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Decay resistance of densified ammonia-plasticized stems of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)
1991 - IRG/WP 3673
When wafers of oil palm stems (Elaeis guineensis) were plasticized with 28% aqueous ammonia and immediately compressed mechanically, the treated material, gained 73% in basic density (average basic density, 0.695 g/cm³), and was highly resistant to decay by wood rot basidiomycetes. Compared with the control specimens (density, 0.403 g/cm³), resistance to decay of the densified specimens by Coriolus versicolor increased by 55%, and Gloeophyllum trabeum, 74%. Fungal decay was significantly correlated with basic density (densification effect) (r-value, between -0.77 and -0.92), mediated in part by a similar pattern of correlation (-0.86) between densification and decaying tissue moisture content. Mass losses of specimens which were plasticized but not subsequently densified, did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from the controls while basic density of such treated specimens decreased slightly (density, 0.358 g/cm³). Total nitrogen contents for the controls, specimens plasticized without densification, and densified plasticized specimens were respectively; 0.24, 0.65 and 0.63% (g/g), the control differing significantly from the rest. Substrate pH were similar among the three samples. It appeared that artificial densification (rather than total nitrogen levels) assumed an overriding influence on decay resistance of compressed ammonia-plasticized oil palm stems
A H H Wong, M P Koh


Fixation of CCA preservatives in cocos-, oil- and rattan-palm
1986 - IRG/WP 3371
In previous tests with jubaea-palm almost no fixation of a CCA-preservative Type B could be achieved, consequently, further leaching tests were carried out with samples of 1 cocos-, 1 oil- and 2 rattan-palms from Malaysia. A good fixation of chromium and copper took place in cocos-palm after 4 weeks storage at 28°C. Nevertheless the fixation was slower than in pine-wood and demanded an elevated temperature, as is present in the tropics. In oil-palm the fixation was poor with an average leaching rate of 12% for chromium and 14-26% for copper. In the rattan-palm, however, the fixation of chromium and copper was identical to pine-wood. The fixation of arsenic was markedly lower than chromium and copper.
H Willeitner, K Brandt


Short-term protection of palm wood against moulds and decay fungi by environment-friendly organic acids
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10843
Felled palm trunks are susceptible to fungi as long as their moisture content is above fibre saturation. During this period, it has to be protected against moulds and decay fungi. The study tested environmental-friendly organic acids for their protecting efficiency. Small samples of Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) wood were treated with weak organic acids and subsequently infected by moulds and wood-decay fungi. Short dipping of the samples in solutions of 5% acetic acid and propionic acid, respectively, protected all samples for two months from colonization by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., and by a natural infection. Boric acid (4%) used in practice for protection was ineffective. Decay tests with the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, the brown-rot species Coniophora puteana and the soft-rot fungus Chaetomium globosum showed that both acids prevented most samples from fungal colonization and reduced decay considerably during two months.
M Bahmani, O Schmidt


Prevention of fungal damage of oil and date palm wood by organic acids
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10877
Felled palm trunks are susceptible to fungi as long as their moisture content is above fibre saturation. During this period, palm wood has to be protected against mould and rot fungi. Environmental-friendly organic acids are suitable. Small samples of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) wood were treated with 1 to 10% solutions of acetic acid and propionic acid, respectively, and subsequently infected by moulds, blue-stain and wood-decay fungi. Short dipping of the samples in 2% solutions of both acids protected all samples for two months from colonization and discolouration by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, Mucor sp., and a natural infection. A blue-stain fungus was inhibited by 5% solutions. Decay tests with the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, the brown-rot species Coniophora puteana and the soft-rot fungus Chaetomium globosum showed that 5 and 10% solutions of both acids reduced degradation.
M Bahmani, O Schmidt