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A summary of tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood testing instrument
1980 - IRG/WP 282
This paper presents a summary of the reports, tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood tester not only, however, concerning poles but also in other fields such as standing trees, sawn timber etc. The principle of the Pilodyn is a spring-loaded pin which is fired into the object and the depth to which the pin penetrates is correlated to physical and mechanical properties of the object....
H Friis-Hansen


Decay, decayed wood and the Shigometer
1980 - IRG/WP 281
A L Shigo


Studies on the permeability of Norway spruce (Picea abies)
1987 - IRG/WP 2295
It is well known that the bordered pits play a dominating role for liquid transport in softwoods. The mechanism behind pit aspiration during drying or heartwood formation seems to be well understood. The reason why the fixation of the membrane (torus) to the pit opening remains almost irreversible is, however, still unclear. A technique has been developed combining so-called "solvent exchange dryi...
I Johansson, K Nordman-Edberg


Preservative treatment of Gollah cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana) by soaking method
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40197
The feasibility of preservative treatment of gollah cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff.) Mart.) by soaking method was tested in the present study. Cane samples of 1m, 2m and 3m long were soaked with 10% borax and boric acid solution. The study revealed that adequate dry salt retention (DSR) in the above samples could be obtained in 3 days, 4 days and 5 days of soaking, respectively. Within these...
M Younus-uzzaman, K Akhter, M H Chowdhury


Gelatin encapsulated fumigants for wood fumigations: Current research status
1985 - IRG/WP 3336
The fumigants chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) were encapsulated in gelatin as an alternative to liquid fumigant treatments for control of decay fungi in wooden utility poles. Gelatin-encapsulated MIT was stored for over 2 years under dry conditions without significant fumigant leakage. Gelatin encapsulated MIT and chloropicrin were released from capsules when pl...
A R Zahora, M E Corden, J J Morrell


Moisture correction for ultrasonic MOE measurements above fibre saturation point in Scots pine sapwood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20333
There is a high correlation between methods for dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) and static modulus of elasticity (MOEstat). MOEdyn methods have been found sensitive to detect early stages of decay and may be seen as an option for non-destructive wood durability testing. As the MOEstat measurements do not change after reaching the fibre saturation point, the uncorrected MOEdyn data from ultr...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, H Militz


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein


Technique for monitoring absorption during a vacuum pressure process
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3696
A laboratory technique was developed and an apparatus constructed which allowed for the direct and continuous measurement and observation of volumetric uptake of water-borne preservative into wood samples throughout a controlled vacuum-pressure treatment process. Fractional filling of void space was calculated. Graphing (fractional saturation) against time allows prediction of optimum cycle length...
A J Pendlebury, J A Petty


Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large ...
A A H Wong, A P Singh


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced E...
R-D Peek


Durable fibre for durable MDF – testing Tricoya®
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40704
The chemical modification of wood has been a commercial reality for a decade on release of technologies for the modification of solid wood including Accoya®. A challenge and an opportunity for the modification technologies which typically impart dimensional stability, water stability and enhanced biological durability was the adaptation of the technology to wood based panels. This paper presents ...
E Suttie, J Alexander, M Maes


Formation of soft rot cavities in relation to concentric layers in wood fibre walls
1983 - IRG/WP 1185
A large number of timber species attacked by soft rot have been examined using light microscopy. The S2 layers in a large number of the timbers exhibited special structural features in the form of thin concentric layers. Several observations indicate that these layers may be characterised as "weak" zones by being more easily degradable than the surrounding wall layers. The chemical structure of th...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Preservative effect of cellulose insulation material against some mould fungi and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana in pine sapwood
1991 - IRG/WP 1484
The influence of mineral wool and loose-fill cellulose wool on biodeterioration of pine sapwood was studied. The test fungi were mould fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium sp. and Aureobasidium pullullans and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Cellulose wool inhibited the growth of mould fungi on the face of wood contacted with insulation material at RH of 97 an...
H Viitanen


Soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 179
Soft rot decay of treated wood is examined with special reference to hardwoods treated with CCA. Factors which adversely affect the chances of protection of hardwoods against soft rot are discussed. The ratio of the volume of the fibre cell wall to the volume of the fibre lumen is presented as a major factor influencing final preservative concentration in the fibre cell wall, the major strength co...
C R Levy


The effect of initial moisture content on wood decay at different levels of gaseous oxygen concentration
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10316
The influence of initial moisture content on wood decay at different levels of atmospheric oxygen concentration was studied. Three fungi, Coriolus versicolor a white rot, Coniophora puteana a brown rot, and Chaetomium globosum a soft rot, were chosen. The mycelia of the fungi were inoculated on mini blocks of Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). Incubations were under four le...
S M Kazemi, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


The development of soft rot decay in bamboo fibres
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1572
The development of decay by soft rot fungus Chaetomium globosum was investigated in young and mature culms of bamboo Phyllostachys virideglaucescens. Soft rot decay was influenced both quantitatively and qualitatively by the differing levels of lignification in the material. Weight loss was significantly greater in the younger culm compared with the older, more heavily lignified culm. The distribu...
O Sulaiman, R J Murphy


Factors affecting the resistance of fibre building boards to fungal attack
1975 - IRG/WP 252
Fungal decay is initiated at lower moisture contents in standard and tempered hardboards (18%) than in pine sapwood (26%). In contrast, in a saturated atmosphere, the equilibrium moisture contents of standard hardboard (14%) and of tempered hardboard (12.5%) are much lower than the moisture content permitting decay initiation whilst the equilibrium moisture content of pine sapwood (25.1%) approach...
C Grant, J G Savory


COST Action E37. Sustainability Through New Technologies For Enhanced Wood Durability -
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40417
The main overall objective of the Action was to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability to sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and performance classification of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeked to improve and consequently to increase the cost-effective use of compon...
R-D Peek, J Van Acker


SEM-EDXA of CCA-treated Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20399
The microdistribution of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative in rubberwood was studied using scanning electron microscope in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDXA). Bulk X-ray analysis showed that there was a high accumulation of chromium, copper, and arsenic in the vessels and lower concentration of the three preservative elements in fibres. Chromium appeared to rec...
I Jusoh, D P Kamdem


Preliminary laboratory bioassay to evaluate engineered Fibre-boards against subterranean termites C. acinaciformis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10768
In Australia, laboratory bioassays with subterranean termites typically contain groups of workers and soldiers in a substrate of moist mound material. This termite substrate may affect termite consumption, and the test materials create a favorable termite condition for the test. The main purpose of this test is to examine the effect of a melamine formaldehyde treatment of wood panels to evaluate t...
B M Ahmed (Shiday), H Militz, B Ozarska, I Ali, L Kloeser


Correlation of %Acetyl and Fiber Saturation in Acetylated Southern Pine Boards
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40598
Wood acetylation represents a chemical modification that increases the hydrophobicity of wood. The level of acetylation in the wood structure determines the extent of hydrophocity with higher levels providing reduced moisture affinity. Due to the reduced hygroscopic nature of acetylated wood, performance features such as dimensional stability, resistance to termites, and resistance to rot and de...
J Dickerson, E Cwirko, J Allen


Biological durability of natural fibre reinforced composites
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40681
Composite materials reinforced with wood or non-wood natural fibres have the potential to be a lighter and lower-cost alternative construction material. Until better availability and properties and a lower cost price of degradable polymers makes their use more prevalent, the application of natural fibre reinforcements in synthetic polymers is an intermediate step towards products that are complete...
N Defoirdt, I De Windt, J Van den Bulcke, J Van Acker


Measurement of Cell Wall Moisture in Acetylated Radiata Pine Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20583
Understanding the interaction of water with acetylated wood is necessary to explain how the protective mechanism of acetylation functions. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is one technique for assessing water in wood. Pinus radiata earlywood sapwood samples were acetylated to various weight percentage gains and then analysed with this method. Increased levels of acetylation showed significantl...
H G Beck, C A S Hill


Moisture behaviour and biological durability of high performance flax fibre reinforced composites
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40803
For natural fibre composites in structural and load bearing applications long reinforcing fibres are required. Therefore, much research is performed on flax fibre reinforced composites to optimize them for high performance use. In most cases such research focuses on the mechanical properties, yet the assessment of moisture behaviour, dimensional stability and biological durability is an important ...
N Defoirdt, J Van den Bulcke, F Bensadoun, J Ivens, I Verpoest, J Van Acker