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A behavioral assay for measuring feeding deterrency of a slow-acting biocide, A-9248, against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1988 - IRG/WP 1366
Concentration-dependent feeding deterrency of a slow-acting compound, A-9248 (diiodomethyl para-tolyl sulfone) was studied in a choice test against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. A-9248 was a feeding deterrent at concentrations ³8,000 ppm. Initially, Coptotermes formosanus fed on wood treated with 1,000-6,000 ppm A-9248 but learned to avoid the treatment as a result of ingesting sublethal doses of A-9248. Only those groups exposed to wood treated with <1,000 ppm continued feeding on the treated substrates, and ingestion of these concentrations resulted in 85-100% mortality at the end of the 4-week experiment.
N-Y Su, R H Scheffrahn


Detection of feeding behaviour of termites using AE monitoring
1991 - IRG/WP 1514
Using acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, the feeding activity of the termite inhabiting a wood specimen was investigated. The amplitude and the rate of AE from the specimen of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was larger than that of Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. The AE event rate was higher in the specimen with soldiers than without soldiers. The AE event rate decreased according to the resistance of wood specimens against termite attack.
Y Imamura, M Tokoro, M Owada, Y Fujii, M Noguchi


Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert


Feeding preference behaviour of Crytopermes cynocephalus Light and Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on twenty-eight tropical timbers
1985 - IRG/WP 1251
A study on the feeding preference behaviour of a dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light and a subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren on 28 species of tropical timbers has been conducted. The weight-loss of individual timber and the mortality of termite was·recorded after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days of exposure. The results reveal that there are only five species among 28 species of wood which are completely repellent to both the dry-wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus. These five wood species are Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Intsia bijuga, Lagerstromia speciosa and Tectona grandis. There are eight wood species which are repellent to Cryptotermes cynocephalus and seven wood species which are repellent to Coptotermes curvignathus. There are also only seven wood species which are completely arrestant or highly arrestant to both species of termite. Agathis alba and Mangifera indica are classified as highly arrestant to both the dry-wood and the subterranean termites. Other species are classified between moderately repellent to highly arrestant.
Nana Supriana


Differences in feeding activity among colonies of Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki
1983 - IRG/WP 1202
Feeding activities of 7 colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined. Wood-consumption rates among colonies differed significantly, ranging from 23.80-78.48 mg/g/day. This large intraspecific variation raised a question of whether differences in feeding activity reported for other termite species were due to interspecific differences. When rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by one g termite per day (mg/g/day), termites of larger body weight appeared to consume less wood. This negative correlation, however, was not significant when rates were expressed as mg wood consumed by an individual per day (mg/worker/day).
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Development of novel techniques for evaluating the feeding rate of Limnoria lignorum with specific reference to temperature influences
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10325
The faecal pellet production of Limnoria lignorum placed into repli-dish chambers containing seawater and a small chip of untreated Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) was observed. The repli-dishes were kept at a range of constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C and the number of faecal pellets produced by each of the animals was monitored. It was found that faecal pellet length generally increased with gut length and that temperature had no effect on the faecal pellet length. There was considerable variation in faecal pellet production rates, both from day to day for any particular animal and from animal to animal. Faecal pellet production rate was generally highest between 15 and 21°C and decreased above 22°C. The production of faecal pellets tended to decrease during moulting. Gut passages per day increased from 1.1 at 13°C to 3.4 at 21°C followed by a decrease to 1.6 at 25°C.
A Praël, S M Cragg, R A Eaton


On the Influence of Wood Destroying Fungi on the Feeding Intensity of Termites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10893
The baiting and feeding stimulating effect of wood attacked by fungal isolates of the species Coniophora, Lentinus, Poria and Gloeophyllum on termites Reticulitermes santonensis is examined. There are significant relationships between the activity of fungal isolates and the feeding behaviour of termites. The most active isolates can be used for increase the attractiveness of wood to wood-destroying termites.
W Unger, T L Woods


Notes on the resistance of tropical woods against termites
1985 - IRG/WP 1249
This paper deals with a descriptive account on the effect of experimental methods, matrix, species of termites, solid wood and wood extract on the resistance and repellency of woods against three species of termites, i.e. Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light; Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren and Reticulitermes lucifugus (Rossi). Two methods of experiment were used, the Forced Feeding Test and the Feeding Preference Test. The Feeding Preference Test method was found more appropriate for assessing the arrestancy and repellency of woods against termites. This method is probably appropriate for predicting the normal feeding behaviour of termites in the field.
Nana Supriana


Feasibility of AE (Acoustic Emission) monitoring for the detection of the activities of wood-destroying insects
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2416
The feasibility of acoustic emission (AE) as a nondestructive testing method for the detection of the wood destroying insects was investigated. AEs were detected from the wood specimens under feeding attack of sugi bark borers or powder-post beetles. However, the feasible monitoring area of an AE sensor is influenced by the attenuation of AE amplitude, so that this could be a problem in the practical AE measurements, especially with wood specimens of higher moisture content.
Y Fujii, Y Imamura, E Shibata, M Noguchi


Inhibition of termite feeding by fungal siderophores
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1558
Siderophores are iron-chelating extracellular fungal metabolites which may be involved in initiating wood decay. A purified siderophore extract isolated from the brown-rot decay fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr. (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae) was found to deter feeding by Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). This fungus has previously been associated with preferential feeding on decayed wood by subterranean termites, and solvent extracts have been reported to induce termite trail-following, arrestment, and/or aggregation. This is the first report of Gloephyllum trabeum metabolites or fungal siderophores having a negative behavioral effect on subterranean termites.
J K Grace, B Goodell, W E Jones, V Chandhoke, J Jellison


Attractive factors of steam-treated larch wood to termite feeding
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10256
The hot water extractives from steam-treated Japanese larch wood were studied to understand the chemical properties of attractive factors of the treated wood to feeding behavior of a subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus. Hot water extractives were fractionated and analyzed using chromatography, gel filtration, and NMR methods. The stimulants yielded by the steam treatment were comprised of phenolics and saccharides, which were highly polar constituents. In addition, the stimulative effect was possibly accelerated by the degradation of flavonoids such as taxifolin originally included in untreated larch wood.
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, W Ohmura, M Aoyama, S Ohara


Longterm monitoring of termite activity on multiple feeding sites: a laboratory method intended for the determination of attractant/repellent properties of wood preservatives and baits
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20225
A method is introduced allowing the continuous monitoring of the activity of a small laboratory termite- colony at 8 different feeding sites simultaneously. The test assembly consists of a small central polycarbonate-tube containing a colonie of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) beeing connected with 8 external feeding sites by small glass-capillaries. The termites passing through the glass capillaries to and from the feeding sites are interrupting an infrared light-barrier. Each signal from the light-barriers is conditioned and fed to a PC-based signal-recognition-, monitoring- and storage-system. First results show that a colony of 500 individuals of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) will need approx. 2 to 3 weeks for establishing a new, full functional hierarchy. A well established Reticulitermes- colony will show 80 to 100 passings per minute to and from the eight feeding sites. The activity of Reticulitermes santonensis (de Feytaud) shows no circadian activity rhythmic.
M Pallaske, E Graf, H Takiuchi


Variance in feeding on equivalent wood blocks by the Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki)
1987 - IRG/WP 1325
We tested whether laboratory groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki forage randomly when they are given 4 equivalent wood blocks, and whether group size affects variance of feeding on equivalent blocks. In all cases, foraging was not random, but, rather, the termites concentrated on a few preferred blocks. Group size did not affect this pattern of non-randomness. These data are useful for designing choice tests, and recommended sample sizes for a simulated experiment are given.
J P La Fage, K S Delaplane


Effects of drying processes on termite feeding behaviour against Japanese larch wood
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10390
We investigated the effects of current drying schedules for larch lumbers on the termite feedings. Thermal analyses were also conducted to investigate degradation of wood components. Choice feeding tests showed specimens dried under high-temperature schedules were evidently susceptible against termite attacks. These schedules produced the feeding-attractants, which were suggested by the TGA results compared to the control samples. The results of this study indicated that the acceleration of termite feeding is taken place even under comparatively lower temperature than that of our previous researches.
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, H Takiuchi, M Aoyama


Intraspecific variability in feeding capacity of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1175
This paper describes laboratory studies to evaluate the comparative feeding capacity within and between five mound colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Matched specimens of mountain ash, pine and coachwood were exposed to five replicate 10 g groups of termites from each colony source. After an initial 8-week exposure period, all groups were assessed for vitality and continued feeding capacity on pine specimens for a further eight weeks. The investigation showed within-colony variations to be small, but wide variations between colonies were revealed.
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Nasutitermes exitiosus and wood-rotting fungi in Eucalyptus regnans, E. acmenioides, E. wandoo, and E. marginata: force-feeding, laboratory study
1985 - IRG/WP 1231
Under a force-feeding regime, the termitid Nasutitermes exitiosus was fed on four eucalypt timbers infested with several fungal species to investigate the influence of such fungus-infested timbers on mass of wood lost, termite biomass, fat content and water content. The results showed that wood mass losses were markedly affected by species of fungi and timber. The interaction of fungi and timbers was also marked. Termite biomass was only markedly affected by species of timbers, but the termite fat content was not markedly different.
D B A Ruyooka


Estimates of wood-consumption rates by termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1201
Effects of 2 components; termite-biomass and experiment duration on estimates of wood-consumption rates (mg wood/g termite/day), were examined. Three models; (1) no mortality, (2) linear mortality and (3) nonlinear mortality were used to calculate mean standing-crop biomass of termites. Model (1) predicted a significantly lower wood-consumption rate than those based on models (2) and (3). No significant difference was detected between rates based on models (2) and (3) when data within defined experiment duration were used.
N-Y Su, J P La Fage


Termite resistance of twenty-eight Indonesian timbers
1982 - IRG/WP 1150
A comparative study of termite resistance of 28 Indonesian wood species has been conducted using small samples measuring 5 x 10 x 20 mm³. The drywood termite Cryptotermes cynocephallus (Kalotermitidae) and the subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Rhinotermitidae) were used in the study. A resistance classification was derived on the basis of cluster analysis. The result reveals that Albizia procera, Dalbergia latifolia, Eusideroxylon zwageri, Tectona grandis and Intsia bijuga are completely resistant to both species of termite. Albizia chinensis and Artocarpus integer are resistant only to Cryptotermes cynocephallus, but vary between resistant and moderately resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus. Other wood species are classified as moderately resistant, susceptible or very susceptible.
Nana Supriana, P E Howse


Effects of wood-inhabiting marine fungi on food selection, feeding intensity and reproduction of Limnoria tripunctata Menzies (Crustacea, Isop.)
1981 - IRG/WP 480
The paper gives a condensed survey on laboratory tests with Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and pure cultures of 9 different marine wood-inhabiting fungi. Limnoria is able to distinguish between fungus-infested and non-infested wood. Wood with dead mycelium mostly proved to be less attractive or even repellent and was initially consumed less than with living fungi. On non-infested wood, initial feeding is retarded by 2 to 4 days. On fungus-infested wood less eggs degenerated and the number of reproductives was higher than on non-infested wood. Humicola alopallonella-infested wood yielded the highest number of reproductives. But the attractiveness of a fungus, the feeding stimulus produced by it and its nutritional value often did not correspond. It was not possible to make generally valid conclusions for one fungus species.
H Geyer


The density factor in termite bioassays
1985 - IRG/WP 1252
The initial and final floor surface and food block surface actually used by termites in a small container were converted to estimates of "Living Space" and "Feeding Space" densities for 1/32 to 1½ g groups of termites. The termites were provided with blocks of blotter paper as a food supply. Except where 1½ g groups exhausted the food, the survival of termites was uniformly high (averaging >96%). The growth, block weight loss, debris production and feeding rates declined progressively as densities increased; however, these rates stabilized where 1/2, 1 and 1½ g groups had equalized feeding densities. This stabilization demonstrated that feeding space density, but not living space density, affected the termite performance. The advantage and disadvantage of using a matrix in termite bioassays is discussed.
G R Esenther


Laboratory evaluation of JB-TB003 as potential bait toxicant against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia. subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis in Australia
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10214
In this laboratory evaluation, Coptotermes acinaciformis actively attacked in the first week of testing Pinus radiata wood blocks (50 x 25 x 15 mm3) treated with concentrations of JB-TB003 (i.e. 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm); the blocks with highest concentration were the most attractive. Results were similar whether blocks were leached or unleached. The earliest mortality occurred in the 400 ppm treatments between the fifth and sixth week of testing. All levels of JB-TB003 treatments proved toxic to C. acinaciformis, within 8 weeks. Termite mortality over the test period in the water treated and solvent treated controls was 10 per cent. JB-TB003 stimulated active termite feeding and tended to override the termites&apos; tendency to &apos;mud-up&apos; their food source and surroundings. This suggests a strong &apos;attractancy - feeding-response&apos; induced by JB-TB003. Since there was no significant difference between toxicity levels in the leached and unleached blocks it may be concluded that JB-TB003 was firmly bound to the wood substrate of the timber specimens. These laboratory results strongly indicate that JB-TB003 has a role as a potential termite bait toxicant, particularly against Coptotermes species. Field trials are currently in progress.
B M Ahmed, J R J French, A R Valcke, P Blunt


Effects of steaming heat treatment of wood on the stimulation of termite feeding
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10212
At the 26th IRG conference, we reported that steamed Japanese larch heartwood samples were suffered a serious attack by subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus both in choice and no-choice feeding tests. This is possibly caused by the yield of termites stimulants in the wood samples resulting from the steaming process. Since the steaming heat treatment has often been applied to other several timber species for their drying, dimensional stabilisation, etc., attention should be paid to them on the stimulant effects of this treatment on termite attack. This paper deals with the results of choice and no choice feeding tests of termites using steamed or dry-heated samples of wood for commercial use in Japan. Some steamed wood species were heavily attacked by C. formosanus or Reticulitermes speratus while all dry-heated samples were not attacked more than unheated controls.
S Doi, Y Kurimoto, M Takahashi, T Yoshimura


The influence of fungal species and the level of decay on the mortality and feeding activity of adult Euophryum confine (Broun)
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10448
The mortality and feeding activity of adult Euophryum confine (Broun) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are used to establish the substrate conditions most suitable for their rearing. Weevils were allowed to feed on Pinus nigra (Arnold) sapwood blocks, either undecayed or decayed to 10% weight loss ±5% by two brown rots Coniophora puteana (Schum.:Fr.) Karst. and Serpula lacrymans (Wulf.:Fr.) Schroeter, or the white rot Fibroporia vaillantii (DC.:Fr.) Parmasto in a non-choice test for seven days at 20°C (±1°C) and 92% relative humidity ±5%. Weevils were also allowed to feed on blocks acid pre-treated to 10% (±1%) weight loss. Weevil mortality and block weight losses resulting from feeding were recorded. Those pre-treatments resulting in low mortality and high feeding activity were considered most suitable for rearing adult weevils.
M Green, A J Pitman


Feeding stimulants to enhance bait acceptance by Formosan termites
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10055
Four nitrogenous compounds were found to increase feeding by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in the laboratory. Cardboard disks dipped in urea solutions were consumed significantly more than untreated cardboard disks. Cardboard dipped in 8% urea showed a significant change in weight due to termite feeding over other urea treated cardboards. Examination of 15 amino acids in no choice feeding tests indicated that three, L-lysine, L-proline, and L-isoleucine, were feeding stimulants to Coptotermes formosanus. A fast screening method for feeding stimulant detectian was developed and is discussed. Using this method on 18 amino acids showed that L-proline and L-lysine were the best feeding stimulants.
G Henderson, M Kirby, J Chen


Feeding response of field populations of Coptotermes species to softwood blocks treated with non-toxic water-proofing and anti-microbial products.
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10487
The feeding response of field populations of the subterranean termite, Coptotermes lacteus, to Pinus radiata wood blocks (50 x 40 x40 mm) treated with various combinations of non-toxic and odourless water-proofing materials based on natural high molecular weight esters (TimberTreatÒ) and a new water insoluble quaternary ammonium compound (‘anti-microbial’) is described. Treated wood blocks were inserted into tube containers (300 x 90 mm) and placed into active above-ground mound colonies of C. lacteus in the south east Queensland. A simple objective rating system of attack measured this response over a period of 28 days. During the periods of test, termites had ‘visited’ all the wood specimens in the containers. Specimens treated with 1.5% anti-microbial solution and one coat of the timber treatment (TimberTreat®) were not attacked or damaged. The termites completely encased these specimens in soil and faecal material but did not consume any of the blocks. Blocks treated with one coat of the timber treatment and blocks treated with 0.5 and 1.0% anti-microbial solutions were only slightly to moderately attacked. These results suggest a strong ‘anti-feeding’ reaction by the termites to these novel non-toxic and odourless products, and maybe a role for these products as potential termiticides and/or wood preservatives against Coptotermes species. Further field trials are currently in progress.
J R J French, T Pynsent, M Susic


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