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Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana


Effects of drying processes on termite feeding behaviour against Japanese larch wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10390
We investigated the effects of current drying schedules for larch lumbers on the termite feedings. Thermal analyses were also conducted to investigate degradation of wood components. Choice feeding tests showed specimens dried under high-temperature schedules were evidently susceptible against termite attacks. These schedules produced the feeding-attractants, which were suggested by the TGA results compared to the control samples. The results of this study indicated that the acceleration of termite feeding is taken place even under comparatively lower temperature than that of our previous researches.
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, H Takiuchi, M Aoyama


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Über den Nagekäfer Oligomerus ptilinoides (Wollaston), Col., Anobiidae: Verbreitung und Einschleppung, Bestimmung, Lebens- beziehungen und Befallsmerkmale mit Vergleichen zu Nicobium
1980 - IRG/WP 1102
Oligomerus ptilinoides occurs in the Mediterranian and Black-sea area, in North-Africa and Asia minor as an important pest causing severe damage to dry wood. By travelling, by the immigration of people from south to north, and by accidental introductions the species tends to establish itself north of the Alps. Severe damage has recently been observed in two museums. An account is given of aspects of taxonomy, the pattern of attack compared with that of Nicobium hirtum and Nicobium castaneum, of the anatomy of the larvae, on symbiosis, and on behavioural features of the beetles.
S Cymorek


Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


Acoustic communication between Microcerotermes crassus Snyder
1982 - IRG/WP 1158
An unusual acoustic communication within a nest of Microcerotermes crassus SNYDER is reported. The signals produced by the termites are described and possible reasons for this behavior are considered.
U Kny


Studies on the infestation behaviour of the powder-post beetle Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) and its physical control in the wood yards of the Caspian forests of Iran
1985 - IRG/WP 1271
Lyctus brunneus (Steph.) is a pest which has not been previously thoroughly studied in Iran. It severely attacks Iranian hardwoods, especially those used in wooden houses and that have not been treated. Research work was necessary to determine the natural resistance of the most important timber species in Iran against this insect.
P Niloufari


Studies on the infesting behaviour of the Formosan termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and its physical control
1983 - IRG/WP 1174
An outline of termite damage to buildings in Japanese National Railways, wood-infesting behavior, attacked traces in PVC-sheathed cables by termites, detection method of termites and the physical control method of the Formosan termite are given in the present paper.
K Yamano


The influence of formulation on the behaviour of LOSP's during industrial impregnation of spruce
1986 - IRG/WP 3387
Evidence is presented that the comparative behaviour of two LOSP formulations during impregnation treatment of spruce cannot be predicted purely on the basis of their physical characteristics (viscosity, surface tension and contact angle) nor on the extent of their 'passive' penetration into pine sapwood.
L D A Saunders, D M Zuvencko


Treatment behaviour of fresh and inservice catamaran logs
2001 - IRG/WP 01-30255
Catamaran is a conventional fishing craft fabricated by lashing 4 - 6 shaped logs of soft timber together. Over 73,000 of these craft fabricated out of 165,000 m3 of wood are in use along the vast east coast of India. Each craft lasts for 5-7 years. Over 15,000 m3 of timber is required annually for repairs and replacements of the craft. Such huge demand exerts enormous pressure on the resources. It is apt, therefore, to extend the practice of wood preservation to the catamaran sector and conserve the precious raw material. In order to achieve this objective, our Institute took up technology demonstrations way back in 1968. However, because of illiteracy and socio-economic constraints of the traditional fishermen, the efforts did not catch up well. Under these circumstances, as a renewed measure of propagation, treatment of 3 each of fresh as well as inservice catamarans was taken up some time ago. The results of pressure impregnation of these six catamarans made of Albizia falcataria timber with copper-chrome- arsenic (CCA) preservative were analyzed to understand the preservative absorption of the constituent logs. The study revealed that there was no significant variation in the total quantity of chemical absorbed among the fresh as well as inservice catamarans that served for three different periods prior to treatment . However, significant difference was noticed between all the fresh catamarans clubbed as one group and the inservice craft as another group. The CCA absorption ranged from 13.52 to 15.30 kg.m-3 averaging at 14.60 kg.m-3 in the fresh craft and 18.65 to 22.10 kg.m-3 averaging at 20.42 kg.m-3 in the inservice catamarans. Also, each constituent log of the six catamarans differed in its chemical content from the other. The analysis proved that it is possible to treat the inservice catamarans and achieve good preservative retentions.
V Kuppusamy, M V Rao, M Balaji, K S Rao


Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Development of novel techniques for evaluating the feeding rate of Limnoria lignorum with specific reference to temperature influences
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10325
The faecal pellet production of Limnoria lignorum placed into repli-dish chambers containing seawater and a small chip of untreated Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) was observed. The repli-dishes were kept at a range of constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C and the number of faecal pellets produced by each of the animals was monitored. It was found that faecal pellet length generally increased with gut length and that temperature had no effect on the faecal pellet length. There was considerable variation in faecal pellet production rates, both from day to day for any particular animal and from animal to animal. Faecal pellet production rate was generally highest between 15 and 21°C and decreased above 22°C. The production of faecal pellets tended to decrease during moulting. Gut passages per day increased from 1.1 at 13°C to 3.4 at 21°C followed by a decrease to 1.6 at 25°C.
A Praël, S M Cragg, R A Eaton


A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures.
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan


On the Influence of Wood Destroying Fungi on the Feeding Intensity of Termites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10893
The baiting and feeding stimulating effect of wood attacked by fungal isolates of the species Coniophora, Lentinus, Poria and Gloeophyllum on termites Reticulitermes santonensis is examined. There are significant relationships between the activity of fungal isolates and the feeding behaviour of termites. The most active isolates can be used for increase the attractiveness of wood to wood-destroying termites.
W Unger, T L Woods


Sex pheromone of the male house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10100
Since 1990 studies have been conducted with respect to the chemical communication of the house longhorn beetle Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The structure of glands located in the prothorax of the beetles was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The analyses of different extracts from beetles resulted in the finding and identification (GC-, GC/MS-, and HR-GC/MS-studies) of specific substances derived from the prothoracal glands: (3R)-3-hydroxy-2-hexanone, (2R,3S)-2,3-hexanediol and (2R,3R)-2,3hexanediol. In wind tunnel experiments, unmated female beetles were attracted over a distance of 1m by males, headspace extracts of males, the 3 major components of the glands as well as by the synthetic blends of the components. Thus, the bioassays revealed the initiation of premating behaviour by emission of a long-range sex pheromone from the male prothoracal glands. The pheromone functions as activator, attractant and possibly aphrodisiac for unmated females. Further studies are conducted with respect to disturbance and prevention of mating behaviour of Hylotrupes bajulus in the attics of houses by using pheromone traps.
U Noldt, R Fettköther, F Schröder, H Meyer, K Dettner, W Francke, W A König


Differential behaviour of wood rotters at water repellent Rubberwood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10386
Rubberwood samples treated with different concentration of aqueous solution of chromic acid has induced significant increase in water repellency and attains dimensional stability. Though water repellency and dimensional stability was achieved by treatment, the fungal invasion could not be completely controlled. Differential level of decay of brown and white rot in wood treated with water repellent compound is observed. Wood shows complete protection from white rot but failed to prevent the invasion of brown rot in water repellent rubber wood. These treatments were found to be very effective even at a low concentration of 2.5% in protecting decay due to white rots as compared to brown rot. Effectiveness of these treatments against white rot may be attributed to formation of lignin-chromic acid complex.
H C Nagaveni, S S Chauhan, K S Rao


Notes on the resistance of tropical woods against termites
1985 - IRG/WP 1249
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the effect of experimental methods, matrix, species of termites, solid wood and wood extract on the resistance and repellency of woods against three species of termites, i.e. Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light; Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi). Two methods of experiment were used, the Forced Feeding Test and the Feeding Preference Test. The Feeding Preference Test method was found more appropriate for assessing the arrestancy and repellency of woods against termites. This method is probably appropriate for predicting the normal feeding behaviour of termites in the field.
Nana Supriana


Environmental behaviour of treated wood in (semi-)permanent contact with fresh or seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-20
This study presents a strategy for the environmental toxicity evaluation of treated wood towards the aquatic compartment, using non target water organisms toxicity tests. A lixiviation process is applied on wood (Pinus sylvestris) treated with several wood preservatives formulations. The lixiviation process is carried out in the laboratory with ultrapure water or synthetic seawater. After chemical analysis for the pesticides migration, the leachates are evaluated for their ecotoxicity. For freshwater, the standard ecotoxicological tests on the luminescence bacteria Vibrio fisheri, the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the green unicellular algae Raphidocelis subcapitata are used. For seawater, marine tests using organisms such as the microcrustacean Artemia salina and the marine alga Phaeodactylum tricornutum are performed. Then, complementary methods for the detection of mutagenic components (genotoxicity) are applied on wood leachates in order to complete the evaluation. The same chemical treatment is therefore evaluated on fresh and seawater through this laboratory methodology applied to treated wood.
P Marchal, C Martin


Incorporating insect behaviour in standard tests of wood preservatives - A possible way to reduce pesticide loadings
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20190
The application of wood preservatives to protect timber against insect infestation is common practice world wide. The effectiveness of wood protecting insecticides is usually determined in various standard tests. Depending on the target pest species and the test method, larvae of different developmental stages and sizes or adult insects are exposed artificially to the insecticide-treated commodity by placing them into or on to the material. The achieved mortality usually rates the effectiveness of the tested insecticide. Detailed observations have shown, that a lot of insecticides already show repellent effects to ovipositing females, or have ovicidal effects at much lower quantities necessary for larval kill. Furthermore, if the natural chain of behavioral steps in the insect, which lead to an infestation, are correctly analyzed, an interference and manipulation of the behavior should prevent or at least minimize the risk of an infestation and thus the needs for wood preservatives. Examples for successful manipulation of mating and host finding behavior are presented in this paper, using the old house borer Hylotrupes bajulus L., as a model: In the general biology of the old house borer, males emerge slightly before females and attract the later with a sex pheromone from the future breeding site. Experiments in the laboratory and semi field situations have shown, that pine wood, offered in no-choice bioassays, was most attractive to males, more than any other given alternative. Virgin females neither accepted pine nor the alternatives. Only the presence of males on pine wood increased its attractiveness to virgin females. Females of H. bajulus, when mated, readily deposit their eggs on any material (natural or artificial) if a suitable crack is presented. However, they hesitate to deposit eggs on timber treated with certain preservatives even in no choice situations. Additionally, it was found, that certain modern insecticides show ovicidal effects, preventing the larvae from hatching, rather than larvicidal effects. The observed host selection and mating behavior, together with general considerations of energy budgeting in insects suggests, that males rather than females of the old house borer most likely select new breeding sites. Interfering with host selection biology might therefore enable alternative control strategies against this destructive pest of structural timber. These strategies include: reducing the attractiveness of breeding sites for males, repelling host seeking males, trapping mate seeking virgin females, etc. Furthermore, ovicidal effects of wood preservatives are not yet considered in standard test. More detailed knowledge of the general behavior of wood boring insects will permit new ways to preserve timber without or with reduced amounts of pesticides. The effectiveness of behavior modifying chemicals can not be evaluated in existing standard test methods. An alternative test set up is presented in this paper.
H Hertel, R Plarre


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practical AE measurements, especially with wood specimens of higher moisture content.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1558
Siderophores are iron-chelating extracellular fungal metabolites which may be involved in initiating wood decay. A purified siderophore extract isolated from the brown-rot decay fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae) was found to deter feeding by Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). This fungus has previously been associated with preferential feeding on decayed wood by subterranean termites, and solvent extracts have been reported to induce termite trail-following, arrestment, and/or aggregation. This is the first report of Gloephyllum trabeum metabolites or fungal siderophores having a negative behavioral effect on subterranean termites.
J K Grace, B Goodell, W E Jones, V Chandhoke, J Jellison


A contribution to the adsorption/desorption behaviour of zinc-hexa-fluoro-silicate in different soils
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50056
The estimation of a possible endangering of the groundwater through wood preservatives and thereof deriving measures for the avoidance of secondary damages require among others exact knowledge concerning the behaviour of wood preservative compounds in the soil matrix. Adsorption and desorption behaviour were determined at four soils of different characteristics, which were brought in contact with aqueous solutions of zinc-hexa-fluoro-silicate. For the respective experiments four concentrations were prepared containing 10, 50, 100 and 250 ppm zinc ions. Water of p.a. quality served as reference. As to be expected the soils in question behaved different: the adsorption of inserted ions increased with increasing clay content of the soil. On the other hand significant differences exist also with respect to the adsorption behaviour of the zinc cation in relation to the hexa-fluoro-silicate anion. Within the concentration interval investigated, the same soil adsorbed approximately the same proportional zinc quantity. However, when increasing the hexa-fluoro-silicate-ion concentration a proportional decrease concerning the degree of adsorption was observed. The results show that it is not possible to conclude from partial results achieved with individual preservative compounds to the overall system "wood preservative"-soil and that further investigations are necessary for an inclusive description of the problem.
E Melcher, R-D Peek


A behavioral assay for measuring feeding deterrency of a slow-acting biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1988 - IRG/WP 1366
Concentration-dependent feeding deterrency of a slow-acting compound, A-9248 (diiodomethyl para-tolyl sulfone) was studied in a choice test against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. A-9248 was a feeding deterrent at concentrations ³8,000 ppm. Initially, Coptotermes formosanus fed on wood treated with 1,000-6,000 ppm A-9248 but learned to avoid the treatment as a result of ingesting sublethal doses of A-9248. Only those groups exposed to wood treated with <1,000 ppm continued feeding on the treated substrates, and ingestion of these concentrations resulted in 85-100% mortality at the end of the 4-week experiment.
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


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