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A summary of tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood testing instrument
1980 - IRG/WP 282
This paper presents a summary of the reports, tests and practical experiences with the Pilodyn wood tester not only, however, concerning poles but also in other fields such as standing trees, sawn timber etc. The principle of the Pilodyn is a spring-loaded pin which is fired into the object and the depth to which the pin penetrates is correlated to physical and mechanical properties of the object....
H Friis-Hansen


Decay, decayed wood and the Shigometer
1980 - IRG/WP 281
A L Shigo


Studies on the permeability of Norway spruce (Picea abies)
1987 - IRG/WP 2295
It is well known that the bordered pits play a dominating role for liquid transport in softwoods. The mechanism behind pit aspiration during drying or heartwood formation seems to be well understood. The reason why the fixation of the membrane (torus) to the pit opening remains almost irreversible is, however, still unclear. A technique has been developed combining so-called "solvent exchange dryi...
I Johansson, K Nordman-Edberg


Preservative treatment of Gollah cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana) by soaking method
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40197
The feasibility of preservative treatment of gollah cane (Daemonorops jenkinsiana (Griff.) Mart.) by soaking method was tested in the present study. Cane samples of 1m, 2m and 3m long were soaked with 10% borax and boric acid solution. The study revealed that adequate dry salt retention (DSR) in the above samples could be obtained in 3 days, 4 days and 5 days of soaking, respectively. Within these...
M Younus-uzzaman, K Akhter, M H Chowdhury


Moisture correction for ultrasonic MOE measurements above fibre saturation point in Scots pine sapwood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20333
There is a high correlation between methods for dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) and static modulus of elasticity (MOEstat). MOEdyn methods have been found sensitive to detect early stages of decay and may be seen as an option for non-destructive wood durability testing. As the MOEstat measurements do not change after reaching the fibre saturation point, the uncorrected MOEdyn data from ultr...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, H Militz


The effect of initial moisture content on wood decay at different levels of gaseous oxygen concentration
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10316
The influence of initial moisture content on wood decay at different levels of atmospheric oxygen concentration was studied. Three fungi, Coriolus versicolor a white rot, Coniophora puteana a brown rot, and Chaetomium globosum a soft rot, were chosen. The mycelia of the fungi were inoculated on mini blocks of Fagus sylvatica (beech) and Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). Incubations were under four le...
S M Kazemi, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Gelatin encapsulated fumigants for wood fumigations: Current research status
1985 - IRG/WP 3336
The fumigants chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) and methylisothiocyanate (MIT) were encapsulated in gelatin as an alternative to liquid fumigant treatments for control of decay fungi in wooden utility poles. Gelatin-encapsulated MIT was stored for over 2 years under dry conditions without significant fumigant leakage. Gelatin encapsulated MIT and chloropicrin were released from capsules when pl...
A R Zahora, M E Corden, J J Morrell


Correlation of %Acetyl and Fiber Saturation in Acetylated Southern Pine Boards
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40598
Wood acetylation represents a chemical modification that increases the hydrophobicity of wood. The level of acetylation in the wood structure determines the extent of hydrophocity with higher levels providing reduced moisture affinity. Due to the reduced hygroscopic nature of acetylated wood, performance features such as dimensional stability, resistance to termites, and resistance to rot and de...
J Dickerson, E Cwirko, J Allen


Measurement of Cell Wall Moisture in Acetylated Radiata Pine Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20583
Understanding the interaction of water with acetylated wood is necessary to explain how the protective mechanism of acetylation functions. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is one technique for assessing water in wood. Pinus radiata earlywood sapwood samples were acetylated to various weight percentage gains and then analysed with this method. Increased levels of acetylation showed significantl...
H G Beck, C A S Hill


Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein


Point sur la réglementation et contraintes administratives
1990 - IRG/WP 3575
J H Moneger


Technique for monitoring absorption during a vacuum pressure process
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3696
A laboratory technique was developed and an apparatus constructed which allowed for the direct and continuous measurement and observation of volumetric uptake of water-borne preservative into wood samples throughout a controlled vacuum-pressure treatment process. Fractional filling of void space was calculated. Graphing (fractional saturation) against time allows prediction of optimum cycle length...
A J Pendlebury, J A Petty


Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large ...
A A H Wong, A P Singh


Environmentally more acceptable solvents
1979 - IRG/WP 3131
The subject of this paper is hydrocarbon solvents with particular reference to the cyclo-aliphatic or naphthene-rich, grades which are now available. The specialised low aromatic high boiling petroleum fractions are also discussed....
A M Cumbers


Durable fibre for durable MDF – testing Tricoya®
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40704
The chemical modification of wood has been a commercial reality for a decade on release of technologies for the modification of solid wood including Accoya®. A challenge and an opportunity for the modification technologies which typically impart dimensional stability, water stability and enhanced biological durability was the adaptation of the technology to wood based panels. This paper presents ...
E Suttie, J Alexander, M Maes


Sustainability Through New Technologies for Enhanced Wood Durability. COST Action E37 – A New Action in the Forestry Domain
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40293
The main overall objective of the action is to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability on the sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and perfoamance of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeks to improve and consequently increase the cost-effective use of sustainably produced E...
R-D Peek


Formation of soft rot cavities in relation to concentric layers in wood fibre walls
1983 - IRG/WP 1185
A large number of timber species attacked by soft rot have been examined using light microscopy. The S2 layers in a large number of the timbers exhibited special structural features in the form of thin concentric layers. Several observations indicate that these layers may be characterised as "weak" zones by being more easily degradable than the surrounding wall layers. The chemical structure of th...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Preservative effect of cellulose insulation material against some mould fungi and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana in pine sapwood
1991 - IRG/WP 1484
The influence of mineral wool and loose-fill cellulose wool on biodeterioration of pine sapwood was studied. The test fungi were mould fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium sp. and Aureobasidium pullullans and brown rot fungus Coniophora puteana. Cellulose wool inhibited the growth of mould fungi on the face of wood contacted with insulation material at RH of 97 an...
H Viitanen


Soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 179
Soft rot decay of treated wood is examined with special reference to hardwoods treated with CCA. Factors which adversely affect the chances of protection of hardwoods against soft rot are discussed. The ratio of the volume of the fibre cell wall to the volume of the fibre lumen is presented as a major factor influencing final preservative concentration in the fibre cell wall, the major strength co...
C R Levy


Effect of point of preservative addition on the mechanical and physical properties of strandboard treated with Tanalith 3485
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40152
Preservative has been added to a PF bonded strandboard at various different stages in the manufacturing cycle and the physical and mechanical properties of the boards have been evaluated (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, thickness swelling, water absorption, internal bond strength, and shear strength). Preservative addition has been examined at five different stages namely green strand d...
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale


Investigation of extracellular mucilaginous material in some wood decay fungi
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10188
The external morphology of the extracellular mucilagenous material (ECM) produced by Coriolus versicolor and Coniophora puteana during colonization of Scots pine and beech was studies using SEM. Specimens were examined in the frozen hydrated, freeze-dried and critical point dried state. All technics produced artefacts but the ECM was best preserved when examined the frozen hydated state. Critical ...
A R Abu, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


The development of soft rot decay in bamboo fibres
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1572
The development of decay by soft rot fungus Chaetomium globosum was investigated in young and mature culms of bamboo Phyllostachys virideglaucescens. Soft rot decay was influenced both quantitatively and qualitatively by the differing levels of lignification in the material. Weight loss was significantly greater in the younger culm compared with the older, more heavily lignified culm. The distribu...
O Sulaiman, R J Murphy


The risk assessment process. Point of view of a biocide manufacturer [Évaluation du risque. Point de vue d'un fabricant de biocide]
1990 - IRG/WP 3568
Risk assessment is an inherent part of our everyday lives. The risk assessment equation combines Hazards and Exposure. For the Wood Preservation Industry, the hazards may be characterised by the toxicity a the ecotoxicity of chemicals and the exposure by the identification of exposed people, of the exposure routes and exposure frequency. To quantify the exposure, good co-operation is required betw...
D Baur


Factors affecting the resistance of fibre building boards to fungal attack
1975 - IRG/WP 252
Fungal decay is initiated at lower moisture contents in standard and tempered hardboards (18%) than in pine sapwood (26%). In contrast, in a saturated atmosphere, the equilibrium moisture contents of standard hardboard (14%) and of tempered hardboard (12.5%) are much lower than the moisture content permitting decay initiation whilst the equilibrium moisture content of pine sapwood (25.1%) approach...
C Grant, J G Savory


COST Action E37. Sustainability Through New Technologies For Enhanced Wood Durability -
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40417
The main overall objective of the Action was to concentrate on the contribution of wood durability to sustainability through the development of systems for quality assurance and performance classification of modified wood and wood products as alternatives to wood treated with traditional preservatives. By this means it seeked to improve and consequently to increase the cost-effective use of compon...
R-D Peek, J Van Acker


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