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The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. Any preservative should be evaluated by the Ministry of Agriculture before recommendation. Of the preserved woods are Lumbers, sleepers and poles, woods used in constructions and furniture as well. The woods used in furniture, constructions or woodworks are mostly imported from Sweden, Russia, Finland or Korea. Several kinds of woods are imported as Picea sp., Pinus sp., Phagus sp. Local woods used are limited in kinds and amount, as Casuarina sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Acacia sp. Treated woods are potentially increasing in use. There are neither restriction for the use of treated woods, not any regulation concerning the desposal of these woods.
S I M Moein


Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) and Thuja plicata. Following artificial weathering, replicate test blocks were exposed to either Chaetomium globosum or Lecythophora mutabilis. C. globosum caused 3% or more mass loss of the water and solvent (white spirit) impregnated controls of all three hardwoods and two of the four softwoods, whereas L. mutabilis caused similar attack in only E. regnans and P. radiata. The P. menziesii and T. plicata heartwoods were naturally durable to both soft rot fungi and, hence, no further conclusions can be drawn. None of the preservatives, at the highest retention tested, protected E. regnans from attack by C. globosum, whereas the highest retentions of both the Cuprivac Green WR and Impresol WR 205 protected all other timbers from this fungus. At the highest retention, the latter preservative was the only one to protect E. regnans from L. mutabilis.
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton


Soft-rot in Tabebuia sp. wood used in water cooling tower: identification and degradation capacity of the fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10253
Tabebuia sp. (ipe), a native Brazilian wood, is considered of high natural resistance to decaying fungi, and has been used in harsh environments, as cooling towers. Fifty-one fungi, belonging to mitosporic fungi group (Fungi Imperfecti), were isolated from deteriorated Tabebuia sp. wood samples, collected from the mist eliminator and packing of a cooling tower in operation for about 23 years. The degradation capacity of these fungi was evaluated by soft-rot tests using Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii wood. The microscopic examination of wood sections showed that Acremonium sp., A. kiliense, Phialophora sp. and Phialophora butyrii caused type 1 soft-rot attack in both mod species, while Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium spp., Moniliella-like, Penicillium sp., Pullularia pullulans, Trichoderma spp. and Verticillium sp. were not able to produce the same attack. These results and the analyses of weight loss suggested that Acremonium spp. and Phialophora spp. more important decaying organisms of Tabebuia sp. in the cooling tower.
S Brazolin, M Tomazello, I H Schoenlein-Crusius


Natural durability of four Tunisian Eucalyptus wood species and their respective compositions in extractives
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10942
In the 50’s, Tunisia government introduced more than 11 Eucalyptus wood species. Eucalyptus species were planted in Tunisia in different arboreta throughout the country for close observation and adaptation to climate and soil. These fast-growing wood species were mainly used as fire wood, for the production of mine wood and to fight against the erosion. These tree species were adapted themselves very well to the Tunisian climate. Now, they tend to become invasive wood species which need to be economically valued. Past study showed that these Tunisian Eucalyptus have great technological properties allowing us to be used as wooden material. However, there is wide variation in heartwood natural durability between eucalypt species. The evaluation of wood durability enables the definition of reliable parameters to predict the service life of wood-based products.This study aimed to evaluate the wood deterioration of four North Tunisian fast-growing eucalypts species (Eucalyptus maidenii, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus gomphocephala) exposed to basidiomycetes (Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor) and termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) attacks. Among the four Eucalyptus woods, Eucalyptus gomphocephala presents the highest decay and termite resistance. In addition, it results that the four Eucalyptus wood species are classified as very durable against fungi degradation (Durability class 1) and durable against termite attacks (Visual rating 1), expect for the Eucalyptus saligna which is classified as sensible against termites (Visual rating 3). These natural durability variations according to the wood species have been explained by extractives GC-MS analyses. The natural durability of Eucalyptus seems to be mainly caused by extractives, and a wide range of compounds are involved. But, it appears that it is mostly governed by gallic acid, fatty acid glycerides, fatty acid esters, phenolic compounds, sitosterol, catechin and quercetin.To conclude, Eucalyptus maidenii, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus gomphocephala woods could be used as material sources to improve the economy of the wood sector in Tunisia
S Ben Ayed, M T Elaieb, S Dumarçay, B De Freitas Homen De Faria, M-F Thévenon, P Gerardin, K Candelier


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Phoracantha semipunctata Fab. dans le sud-ouest Espagnol: Lutte et dommages
1985 - IRG/WP 1250
L G Tirado


Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino


Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers.
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy


A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira


The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman


IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley


New technique for inoculation of wood wafers with fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20113
A pilot study is described for determining the best possible method for inoculating fungi onto the surface of wood wafers for sapstain control studies. Direct inoculation and spray inoculation are compared on water soaked and malt extract broth soaked wood wafers. The best growth of fungal hyphae across the surface of the wood wafers was achieved following spray inoculation onto malt extract broth soaked wood wafers.
J Snow, P Vinden


The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker


In-ground performance of two formulations of chlorothalonil after five years of exposure at three test sites in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30101
Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. were each treated to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and installed in-ground at three field test sites in Australia. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been rated for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After five years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens at each site reveal that the performance of all three retentions of each formulation, particularly the two highest retentions, is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, T L Woods, N Chew


Resistance of the wood of Eucalyptus saligna and Paulownia tomentosa against some wood rotting fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10238
Paulownia tomentosa and Eucalyptus saligna are not autochthonous species in Slovenia and we determined the resistance of their wood against our most common wood rotting fungi. The resistance against Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor was determined according to EN 113 and compared to the resistance of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. It was stated, that both paulownia and eucalypt wood samples are much more resistant than beech wood. Especially paulownia wood was outstanding by its natural resistance against tested basidiomycetes.
F Pohleven, M Petric


Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas


Imprégnation de bois ronds par déplacement de sève à Madagascar
1975 - IRG/WP 352
M Fougerousse, P Guéneau


Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and species.
L E Leightley


The effect of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts
1986 - IRG/WP 1277
In order to evaluate the effect of the presence of sapwood on the rate of deterioration of fence posts, 30 specimens with and without sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus paniculata, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus tereticornis were exposed in three test sites in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The results of the inspection carried out in 1985, after 5 years of exposure, are reported in the present paper.
M S Cavalcante, G A C Lopez, E S F Mucci, R G Montagna


Relationship between stacking, location and antisapstain preservatives on visible degrade of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata boards
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20162
An antisapstain trial was established at a Eucalyptus hardwood sawmill in Victoria, Australia. The trial incorporated two commercial formulations of antisapstain preservatives, used at four different concentrations on both hardwood (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell) and softwood (Pinus radiata D. Don) boards. The trial also utilised different stacking methods (block-stacked, sticker-stacked, and block-stacked and wrapped in black plastic) and included replicates placed both outside in the drying yard, and inside under cover from the elements. The variation in stacking methods and in location was used to provide a variation in the fungal hazard. Worst degrade (mean of 83% at 36 weeks) was obtained for the hardwood block-stacked outside and wrapped in black plastic. Lesser extents of degrade were obtained for sticker-stacked hardwood outside (4.3%) and sticker-stacked hardwood under cover (1.2%). Degrade of softwood was less than that of hardwood under all conditions. Statistical analysis of the trial indicated that the probability of any individual hardwood board deteriorating outside was nearly 4 times greater than for a board kept undercover. In addition, the probability of degrade of a hardwood board which was block-stacked and wrapped in black plastic was 3.4 times that of a hardwood board which was block-stacked but not wrapped, which in turn was 10 times that of a hardwood board which was sticker-stacked. The probability of degrade in untreated hardwood timber was 20 times that of degrade in preservative-treated hardwood timber, with variations in preservative concentration having an insignificant effect. Over all conditions the probability of hardwood timber deterioration was 5 times that of the softwood. The results of this trial confirmed that timber stored closely stacked and under poorly ventilated conditions suffered a higher visible degrade, as expected for sapstain fungi. However, although preservatives effectively reduced visible degrade under all storage conditions and at all concentrations tested, selection of correct storage conditions was also an important part of minimising degrade.
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read


The use of C CP/MAS NMR in the chemical identification of decayed and undecayed, tropical timber species
1984 - IRG/WP 1224
13C CP/MAS NMR was found to be an extremely powerful tool for elucidating the chemical composition of Eucalyptus maculata, Pinus elliottii and Alstonia scholaris. The differences in lignin composition were different for each timber and discussed in relation to decay caused by soft-rot and white rot fungi. In particular the presence of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin types are discussed.
L E Leightley


Effects of the anaerobic wood decay bacterium Clostridium xylanolyticum on unbleached Pinus and Eucalyptus pulp
1991 - IRG/WP 1506
Clostridium xylanolyticum has been shown to produce extracellular enzymes capable of degrading wood. The present work was conducted to quantify growth on various lignocellulosic substrates and degradation of pulped wood fibre. In the latter tests Clostridium xylanolyticum was incubated at 35°C under anaerobic conditions in a medium containing 0.2% (w/v) peptone and 4% (w/v) unbleached Pinus and Eucalyptus pulp. Xylan (0.1% w/v) was included to stimulate growth and induce xylanase production. After 1 weeks incubation material from both the uninoculated controls and inoculated tests was removed, washed, dried and hydrolysed using (72% w/v) sulphuric acid at 30°C for 45 minutes followed by 3% (w/v) sulphuric acid at 121°C for two hours. The hydrolysates were analysed for xylose content using HPLC which showed enzymatic degradation of the xylan fraction of the pulp. Other pulp tests showed that paper made from degraded Eucalyptus pulp had improved brightness, suggesting a possible role for this bacterium in future biological pulp bleaching research.
G D Shelver, U Matai, W Van Wyk, A A W Baecker


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