Merino


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence posts with CCA preservatives. Part 1
1988 - IRG/WP 3470
This paper describes the impregnation with CCA preservatives by full-cell process of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts. Several treatments were made for different times of initial vacuum and treating pressure, with fence-posts from two coppice plantations (1st and 2nd rotations), assembled into three diameter classes: small, medium, large. The results concerning the absorption and lateral penetration of the product reveal that impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus though difficult is often possible. The highest average values were recorded in the small diameters, yet the standard deviation in all three classes is quite remarkable. Moreover fence-posts from the 1st rotation stand show a better behaviour with the treatment. There seems to be no significant correlation between absorption and initial vacuum or treating pressure times.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, L Nunes


A study on the pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives. Part 2
1989 - IRG/WP 3514
This paper describes the second part of a study on pressure impregnation of Eucalyptus globulus fence-posts with CCA preservatives presented at the IRG 19th Meeting. Fence-posts of three diameter classes, were treated, considering only one treatment schedule. The results show possibility of vacuum-pressure impregnation of blue gum fence-posts, with diameter less than 9 cm, though mainly by longitudinal penetration, which is usually conditioned by the length of the fence-post.
L Nunes, D De Sousa Castro Reimão


Eucalyptus globulus. Impregnability in relation with plantation and crop
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2402
Eucalyptus globulus Lasill is currently classified in Pr EN 350 on the basis of the characteristics of the first log. In practice, there are usually several following crops of branches developped on each stump in plantations. Up to a diameter of 8 cm, round wood of 2nd crop and further crops present a maximum of sapwood and characteristics which differ significantly from the basic classification and justify an amendment of the standard for the purpose of use in ground contact as impregnated stakes.
D Dirol


Field fencepost test of several species treated with water-borne preservatives by rural methods
1986 - IRG/WP 3385
Fencepost field results in ground-contact treated by rural methods: immersion-diffusion and sap displacement by evaporation are analyzed. Copper-chrome-arsenic and copper-fluor-chrome preservatives were used in two concentrations. The wooden species studied were: Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus and Quercus rubra. For each of the test units decay index evolution was analyzed after five years exposure. At the moment, the best results are obtained with the immersion-diffusion method.
M V Baonza Merino


Improvement in dimensional stability against water of the main Spanish timbers impregnated with water repellent organic protectors
1988 - IRG/WP 3468
The study reported the increase of dimensional stability against water of the main Spanish timbers, both broadleaved and coniferous, after impregnation in the autoclave with organic protector, with contains 33.3% water repellent waxes and resins. The proposed Spanish standard, U.N.E. n° 56541 is used, where dimensional stability of the impregnated wood is expressed as a% of that of the non-impregnated wood. Account is taken of the effects of lamination on dimensional stability, cold resorcin glues bring used for lamination. A series of curves representing swelling againts immersion time were thus obtaines, as well as the dimensional stability value for each species. The highest values were achieved with coniferous laminated and the lowest with non-laminated broadleaved timbers (Dimensional stability).
J A Rodríguez Barreal


Field fencepost tests of several species treated with water-borne preservatives by rural methods
1986 - IRG/WP 3385 E
Fencepost field results in ground-contact treated by rural methods: immersion-diffusion and sap displacement by evaporation are analyzed. Copper-chrome-arsenic and copper-fluor-chrome preservatives were used in two concentrations. The wooden species studied were: Pinus pinaster, Eucalyptus globulus and Quercus rubra. For each of the test units decay index evolution was analyzed after five years exposure. At the moment, the best results are obtained with the immersion-diffusion method.
M V Baonza Merino


Microdistribution of water-borne preservatives in blue gum treated by full-cell process
1990 - IRG/WP 3617
The present work deals with the study of the microdistribution of copper, chrome and arsenic elements in Eucalyptus globulus Labill. sapwood, treated with a CCA water-borne preservative by full-cell process, with the help of scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersion X-ray analysis technique. The work shows that the retention of CCA elements is high in vessels and vasicentric parenchyma as well as in the wood rays, whereas it is quite low in fibres. There are also some differences between retention obtained in the two levels of depth of radial penetration considered, increasing or constant rate of variation with depth having been found. Conclusion reached point to the need of obtaining high enough salt retention in sapwood in order to avoid this irregularity of microdistribution of CCA preservatives in Eucalyptus globulus round wood and ensure adequate durability.
D De Sousa Castro Reimão, J M Palacios


Effects of the delay in the beginning of treatment on absorption and distribution of water-soluble salts in posts treated by sap-replacement method
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3719
One of the most important matters in green wood treatments, such as sap-replacement method, is knowing the longest time available for beginning treatment without losing efficacy. In this paper, the influence of this factor on absorptions and distribution of the preservative into the wood is analized. Tree start-up times were first chosen: 3-6 hours, 48 h and 120 h after being cut down. The treatment was carried out at both butts, with 5% Copper-chrome-fluor salt, in Pinus pinaster Ait. and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Different behaviour between the two species was noted when the treatment start-up was delayed. Pine loses its highest absorption capacity earlier than Eucalyptus does. The best distribution of wood preservative, in both wood species, was produced starting the treatment 2 days after felling.
M V Baonza Merino


Hot and cold treatment in fence posts of Eucalyptus globulus, Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster
1988 - IRG/WP 3489
An analysis is made of the treatment of fence-posts of Eucalyptus globulus, Castanea sativa, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster by hot and cold immersion in creosote. The temperatures of the different treatments were 60, 70 and 90°C. The posts were heated for one hour and then allowed to cool for 21 hours 30 min., and finally reheated for 1 hour 30 min. The greatest absorption rates were recorded in Pinus nigra, the results in Pinus pinaster were close, and in Castanea sativa and Eucalyptus globulus they were clearly lower. The highest penetration rates were recorded in Pinus pinaster, followed by Pinus nigra, Eucalyptus globulus and Castanea sativa. The retentions showed the same pattern as the absorptions, but with smaller differences.
C De Arana Moncada, A M Navarrete


Study of natural durability of Spanish Eucalyptus globulus wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10617
In some countries such as Australia, the wood of Eucalyptus globulus is recommended, due to its high durability, in risk situations where attack by organisms is likely to occur. In Galicia this species has been used for many decades for timber structures, which are still used. However, European Standard EN-350-2 places Eucalyptus globulus in the worst category of natural durability, a situation that does not correspond to the facts. The objective of this project is to determine the durability of this species against wood decay fungi and wood boring insects and to classify E. globulus in the abovementioned standard accordingly. To achieve this objective, laboratory and field tests against fungi and insect attack are being carried out. The preliminary results of the laboratory tests with white and soft rot indicate that the heartwood is durable (class 2), sapwood is not durable (class 5) and juvenile wood is not durable (class 5). The results obtained in the laboratory tests with the Lyctus indicate that the heartwood is durable (D), sapwood is sensitive (S) and juvenile wood is sensitive (S). The results obtained in the termite tests indicate that the heartwood, sapwood and juvenile wood are all sensitive (S). These results confirm the high durability of the heartwood of this species, pending the conclusion of the remaining tests.
D Lorenzo, M T Troya, M J Prieto, C Baso, M Touza


Study on the natural durability of Eucalyptus globulus wood from Spain
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10690
The wood of Eucalyptus globulus is recommended in some countries, such as Australia, due to its high durability, in risk situations where attack by organisms is likely to occur. In Galicia this species has been used for many decades for timber structures and other uses, which are still used. However, European Standard EN 350-2 places Eucalyptus globulus in the worst category of natural durability, a situation that does not correspond to the facts. The objective of this project is to determine the durability of this species against wood destroying fungi and wood destroying insects and to classify Eucalyptus globulus in the above mentioned standard accordingly. To achieve this objective, laboratory and field tests against fungi and insects were being carried out. The results of the laboratory tests with white, brown and soft rot indicate that heartwood is durable (class 2), sapwood is not durable (class 5) and juvenile wood is not durable (class 5). The results obtained in the laboratory tests with the Lyctus indicate that heartwood is durable (D), sapwood is susceptible (S) and juvenile wood is susceptible (S), with the Anobium indicate that heartwood is durable (D), sapwood is susceptible (S) and juvenile wood is durable (D) and with the termite tests indicate that heartwood, sapwood and juvenile wood are all susceptible (S). These results confirm the high durability of the heartwood of this species against wood destroying fungi and dry wood destroying beetles and the low resistant against termites.
D Lorenzo, M T Troya, M Touza, C Baso


Properties of thermally modified wood of Eucalyptus globulus from Spanish plantations
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40469
This article provides the results of a study about the properties of thermally modified wood of the Southern blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus L.) from Spanish plantations. Although this specie is mainly used for chipping to obtain boards and paper pulp, its high mechanical and strength properties provide great potential for structural use or different solid wood products. A comparison of the properties between thermally modified and twin natural wood produce some very interested data. Properties like durability or dimensional stability are improving considerately with thermal treatment. Some mechanical properties, like density or bending strength, are decreasing but owing to the high initial mechanical properties characteristic of this species, are less important and provide a greater potential for structural use. Rise in dimensional stability is important for weather unprotected products, in which dimensional variations can produce damage due to changing moisture conditions. The improvement of durability is important for products that require resistance against biotic organism, but are subject to environmental restrictions that exist with certain preservatives. Thermally modified wood therefore provides products with high quality, competitive prices compared to other products elaborated with tropical hardwood and do not risk its reuse or recycling at the end of their useful life.
Ó González Prieto, M C Touza


Natural durability and performance of Eucalyptus globulus single family house in Spain after 17 years exposure
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40873
From last century, in the country side in Spain is common to find wooden houses. The reason is mainly due the improvements in glues, materials, design by computer and processing in factories. All these technological advances have facilitated the development industrialized systems cheaper. However, the variety of row materials, designs and construction systems, combined with some hard climates, could have as result in some cases pathological problems associated to wood destroying fungi, insects an aesthetics. The wood species selected and the design details are fundamentals for performance and durability of the timber houses. The wood degradation depends on firstly on the wood specie selected but also depends on driven rain and winds, design details, joints and maintenance. This paper presents the performance of an Eucalyptus globulus single family house built in 2002 in north Spain, using entirely sawn and glued laminated Eucalytus globulus heartwood in all elements of the house: Structure, flooring, stairs, windows, galleries, roofing, carpentries, etc., without using preservatives and it was designed considering very well detail designs as well as maintenance during its service life. After more than 17 years, the performance of all wood elements of this single family house is very good, without pathological problems and continues to serve their original purpose. This house constituting a prime example of the versatility of this wood in structural and decorative wood elements. It is worth pointing out that all joins between structural components have been assembled with traditional techniques and without using metallic elements.
D Lorenzo, M Touza, J Fernandez-Golfín, A Lozano, J Benito


Durability of Eucalyptus globulus floating structures mussels trough in marine environment against marine borers in the Atlantic coast of Spain
2020 - IRG/WP 20-10965
In Spain, since forever damages caused by marine borers are frequent in wood elements and wood structures located in sea water conditions. Galicia is a region located in the North West of Spanish, above Portugal, characterized by their typical estuaries, where since ancient times, the natural production of mussels from floating structures mussels trough. Since ever, wood species selected to build the wood structures mussels trough is Eucalyptus globulus. Currently there are more than 3,300 platforms in the sea water of Galicia. The choice of wood species with medium-high natural durability is an appropriate step of protection in the case of marine environment in sea water timber structures such as floating structures mussels trough. Eucalyptus globulus heartwood is characterized by its durability against wood destroying fungi and moderately durability against marine borers, so using only heartwood it does not require preventive preservative treatment for using in a structure mussels trough, where is exposure in Use Class 3 and Use Class 5, to achieve a good performance and the expected service life. This paper shows the suitability of eucalyptus wood for its characteristics, since it combines strength and flexibility to withstand the elements and a durability of about 25 years to achieve the profitability of the installation. For its elaboration, only eucalyptus wood serves, the only one flexible and resistant enough to withstand the effects of the tides without breaking, without using preservatives and considering very well the design details and the maintenance of wood elements of floating structures mussels as key items to ensure a good performance during the estimated service life.
D Lorenzo, M Touza, J Fernández-Golfin, A Lozano, J Benito


Effect of a Water Repellent Treatment on Moisture Behavior of Three Australian Hardwoods: A Preliminary Report
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40921
Wood is inherently hygroscopic and will sorb moisture either directly from the atmosphere or via capillary action. Moisture can have marked effects on wood properties and repeated wetting and drying creates dimensional changes that lead to physical damage. Exposure to elevated moisture levels also increases the risk of fungal attack. Wood preservatives have long been used to minimize the risk of fungal attack, but general concerns about all chemicals have encouraged exploration of alternative protection strategies, including water repellents that help keep moisture conditions below those required for fungal attack. The potential for a commercial water repellent to limit moisture uptake and dimensional changes was evaluated on Tasmanian shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens), messmate (E. obliqua), and southern blue gum (E. globulus) with prolonged water immersion. In general, dipping samples in the water repellent produced no noticeable improvement on either moisture uptake or dimensional change over 512 hours of immersion; however, moisture uptake in all wood samples was very slow and limited to the outer 5 mm of the sections. The results are discussed with specific reference to the use of these species in above ground applications with minimal preservative treatment.
B Hassan, J J Morrell, K Wood


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Phoracantha semipunctata Fab. dans le sud-ouest Espagnol: Lutte et dommages
1985 - IRG/WP 1250
L G Tirado


Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers.
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy


A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira


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