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JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi
1981 - IRG/WP 2164
In 1979 JWPA established a new method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings in accordance with practical use of preservative-treated lumber. Comparing the new testing method with JIS A 9302, a few new trials - size of wood specimen, weathering procedure, and decay-test procedure - are incorporated.
K Tsunoda

Inspection results of preservative treated stakes, maximum 33 years in field
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3690
Since in 1958, we have undertaken field experiments in Japan. For these field experiments, we used sapwoods of Japanese cedar called Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) because of majority of plantation forest soft wood species in Japan. For some preservatives, we added sapwood of Japanese beech called Buna (Fagus crenata), a main Japanese hard wood species. Dimensions of these specimens were 30 x 30 x 600 mm³ (T x R x L). About 30 preservatives mainly water born but 20% of oil born preservatives included, were examined for this test. We checked the damage rating every year by the observation. The service life of the preservative treated stakes were estimated at the period when the average damage rating of stakes were reached beyond 2.5 . Creosote oil, creosote oil mixed heavy oil (75:25 and 50:50) and creosote oil mixed coal tar (75:25 and 50:50) are still sound conditions for 33 years. CCA (JIS K 1554 Type 1) 2% and Tancas C 2% are still sound conditions for 28 years. Because of soft rot, the treated Buna specimens were shorten as ones of treated Sugi.
K Suzuki, K Yamamoto, M Inoue, S Matsuoka

Biological resistance of phenol-resin treated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3602
Biological resistance of PF (phenol formaldehyde resin) - treated wood has been tested in relation to the resin properties, wood species and biological factors. When tested using water-soluble PF (mol. wt. 170), ca. 10% RI (resin impregnation) was enough to suppress the decay of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) blocks exposed to Tyromyces palustris (brown-rot type) and Coriolus versicolor (white-rot type). For a decay suppression of Japanese beech (Fagus crenata) by treating with the same PF, ca. 20% RI was required for both cases of exposure. When using ethanol-soluble PF (mol. wt. 300), the lesser effect on decay suppression was revealed for most of wood-fungus combinations, suggesting a possible better penetration of lower molecular resin into the wood cell walls. PF treatment of wood also affected the termite Coptotermes formosanus, causing the severe depletion of feeding activity and the higher mortality at 5-15 (%) RI. Of the three species of symbiotic protozoa, the most cellulolytic Pseudotrichonympha grassii diminished first shortly after feeding.
M Takahashi, Y Imamura

Biological resistance of aldehyde-treated wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40018
Biological resistance of wood treated with aldehyde cross-linking agents such as glyoxal, glutaraldehyde and dimethylol dihydroxy ethyleneurea (DMDHEU) were investigated. Sapwood blocks of Japanese cedar and Japanese beech, measuring 20 x 20 x 10 mm³ (T x R x L), were vacuum-impregnated at room temperature with 5-25% of aldehyde solutions. Blocks were kept in the solution for 1 week to gain the optimum swelling until they were sunk at the bottom, air-dried for 1 week, and cured at 120°C for 24 hours, under SO2-catalysis. After treatment, they were throughly rinsed in running water for several days to leach out the unreacted aldehyde agent. Biological resistance tests were conducted in laboratory by exposing to brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris, white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor, and the two subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus and Reticulitermes speratus. Glutaraldehyde was most effective to eliminate the attack of Japanese cedar by all test organisms. Decay by both fungi was almost nil in the treated cedar even at the lowest 5% solution of this agent. A complete death of both termites was gained also in glutaraldehyde-treated cedar at the same concentration. DMDHEU treatment was also effective to enhance the biological resistance of Japanese cedar. Enhancement of biological resistance was recognized also in Japanese beech treated with these agents, but it was somewhat lower than in Japanese cedar. Such a difference might be related to the value of dimensional stability resulted from the treatments. Glyoxal treatment exihibited throughly a poor effect to improve the biological resistance and the dimensional stability of both wood species.
S Yusuf, Y Imamura, M Takahashi, K Minato

Effect of cyclic change of temperature on fungal growth and mass loss
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10065
For estimating the effect of cycling change of temparature on fungal growth, four Japanese species, sugi (Cryptomeria japonica), hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora) and buna (Fagus crenata), four fungal species, Tyromyces palustris, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Coriolus versicolor, Pycnoporus coccineus, and five temperature conditions, 10, 20, 27, 35°C and cyclic temperature (20°C 12 hours and 30 or 27°C 12 hours) under constant humidity (75% RH) were examined. The results were summarised that the cyclic condition was rather high fungal growth rate in the case of majority of fungi tested but was not surely increased the mass loss of wood. This tendency is rather clear in the case of brown rot like Tyromyces palustris. The cyclic temperature conditions were not favorable to the groth of Serpula lacrymans.
K Suzuki, K Okada

Preservative-efficacy of boric acid-triethanol amine solution against wood-decay fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30050
Laboratory preservative-efficacy tests were conducted using boric acid-triethanol amine (BTEA) solution in accordance with the JIS A 9201 (1991) test method excluding the standard weathering process. Sapwood specimens of Picea jezoensis or Fagus crenata to achieve nominal retentions of 0.40-41.2 kg/m³ of boric acid were exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Coriolus versicolor, Serpula lacrymans or Chaetomium globosum, respectively. Mean percentage mass loss data showed the following threshold values: 1.65-2.13 kg/m³ for Tyromyces palustris; 1.60-1.94 kg/m³ for Coriolus versicolor; 0.43-0.83 kg/m³ for Serpula lacrymans; 8.0-23.8 kg/m³ for Chaetomium globosum. The values against Coriolus versicolor and Serpula lacrymans were lower than those of Tim-Bor® as boric acid retention.
S Doi, M Mori, Y Mineki

Extracellular substance from the white rot basidiomycete Irpex lacteus involved in wood degradation
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1571
Cellulases, phenol oxidase, and a substance that both produced and reduced H2O2 were isolated from cultures containing wood or glucose on which the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was growing. The rate of wood degradation by the fungus with different amounts of glucose in the medium was measured. More of the substance that produced and reduced H2O2 was found extracellularly in cultures containing wood than in cultures containing glucose. The extent of one-electron oxidation activity of the extracellular substance was correlated with that of the wood-degrading activity, but the extent of phenol oxidase activity was not. The extracellular substance catalyzed the hydroxylation of phenol to hydroquinone and catechol in the presence of H2O2 or of NADH and O2. The substance seemed to be a glycopeptide containing Fe(II) and its molecular weight was very low.
H Tanaka, T Hirano, G Fuse, A Enoki

Main problems of Turkish wooden boat manufacturers
1982 - IRG/WP 485
The best transportation system to the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey has been since the earliest history sea transportation. As is well known the historical 'silk road' from Europe to the Far East and China was over the Black Sea and via Trabzon. During the last five years also this same connecting route has become very important for the transportation of food and industrial products from the West to the Middle East. Two other factors that are influencing the building of boats in this region are the local rich forest resources and fishing facilities. It can be pointed out that 80% of the Turkish sea food is produced in the Black Sea region, which amounts to 380,000 tons per year. Therefore the main purpose of boat building in this area can be attributed to the needs of the fishing industry
R Ilhan

Biological resistance of electrolessly plated wood (1). Preliminary report
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40024
Surface metal coating is considered to improve biological resistance of wood as some metal ions are fungitoxic. Six wood species (three softwoods: Cryptomeria japonica, Tsuga heterophylla and Larix spp; three hardwoods: Fagus crenata, Acer mono and Betula platyphylla) were electrolessly plated with nickel or copper, and those were served for laboratory evaluation of their resistance against decay fungi (Coriolus versicolor and Tyromyces palustris) and subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus). On the basis of weight losses after 12 weeks' decay test, all the plated wood species proved resistant against Coriolus versicolor, while none of the treatments could satisfactorily protect wood from decay by Tyromyces palustris. High termite resistance was produced in any case, and especially nickel-plated wood specimens caused 100% mortality of test termites within two weeks.
M Hasegawa, K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura

Japanese standardized method for evaluating effectiveness of anti-sapstain and anti-mould chemicals
1988 - IRG/WP 2299
Japan Wood Preserving Association established a method for testing effectiveness of chemicals against sapstain and mold fungi on wood in 1979. The method is concerned with a laboratory technique using small timber specimens (20 x 50 x 3 mm³), petri dish and 5 test fungi. Effectiveness of each candidate chemical is evaluated on the basis of the relative resistance to sapstain and mold fungi which derives from visual rating of the fungal growth on the treated and untreated wood after 4-week incubation at 26±2°C and 70-80% R.H. Results of commercial trichlorophenol-base product indicated that relatively higher concentrations were required to protect timber satisfactorily from fungal attack in the test, as compared with practical treating concentrations at the sawmills.
K Tsunoda, K Nishimoto

Collaborative soft rot tests: PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1973 - IRG/WP 223
These tests were undertaken as a preliminary to the next series of collaborative soft rot tests. An interim report has already been presented at Berlin in 1972 as Document No: IRG/WP/211
J K Carey, J G Savory

On Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouzar
1986 - IRG/WP 1285
Donkioporia expansa is found more often in houses than realised until now. Virulence tests according to EN 113 show not only an attack of oak, but also of other hardwoods and even soft-woods.
G Buchwald

Performance of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report of condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 3155
J Beesley, R McCarthy

The most important characteristics of some species of the genus Hypoxylon found in Serbia, Yugoslavia
1977 - IRG/WP 165
M Petrovic

A direct method for testing plywood and particle boards against fungal decay
1984 - IRG/WP 2214
A method directly inspired from the French standard testing method of the resistance of particle boards against fungal decay (AFNOR N° 51.295 May 1980) is described. But in that experimentation, the infestation is localized and realized in non sterile conditions. Small blocks of Fagus sylvatica (60 x 20 x 10 mm³) used as " inoculates " are infested with basidiomycetes, in Kolle flask for 4 to 6 weeks, then tightly pressed against the middle part of the test specimens (190 x 15 x 15 mm³). The lower part of the inoculates is plunged in vermiculite kept constantly humid by water containing a selective fungicide. After twelve weeks of exposure in non sterile conditions, in a green house with constant temperature around 20°C, the test specimens are then submitted to a static bending test until fracture. The comparison of the fracture-stress between control test specimens and the specimens exposed to wood rotting basidiomycetes permits to evaluate the resistance of the studied materials against fungal decay.
L N Trong

A method of isolating actinomycetes from decayed wood
1974 - IRG/WP 126
This paper deals with a tentative method of isolating Actinomycetes from dacayed wood.
T Haraguchi

Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse

Collaborative soft rot tests: Programme and test method
1973 - IRG/WP 229
J G Savory, J K Carey

IRG test of preservative-treated hardwoods with particular reference to soft rot. Report on condition of specimens installed in Victoria, Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 3207
J Beesley

Collaborative soft rot tests: Proposals for a standardized soil burial test
1971 - IRG/WP 201
A F Bravery

Information from the COIPM Wood Group. Summary received via Mme Dr Anna Gambetta (Italy)
1987 - IRG/WP 4139
Two co-operative programmes were discussed: 1) The IRG/COIPM co-operative programme on the CCA/CCB wood treatments and 2) The IRG/COIPM co-operative programme for testing the resistance of plastic wrapping for wooden pilings. The following was reported: In the wood treatment programme, beech, pine and alstonia wood samples have been pressure treated with 3 retentions (3%, 6% and 10%) of CCA and CCB and exposed in the sea, to find out if these timbers have selective resistance to attacks by marine borers and fungi. After nearly 8 years of exposure at many different locations it is becoming apparent that both treatments in pine and alstonia provide better protection than both treatments in beech. It is hoped to find out after chemical analysis why this is happening. In the polyolefin tests this plastic material was heat shrunk around small wooden blocks and exposed to borer attack in many different marine environments, and also in some terrestrial environments where termites were present, to determine if the material prevents attack by the borers. At two stations the test is now in its eighth year. So far the polyolefin material is still intact and has not been penetrated by borers. These two programmes are continuing.
J R DePalma

Collaborative experiments in testing the toxicity of wood preservatives to soft rot fungi
1970 - IRG/WP 25
Eight Institutes from seven countries, Austria, England, France, Germany, Holland, Sweden and Switzerland have collaborated in an attempt to assess the suitability of various laboratory test procedures for acceptance as standard methods of determining the toxicity of wood preservatives to the cellulose-attacking micro-fungi which cause 'soft rot' of wood. Pure culture methods with Chaetomium globosum have been tested together with soil burial methods in which the mixed fungus flora of unsterilised local soils has been used as inoculum. The results obtained with a copper/chrome/arsenate preservative have been presented and discussed. It is concluded that the information available is not yet adequate to permit definition of a reliable standard test method. The work has however demonstrated the unsuitability of Chaetomium globosum as a test organism in pure culture tests on softwood and has given indications that soils low in organic matter content may be most suitable for mixed culture tests.
J G Savory, A F Bravery

Collaborative soft rot tests: Interim report on PRL tests of Cu/Cr/As preservative using method of Document No: IRG/WP/208
1972 - IRG/WP 211
Preservative: Tanalith CT.106 - Results obtained with beech are given in the table and indicate a toxic limit of 16.7-19.2 kg/m³ - The initial soil moisture content was adjusted to 27.8% (the water holding capacity). Noticeable drying out has occurred in some of the test bottles.
J G Savory

The effects of heat treament on the specific gravity of beech and spruce wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40254
The effects of heat treatment on specific gravity of beech (Fagus orientalis) and spruce wood (Picea orientalis) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 2 x 2 x 3 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at four different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C) and three different durations (2 h, 6 h and 10 h) under air atmospheres. The results indicated that the specific gravity values treated by heating generally exhibited a decrease with increasing the exposure durations and temperatures compared to the untreated wood samples.
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Colakoglu, E D Gezer, A Temiz

Test procedure to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of different preservatives in sea-wate
1975 - IRG/WP 414
R A Eaton

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