IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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A direct basidiomycetes test methodology. Report on an EWPM ring test
1988 - IRG/WP 2306
Results of an EWPM-ring test using a direct basidiomycetes test methodology are reported. The test is caracterized by using big test blocks and infestation by infected wood under unsterile conditions. The test procedure needs further development work, but the results are so promising that co-operation with CEN and EHC is initiated with the purpose of recognition and standardization.
B Jensen

International co-operation in wood preservation research
1979 - IRG/WP 3145
If one searched the literature, one could find many examples of international co-operation in the field of research in wood preservation. For example, individual workers in different countries in Europe have got together and made replicate tests with both fungi and insects on various preservatives of common interest and their results have been published. Much co-operation has not had its results published. Over the years, for example, at the old Forest Products Research Laboratory, overseas countries have sent both their own timbers and their own students to study these where all the facilities have been available, and this sort of exercise has gone on in many lands. There have been exchange visits of research workers from country to country, but these are all examples of individual items of co-operation. In this talk, however, we will have to confine our discussion to organized international co-operation. I will give some remarks about the largest organization in this field, viz. the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG) at the end.
R Cockcroft

Natural Resistance of timbers to marine borer attack. COIPM/IRG CO-OPERATION. Final report concerning panels exposed in the sea at Sekondi, Ghana
1979 - IRG/WP 449
The test was carried out according to Document COIPM/72.044, Revised procedure for the testing of naturally durable timbers against marine borers. The panels of the three species remaining in the test at the end of 1978 were removed and assessed visually. An average rating was given to the panels of each species.
F F K Ampong

Committee for Research Co-operation request for OECD sponsorship.
1970 - IRG/WP A 10

Statistically stable models for determination of PEC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50135
In June 1998 the European Wood Preservative Manufacturer's Group prepared a document to support the Technical Guidance concerning the placing of products on the market with respect to the Directive 98/08/EC (BPD). The essentials of this document were presented at the COST E2 meeting in Cannes last year and at the following IRG conference (Baines and Davis, 1998; IRG/WP/98-50101/20). The document presented a protocol in which a "tiered" approach is followed. The key-factors in this approach are the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) and the PEC (predicted environmental concentration). The PNEC is calculated from eco-toxicity test results and a safety factor is introduced. In the case of metals which may also be essential trace elements, the background level is suggested as the PNEC, if this level is above the level derived f rom eco-toxicity tests. The calculation of the PEC uses different models. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the models used to determine the PEC, while pointing out that only data and models relevant to the field situation may be used. In the EWPM protocol, initially the environment has to be defined by going through flowcharts and providing an answer of "YES or NO" to each of the questions. In the first tier of the questions there are two options for the treated wood, which is likely to be treated with the candidate wood preservative. It can be assessed as presenting either: a) No risk to the environment, or b) Additional information is required and the next "tier" of questions or tests is involved. In this paper the model for a fresh water environment is presented as an example. However, the models and the systern, can also be applied to other environments. In the above mentioned flowcharts the following assumptions are made: 1.Yes, the substance is toxic and harmful, 2. Yes, if all of the substance in the treated wood entered the water, its concentration would probably be > the PNEC, 3. Yes, the treated wood is in a situation where some of the substance is likely to get into the water. For this reason a simulated exposure test would be carried out and: 4. Yes, the chemical analysis of the wash-off water would be possible and relevant. Therefore PECwater values would need to be calculated to solve the question whether PECwater> PNECwater. By definition, the PEC must be based on the same principle as the PNEC. This implies that the PEC must be relevant for long term exposition, as the PNEC is a long term value, derived from chronic studies.
W J Homan, A L Van Oosten Van

Translation of CEN Letter to Mr R Cockcroft dated 24 November 1980
1980 - IRG/WP 2147
G Castan

Report on the questionnaire sent out to IRG Members for the creation of a new Sub-group 4 "evaluation of superficial treatments for preventive action against basidiomycetes"
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2417
On Thuesday May 12th, 1992 a subgroup meeting was held between 16.00-17.00 h. About 50 people attended this meeting. The results of the questionnaire sent out last year to the IRG members, was discussed. The analysis as well as the practical conclussions of the discussions are retained in this document.
A R Valcke

Final proposals for collaborative work on laboratory soft rot testing
1987 - IRG/WP 2292
In this paper proposals are made to scope, timbers, preservatives, leaching, drying, soil type, moisture content, soil burial (blocks and stakes), incubation and dry weight determination and the expression of results.
D J Dickinson, S M Gray

Canadian code of good practices - Recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities
1990 - IRG/WP 3582
The rationale and procedures for the development of a set of recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities in Canada are discussed. Multi stake holders involvement in problem identification, problem assessment, state of the art knowledge database, implementation and periodic assessment procedures are important considerations for the successful development of a Code of Good Practices for wood preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das

The EWPMG proposal for the environmental risk assessment of wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-09
This paper reviews the protocol prepared by the European Wood Preservative Manufacturer's Group, which could be used by an applicant for product approval under the Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC, to produce a risk assessment for an active substance or product in the Product Type 8 Wood Preservatives, in support of the application. The background and scope of the protocol are reviewed. The principles of environmental risk assessment are reviewed with particular reference to wood preservatives. The protocol is described and an example flowchart is included.
E F Baines

Hardwood field experiment: Progress report 1977-82
1982 - IRG/WP 3200
The international hardwood field experiment was planned in 1976 and set up in some 30 different sites around the world. The test stakes include 4 reference species common to each site and in most cases at least 2 species of local importance. It was hoped that a picture of performance of a range of economically important species would be built up and at the same time provide vital background information for people currently engaged in hardwood and soft-rot research. It is felt that these aspirations are more than being achieved and that as time proceeds this trial will prove invaluable in developing our knowledge of wood preservation on a world wide basis. Obviously it proved impossible to set up such a large trial simultaneously. Different sites also inspect their trials at different times and so the data presented is for different periods dependant on the site. For the reference species table 1 gives the latest data from each site and should be considered with report IRG/WP/3164 which gave information at earlier dates. Table 2 gives the performance of the other species for each site and, where stakes were available, for the master site (33) at Imperial college. No attempt has been made to analyse or comment on the results at this time. It is felt that this is a progress report for comment on by the sub-group. However, it is felt that together with the comments received these results should be duly considered for publication elsewhere.
D J Dickinson, J F Levy

Wood kiln drying. Simple process of material treament or soft method of preservation? (Le séchage arificiel du bois. Simple opération de traitement du metériau ou méthode douce de préservation?)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-14
Among the processes enabling to extend wood durability, kiln drying can be considered as a treatment and soft preservation method. Dry woods are naturally durable provided they are not subject to important retaking of the moisture. Drying thanks to the application of temperatures from 50 to120°C enable to execute a thermic treatment which kills grubs and mushrooms to ensure a sterilization that can be durable if wood doesn't retake water. Noumerous connections and analogies between drying process and the preservation one enable to conclude that kiln drying is a real operation of wood treatment either curative or to a smaller extent preventive.
F More-Chevalier

Preliminary results from the field experiment to determine the performance of preservative treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. The four reference timber
1980 - IRG/WP 3164
The results given in the Tables 1-4 each refer to one of the four reference species treated with four solution concentrations of CCA as recorded from each test site. The species are: Alstonia scholaris, Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris. The treatments were: Untreated, 0.66% CCA, 1.53% CCA, 3.01% CCA, 5.60% CCA. Each figure is an average of the ratings recorded for each replicate of the species at a particular treatment and a particular inspection. The agreed ratings were: Sound - no attack (Condition): 0 (Rating); Slight and superficial decay (attack): 1; Evident but moderate decay (attack): 2; Severe decay (attack): 3; Failure - almost complete loss of strength: 4. Detailed instructions were set out in the IRG Document No: IRG/WP/367 of 1976.
J F Levy, D J Dickinson

Leaching of CCA from Bombax ceiba catamarans in operation for 15 years
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50191
Core samples of wood at random were collected from all the timber pieces of each of the three catamarans made of CCA treated logs of Bombax ceiba put to continuous service for the last 15 years at the Lawson's Bay fishing village, Visakhapatnam. The samples were dried to constant weight, powdered, digested and analyzed for the residual salts of the preservative. The residual content of CCA was found to be 6.90, 6.24 and 7.43 kg/m3 in CAT I, II and III, respectively. The values for individual components of arsenic, copper and chrome were 0.24 to 0.34 kg/m3, 3.34 to 4.37 kg/m3 and 2.66 to 3.03 kg/m3, respectively. Making use of the initial absorptions of the preservative determined at the time of treatment and the residual contents estimated now, the leaching rates of CCA and it's components were calculated. While the annual leaching rate of CCA was observed to be 1.22 kg/m3 (CAT I), 0.81 kg/m3 (CAT II) and 0.83 kg/m3 (CAT III), at elemental level, it was found to be 0.05, 0.04 and 0.05 kg/m3 in the case of arsenic, 0.15, 0.10 and 0.09 kg/m3 in the case of copper and 0.20, 0.12 and 0.14 kg/m3 in the case of chromium for CAT I, II and III, respectively. The results thus indicate that while about 2/3rd the initial amount of CCA had been leached out of the catamarans during the last 15 years, still 1/3rd the amount is present in the logs. Thus, the preservative left out in the catamarans appears to be sufficient to offer protection to the craft for a good number of years to come.
V Kuppusamy, M Balaji, M V Rao, K S Rao

Information from the COIPM wood group. (With Appendix: Préserver les matériaux en milieu marin sauvegarder l'environment marin telles sont la vocation et la mission du C.O.I.P.M.)
1989 - IRG/WP 4156
During the last COIPM Meeting, up to date information on cooperative work to test the resistance of plastic wrapping for pilings were submitted and discussed. In 1986 untreated wood samples wrapped with shrinkable polyolefin sleeves were submerged in 9 stations, situated in temperate and tropical waters. After 1 or 2 years of immersion the samples showed no sign of penetration by marine borers and the surface of wraps was intact. The samples showed moderate to extensive fouling on their surface The control samples in Mediterranean Sea were destroyed within a year. The degree of attack by marine borers and the characteristics of the sites (temperature, salinity, pH) are reported in Tab.1. A study on the biodegradation of waterlogged archeological woods from a 2,500 year old shipwrech was presented. The shipwrech, probably a Greek merchant boat, was detected many years ago near the Isola del Giglio in Tyrrhenian Sea and partly brouht up. The wood samples recovered belong to the ship-planking and to some tools and instrumets, even musical instruments such as flutes. The woods show a severe marine borer attack. At the moment the wood specimens are preserved in water with a fungicide solution. The various decay patterns of the cell wall were illustrated by photos and dias. This study is carried out by Wood Institute of Florence in collaboration with the Archaeological Museum and includes the identification of wood species (three sofwoods and ten hardwoods), their biodegradation and the conservation treatments. A classification on the wood natural resistance against marine borers in Mediterranean Sea and in temperate waters was discussed. This classification was prepared by the Chairman for the Working Group 2 "Natural durability" of CEN/TC 38.
A Gambetta

The status of the Working group on Preservation of Wood in the Marine Environment
1977 - IRG/WP 424
At the last joint meeting of IRG/COIPM members in May 1976 at Wildhaus, Switzerland, a proposal was made that the existing 'Marine Group' should become a formal part of IRG. At present, members of the Wood Group of the COIPM (Comite International Permanent pour la Recherche sur la Preservation des Materiaux en Milieu Marin), and members of IRG who are interested in wood preservation problems in the sea meet jointly as an informal fourth working group within IRG. I have been asked by members of this group to circulate a questionnaire in order to test the general feeling of all IRG members about this matter.
R A Eaton

Criteria for environmentally and socially sound and sustainable wood preservation industry
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50237
This paper is dealing with critical criteria for environmentally and socially sound and sustainable wood preservation industry. A research study supported by past experience, knowledge and training on relevant topics and consultation of relevant appraisal manual, training module and technical guideline revealed concise widespread checklists for sustainable establishment of wood preservation industry. Through this paper safe and sound site selection, safe land acquisition and involuntary resettlement, sound regulatory aspects, safe planning and information, safe design and construction, safe operation, appropriate environmental management plan (EMP) and environmental impact assessment (EIA) of wood preservation industry have been ensured. The relevant industrialists can easily follow the checklists during establishment or renovation of wood preservation industry.
A K Lahiry, M Hasan, M A J H Chowdhury