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Microbiological degradation of wooden piles in building foundations
1988 - IRG/WP 1370
White rot, soft rot and bacterial attack have been detected in softwood piles under buildings. In some cases bacteria were found to be the main degradation organisms in the studied piles. The water content of degraded piles was very high. The compression strength was quite low also in the piles deteriorated by bacteria. The density of wood was very variable, and the degree of degradation could not be evaluated according to density analyses.
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Decay fungi in Finnish houses on the basis of inspection samples from 1978 to 1988
1989 - IRG/WP 1401
A summary of the causes and sources of fungal damages was made on the basis of decay samples and sample information sent to the Forest Products Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) between 1978 and 1988. About 50-130 decay cases in wood structures were studied annually. In almost 50% of all fungusdamage cases the cause was Serpula lacrymans. The proportion of Coniophora puteana is also high and the occurrence of Antrodia and Poria species is general. The most generally damaged structures were floors. According to sample information water pipe leakages often caused the damage.
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


A field test with anti-sapstain chemicals on sawn pine timber in Finland
1986 - IRG/WP 3368
Fourteen formulations, each in two concentrations, were tested for effectiveness against sapstain, mould and decay on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a field test in South-Finland. The trial was commenced in June 1985 and finished in October 1985. During the test the boards were infected mainly by mould fungi. In kiln dried boards the protective effects of nine and in green boards of four treatments were better than the effect of the tested formulation of sodium chlorophenoxides at 1.5%
L Paajanen


Minutes of the Plenary Meetings held at the 20th Annual Meeting in Lappeenranta, Finland during 22-26 May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 5352
IRG Secretariat


Report of the meeting of the refractory timbers sub-group, Lappeenranta, Finland on 25 May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 3561
The first meeting of this sub-group took place on Thursday 25 May and considered the following agenda: 1) Papers presented to the meeting "Performance of treated spruce in Canadian field test sites" by J.P.Hösli and E.E.Doyle, IRG/WP/3506 and "Performance of CCA treated spruce and pine in unsterilized soil" by A.J.Nurmi. 2) Future work areas for the sub-group 3) Membership of the sub-group 4) Circulation of information
R J Murphy


Heat treated timber in Finland
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40158
Heat treatment permanently changes the physical and chemical properties of wood by means of high temperatures (150 - 240°C). Heat treatment darkens the colour of the wood. Heat treatment improves the equilibrium moisture content of the wood and the shrinkage and swelling of the wood is reduced. Very high temperatures improve the resistance to rot and also reduce the susceptibility to fungal decay. At the same time the strength properties of the timber are reduced: the bending strength can fall by 30%, depending on the treatment conditions and the cleavage strength (tensile strength perpendicular to fibres) may be reduced to a half, which makes heat treated timber split easily. The improved characteristics of heat treated timber offer the timber product industry many potential and attractive new opportunities. Also wood species having no commercial value as such can be heat treated and in this way new uses can be found for these species.
T Syrjänen, E Kangas


Surface coatings for impregnated wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3684
The use of proper surface coatings enhances the aesthetic and protective properties of impregnated wood. Good results with especially water-borne coatings have been obtained for class-A impregnated L-joints and claddings in field tests started in 1982.
L Kotama


A potential anti-sapstain chemical for sawmills
1984 - IRG/WP 3300
Several biocidal formulations were tested under laboratory conditions in order to discover an alternative antisapstain chemical to chlorophenoxides. The formulations tested were experimental water solutions containing a quaternary ammonium chloride, a commercial fungicide and/or a sodium salt of some carboxylic acids. The effect of sodium carbonate and borax decahydrate in mixture with a quaternary compound was also examined. The best cost-effectiveness was obtained with trimethylcocoammoniumchloride in combination with a sodium salt of a branched-chain aliphatic acid. This finding was later confirmed in pilot and mill scale tests.
I A Linderborg


The wood-attacking insects in wooden houses of an old open air museum in southern Finland
1989 - IRG/WP 1409
Harmful insects of wood in a open-air museum were investigated in 1985-1988 by order of the National Board of Antiquities and Historical Monuments of Finland in nine old log houses. Many thousands of insects and altogether 1073 anobiids (Coleoptera, Anobidae) were obtained by window and light traps. The most common Anobiidae-species were Hadrobregmus confusus (Kraatz) 60.3%, Hadrobregmus pertinax (L.) 30.6% and Ernobius mollis (L.) 8.9%. The amounts of trapped insects varied in different houses and the flight time of anobiids varied greatly according to yearly weather conditions.
H Viitanen, M Pulkkinen


Repairs of dry rot damages. A follow-up survey
1989 - IRG/WP 1400
The success of repairs of dry rot (Serpula lacrymans) damage in small houses was studied by means of a questionnaire, interviews and inspections. The research material consisted of 92 buildings in the first follow-up survey and of 71 of those 92 buildings in the second survey 6 years later. In 55 buildings the damages had been repaired once and at that time the harmfulness of dry rot fungus was known. In all these cases the repairs had been successful. In the last study there were 15 buildings where dry rot damages had reoccurred once or more often and in 8 cases the repairs made in these buildings were now successful.
L Paajanen


Remediation of wood treatment sites in Finland
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50139
Finnish legislation in connection with soil contamination are firstly waste management legislation and secondly public health legislation and water legislation. There is no separate legislation concerning soil protection or remediation. The Ministry of the Environment has published a proposal for official contaminant guideline values to be used both as criteria for contamination and clean-up target values. Today whether a site is contaminated or not is evaluated according to provisional guideline values set by the Ministry in 1996. In the legislation the liability for remediation has been defined according to the "Polluter pays" principle. In case the polluter is not found or is not able to take care of the remediation, the municipality is responsible for the implementation of remediation, in some cases with the help of central government funding. In most of the cases remedial works have to have a licence from one of the 13 Regional Environment centers. The Ministry of the Environment set up a special nation wide project to evaluate the problems related to soil contamination. The project (SAMASE) published its report in the end of 1994. Report includes a list of potentially contaminated sites and as summary the number of suspected sites is presented. In 1994 the estimate of the number of sites to be remediated for the next 20 years was 1.177. Remediation activity of contaminated sites had long been fairly low, and in the early 901es the number of clean-up projects was 10 - 20. Remediation activity was stronly increased by the SAMASE-project and today the number of clean-up projects is about 150 annually.
S Salonen


Regulations of wood preservatives in Finland
1978 - IRG/WP 3124
Toxic wood preservatives are covered by the Poison Act (No. 309/69). The act came into force in May 1969 and was supplemented by the Statute on Poisons (No. 612/69). The act and the statute contain the regulations on the production, commerce and handling of poisons. Already when issued they were complained to contain some defects and obscurities. However, only minor alteration in them have been made since then. A new act has been under preparation for many years, but this work will hardly be completed in the nearest future. The Pesiticide Act ( No. 327/69) was issued simultaneously with the Poison Act. Pesticides are preparations that are used for prevention and eradication of vegetable and animal pests in agriculture, forestry and households. The preparations for treatments and protection of timber are included, except for the preservatives for sawn timber and other wood products. Wood preservatives, that are used for protection of round wood in storage thus belong under the pesticide legislation while all the others are covered by the Poison Act. The limitis, however, somewhat obscure, for instance in the case of preservatives that contain insecticides.
T Vihavainen


Leachability of active ingredients from some CCA treated and creosoted poles in service. A progress report after 10 years testing
1990 - IRG/WP 3627
CCA K33 TYPE B treated or creosoted poles, 10 pieces of each treatment type, have been monitored from the treatment plant to an electricity line, which was build up in Southern Finland in 1978. Preservative retention was determined by taking borings at four different levels: 1.5 m from the top end, 1 m above ground line, ground line and 0.5 m below ground. Determinations were made before setting up the poles and then after 2, 4 and 10 years in service. Also the soil around the poles and in some cases under the but end was analyzed to find evidence of leached heavy metals or creosote oil. After 10 years service the distribution of creosote has been dramatically changed. Only 1/3 of the originally analyzed creosote (150 kg/m³) was found in the borings taken 1 m above the ground level and 1.5 m from the top of the poles. However, the reduction at ground line and below ground was only 10%. This suggests that creosote oil runs down effectively and finally the flow becomes slower when creosote oil reaches the butt end, where the moisture content is much higher and the temperature lower. Significant quantities of creosote oil, 51 g/kg oven dry soil at the highest, were found in soil around the poles and under the but ends. In CCA treated poles arsenic has been leached out in large quantities at every level. At its highest the average loss was 33% at the ground line. In other parts of the poles the average loss of arsenic varied from 21% to 25%. From the top of the poles the average loss of copper was 11%. The other observation points gave figures near 20%. Chromium had been leached out in considerable amounts only from the ground level, where the average loss of 24% was analyzed. The soil samples around the poles showed some high heavy metal contents. The average amount of arsenic analyzed was 180 mg/dm³ (oven dried soil) and the greatest amount detected was as high as 420 mg/dm³. The copper content was 79 mg/dm³ and chromium 65 mg/dm³ in average.
A J Nurmi


Is cascading of harvested wood products really an environmentally beneficial strategy in Finland and Norway?
2020 - IRG/WP 20-50364
The role of cascading wood waste in the bioeconomy is highlighted in the several strategic documents. The European Waste Framework Directive describes a waste hierarchy where re-use and recovery are considered more favourable options compared with energy recovery, and applies strict re-use and recycling targets to household waste and non-hazardous construction and demolition waste. It is not fully clear if setting such targets will result in a positive environmental benefit. The assumption is generally made that cascading of bio-materials is good and incineration is bad. But how true is this assumption and is it universally applicable? This paper discusses the methodology to be used in order to determine the best strategy for the use of end of life wood waste in Norway and Finland. The scenario considered is that of the cascading of wood at the end of life into different product categories as counterfactuals compared to the incineration of wood with energy recovery. The paper considers both the LCA aspects by comparison of the global warming potential of different scenarios, as well as the storage of atmospheric carbon in the materials. Knowledge gaps that need to be covered in order to determine the best approach to utilising wood waste from an environmental perspective have been identified.
C A S Hill, G Alfredsen, M Hughes, L R Gobakken