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Permeability of Eucalyptus wood improved by microwave treatment
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40773
The wood species with low permeability may cause many problems during timber manufacturing. Extreme difficulties take place in fabricating new wood-based composites by impregnating low- permeability timber with functional materials, such as flame retardant, preservatives and resins. Microwave (MW) treatment can increase the permeability of wood both in transverse and longitudinal directions. The effects of MW radiation time, MW radiation power and initial moisture content (MC) on permeability of wood were investigated in this study. The results showed that the permeability (both transverse and longitudinal direction) of wood significantly increased by the MW treatment; the wood permeability increased with the increasing MW radiation power and radiation time, but decreased with increasing initial wood moisture content. Microwave treatment had a more significant effect on the permeability of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophulla) wood on longitudinal direction than that on transverse direction. Compared with the control group, the weight gain percentage of transverse and longitudinal directions of wood increased from 0.80% to 57.53% and 22.49% to 125.88% respectively when radiation time increased from 30s to 90s; when radiation power increased from 5kw to 20kw, the weight gain percentage of transverse and longitudinal directions increased from 1.50% to 21.8% and5.57% to 134.63% respectively; The samples with 25% initial MC showed the biggest stain absorption as 11.79g and 5.47g in transverse and longitudinal directions respectively. MW treatment generated high internal steam pressure, resulting in the rupturing of wood cell pore membranes, ray cells. Therefore, the great increase of permeability can be achieved and created favourable conditions for the fabrication of high value-added functional wood based composites materials.
Xia He, Xianjun Li, Jie Xie, Xingyang Xiong


Enhancing the durability of low durability Eucalyptus plantation species: a review of strategies
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40910
Eucalyptus species native to Australia have shown excellent growth rates, good physical properties and resistance to diseases. As a result, they are widely planted globally for a variety of uses. One negative aspect of many of these faster growing species is that they have a high percentage of low durability heartwood that resists preservative treatment. In Australia, large plantations of these species were established near the end of the 20th Century, primarily for paper production. However, shifting priorities have encouraged a re-examination of possible uses for these materials. Shining gum (Eucalyptus nitens) is an important plantation species in Tasmania. Among the possible uses for this species are those requiring enhanced durability. This paper reviews the options for enhancing the durability of Shining gum heartwood for structural and appearance product applications in both interior and exterior exposures.
K C Wood, J J Morrell, W Leggate


Treatability of South African-grown Eucalyptus grandis with water-borne copper azole and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate wood preservatives
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40920
This study investigated the treatability of the sapwood and heartwood of sawn Eucalyptus grandis with copper-azole (CuAz) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) water-borne preservatives towards improving its durability for enhanced use in structural solid wood applications. The results obtained showed that, at a moisture content of 12 ± 1%, sawn E. grandis sapwood can be impregnated to a mean retention level of 4.61 kg/m3 with CuAz and 7.98 kg/m3 boric acid equivalent (b.a.e) with DOT. The highest mean retentions obtained in the heartwood were 2.10 kg/m3 and 3.52 kg/m3 b.a.e for CuAz and DOT respectively. The findings revealed high sapwood and limited heartwood permeabilities of E. grandis, thus agreeing with the South African National Standards (SANS 10005:2016) categorization of E. grandis as amenable to impregnation. This study outcome showed that obtaining suitable preservative retention levels in sawn E. grandis with considerable sapwood content is feasible. Furthermore, the study provides a basis for consideration of sawn E. grandis durability treatment with CuAz for hazard classes H3 and H4, and DOT for class H3 subject to other conditions being met such as the SANS 10005:2016 prescribed coating maintenance required for the latter treatment.
A A Alade, Z Naghizadeh, C B Wessels


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Aspects of diffusion of boron through wood
1984 - IRG/WP 3298
Boron compounds have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of wood destroying insects and fungi. They are cheap, have low mammalian toxicity and their application in the treatment of wood does not demand specialized equipment. These attributes make them specially attractive to developing countries. Currently, however, little is known about the mechanism of diffusion of boron through wood. Effective treatment with boron preservatives requires good understanding of how the preservatives diffuse through wood. This paper presents a research proposal with the overall objective of determining the relative importance of structural wood components in determining diffusion rates.
S Iddi


Phoracantha semipunctata Fab. dans le sud-ouest Espagnol: Lutte et dommages
1985 - IRG/WP 1250
L G Tirado


Pinus and Eucalyptus fenceposts treated with creosote and solvex tar by hot and cold open-tank process
1987 - IRG/WP 3455
A comparative study of the behaviour of two different wood preservatives, creosote and solvex-tar, was made, using two wood species, Pinus pinaster Ait and Eucalyptus globulus Labill, by the hot and cold open-tank process. Results showed that the creosote behaved better in relation with the uniformity of its distribution in wood. On the other hand, better results were obtained on Pinus for both preservatives.
M V Baonza Merino


Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two preparation techniques agreed in the test to determine the mean percentage of void volume filled by liquid both radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process (i.e. machining, sealing, etc.) of the experimental samples and the period of the data collection was quite longer in CES than that for PES in either flow direction.
I Usta


The use of pressure cycling to improve heartwood penetration in Pinus radiata (D. Don)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40050
This study investigates the effect of cycling pressure on the treatability of radiata pine heartwood. The results indicate that liquid penetration into the heartwood is affected by the preconditioning method used and pressure treatment time. There is no significant improvement in the penetration of Pinus radiata (D. Don) heartwood when a cycling or pulsation process is used.
P R S Cobham, P Vinden


Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 8 months exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2208
It was anticipated in Document No IRG/WP/2192 that exposure of L-joints by the European co-operators would take place on 1 April 1983. Where L-joints were exposed at this time, sampling after 8 months exposure is due on 1 December 1983. The present document draws attention to relevant previous documents which describe the sampling methods to be adopted. It also provides Tables for recording the results.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


A case study on quality control on telephone poles as a cost saving tool in Tanzania
1987 - IRG/WP 3418
A sample of 28 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles from a lot of 2,000 poles awaiting delivery to the field, was studied to reveal the quality of treatment. Results showed a product of very poor quality. Average figures for penetration and retention were 8.4 mm and 2.2 kg/m³; these results are 66% and 91% below the required standards, respectively. Consequences of such results are estimated to amount to losses of billion of shillings.
K K Murira


Effectiveness of "Gang-Nail" plates in preventing splitting of Eucalyptus poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers
1984 - IRG/WP 3262
This paper presents the results of some tests carried out with an anti-splitting device, placed on the end surfaces of Eucalyptus spp utility poles and Brazilian hardwood sleepers at the beginning of an air-drying period. The type of device used, a "Gang-Nail" plate, reduces significantly the splits at the end-surface of poles, but reduces only a little the splits occurring in sleepers.
A M F Oliveira, J A C Sodré, O B Neto


Field trials of groundline remedial treatments on soft rot attacked CCA treated Eucalyptus poles
1983 - IRG/WP 3222
A total of 17 CCA treated Eucalyptus poles, which were found to contain 2-5 mm of soft rot in October, 1980, were reinspected in October, 1982. In 1980, 11 of the poles were given a supplemental groundline bandage treatment of either Osmoplastic or Patox, while 6 of the poles were designated as untreated controls. Two years after remedial treatment, samples were removed from the poles for microscopic observations and for chemical retention analysis. It was found that the remedial bandage treatments were effective in preventing any further advance of soft rot. Based on the positive results of this study, a treatment efficacy of five years or longer is predicted.
W S McNamara, R J Ziobro, J F Triana


The biostatic effect of copper on decay of fire retardant-treated mining timber
1991 - IRG/WP 1507
Blocks of Eucalyptus grandis were treated with 20kg/m³ ammonium sulphate as fire retardant and challenged with Coriolus versicolor. Replicates were soil buried. A second set of blocks was treated with retardant and copper at 6.6 kg/m³ (ie 1% w/w), and challenged similarly. After 8 weeks weight losses produced by Coriolus versicolor in untreated, retardant treated and copper supplemented blocks were 45, 25, and 0% respectively, and corresponding weight losses in soil were 27, 25 and 10%. These results, and electronmicroscopical observations, showed conclusively that Eucalyptus grandis treated with fire retardant was rapidly decayed, and that copper inhibited such decay.
G D Shelver, E A Shelver, A A W Baecker


Some characteristics of Pinus radiata wood from trees subjected to resin extraction
1987 - IRG/WP 3403
35 year old Pinus radiata trees growing in La Puntilla (lat. 37° south, long. 72,4° west), Chile, were subjected to resin extraction 5 years ago. After harvesting them simultaneously with control trees of the same place and age, probes were taken from the bottom of each pole, at 3.4 m, 7.8 m and 11.4 m height. Analysis of ethanol/benzene extract, CCA salt penetration tests and sapstain and brown-rot development rate were performed. The extract content differed in both groups. In the ascendent sense it decreases in unextracted trees and increases in extracted. CCA salt penetration was deeper in treated trees than in untreated. Wood subjectect to resin extraction was less susceptible to sapstain development. No significant difference was detected in both groups in relation to the development of brown-rot.
M C Rose, J Navarrete, G Sandoval, A Bedoya, L Ortega, R Zurita


In-ground performance of two formulations of chlorothalonil after five years of exposure at three test sites in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30101
Sapwood specimens of Pinus radiata D. Don and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. were each treated to three retentions of each of two preservative formulations (chlorothalonil in oil; chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos in oil) and installed in-ground at three field test sites in Australia. Specimens were treated with each formulation to achieve 3.2, 6.4 and 12.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil a.i. and 3.2 + 0.2, 6.4 + 0.4 and 12.8 + 0.8 kg/m³ of chlorothalonil plus chlorpyrifos a.i. For comparison, specimens of each timber species, treated to a commercial in-ground retention of a copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) formulation, were also installed. Treated specimens (including controls) have been rated for their condition annually for attack by subterranean termites and fungal decay using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). After five years of exposure, mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens at each site reveal that the performance of all three retentions of each formulation, particularly the two highest retentions, is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, T L Woods, N Chew


Direct measurement of fluid flow within wood
1986 - IRG/WP 2248
The problematics of fluid flow mechanism within wood using a permeability concept are highlighted, and the non-feasibility of a practical and versatile model is explained. An alternative method using a negative temperature coefficient thermistor to measure flow velocity directly is presented. The method has been verified in living trees and shows extreme sensitivity for flow above 1 meter/hour. For measuring lower velocities, the method needs improvement.
J P Hösli


The utilisation and preservation of Eucalyptus globulus agricultural stakes from Portugal
1989 - IRG/WP 3520
This paper reviews the development and utilisation of Tanalith C treated Eucalyptus globulus stakes: particular reference is made to their use in vineyards. The treatment characteristics of commercially available stakes will be described and penetration patterns evaluated.
A Milne e Carmo, D A Lewis, A Lyman


IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley


Resistance of the wood of Eucalyptus saligna and Paulownia tomentosa against some wood rotting fungi
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10238
Paulownia tomentosa and Eucalyptus saligna are not autochthonous species in Slovenia and we determined the resistance of their wood against our most common wood rotting fungi. The resistance against Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trametes versicolor was determined according to EN 113 and compared to the resistance of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood. It was stated, that both paulownia and eucalypt wood samples are much more resistant than beech wood. Especially paulownia wood was outstanding by its natural resistance against tested basidiomycetes.
F Pohleven, M Petric


Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit when expressing average life by the Decay Index (DI) as a function of time.
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas


Factors affecting leaching of preservatives in practice
1978 - IRG/WP 3113
At the 7th Meeting of the IRG in Poland in May 1975, the findings of collaborative laboratory leaching techniques were discussed, and the dangers inherent in using such results to predict the behaviour of preservative-treated components in service were emphasised. In order to improve our understanding of the factors governing leaching of preservatives in practice, and to identify areas where further research is required, it was agreed that a literature review should be prepared. This is presented below. Some points may be made regarding its format and content. First, the review shows that a large number of factors are of importance, including the properties of the wood, the leach water, the preservative and method of application and the nature of the environment to which the product is exposed. In many situations these factors interact and it is clearly impossible within the scope of this short paper to discuss all aspects of the problem in detail. However, the compilation of references will give ready access to the literature on particular topics. For ease of collation, the findings are discussed under a number of different headings. Secondly, less than one-third of the references cited deal with the results of service or field trials, while the others describe laboratory experiments designed to provide comparative data. The reservations expressed above concerning such small-scale experiments must be borne in mind when considering the validity of these findings. The information available on this topic up till 1964 was comprehensively reviewed by Wallace who identified and commented upon many of the factors discussed below. Her paper contained discussion on the performance of individual preservatives and on the mechanism of their fixation within the wood. These topics will not be considered here in any detail except insofar as they reflect general trends.
R Cockcroft, R A Laidlaw


The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. Any preservative should be evaluated by the Ministry of Agriculture before recommendation. Of the preserved woods are Lumbers, sleepers and poles, woods used in constructions and furniture as well. The woods used in furniture, constructions or woodworks are mostly imported from Sweden, Russia, Finland or Korea. Several kinds of woods are imported as Picea sp., Pinus sp., Phagus sp. Local woods used are limited in kinds and amount, as Casuarina sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Acacia sp. Treated woods are potentially increasing in use. There are neither restriction for the use of treated woods, not any regulation concerning the desposal of these woods.
S I M Moein


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