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Industrial fixation systems: key factors, limitations and optimisation through the use of computer simulation modelling. Discussion paper
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40026
This paper briefly describes four fixation operative in the Netherlands, namely: circulating and non-circulating steam fixation cylinders, steam fixation chambers and controlled climate rooms. The general limitations of industrial practice are reviewed against the background of established fixation theory. The controlling variables, both material and process-related, for fixation processing are specified. The capabilities of computer simulation modelling to highlight and provide solutions to these problems is illustrated.
A J Pendlebury, M Riepen, M J Boonstra, W Gard

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 3. Effect of process variables on sapwood treatment and CCA fixation.
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40114
The Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process achieves treatment and fixation as combined process using hot CCA, within a 2-3 hour time-frame. Timber is treated to saturation with hot CCA using an empty cell process. During the pneumatic pressure phase, hot solution is held in the wood in an otherwise liquid-free treatment vessel until fixation is >95% complete. This report details a factorial design series of treatments undertaken to determine the effect of key process variables, particularly CCA solution temperature and time held at pneumatic pressure, on the degree of fixation achieved during treatment and the resultant Cu, Cr, As and Total Carbon concentration in kickback solutions. Increasing the CCA solution temperature resulted in greater fixation. At a solution temperature of 75°C, extending the time at pneumatic pressure beyond 60 minutes did not result in any significant increase in preservative fixation.
H Pearson, K Nasheri, J A Drysdale, G Durbin, M E Hedley

Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner

Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the general environment. EIs and SIs as well are derived from different types of bioassays and related to objectives of quality which may be either regulatory or harmonized within the programmes of the Standard Committees (CEN TC/38 for example). Critical Values are characteristics of wood preservatives; EIs and SIs are characteristics of treated wood; they vary with the different classes of risks.
G Ozanne

Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with hexavalent chromium and the quantitative assessment using diphenyl carbazide, fixation was achieved in less than 6 hours. During heating, the temperature at various locations inside the pole sections was monitored by fiber-optic thermocouples. The moisture profiles before, and after fixation, were also recorded. Further studies will examine other benefit of RF heating, including a) sterilization, and b) rapid drying of round-wood with minimum check formation.
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick

Problems of fixation of CCA-preservatives in palm-wood
1985 - IRG/WP 3338
Palm-wood may be used for posts and poles where it needs proper treatment for long time use. Based on observations by W. Killmann on low CCA-fixation in palm-wood, samples of Jubaea-palm grown in a Greenhouse at Hamburg, have been treated in two different series with a 4% solution of CCA-type B. After 1-16 weeks of storage the blocks were split into sticks of 1-2 mm² and leached. In all series 50% of the chromium and copper content of the individual blocks was leached independent of the time of storage, whereas simultaneously treated pinewood samples showed complete fixation after 4 weeks of storage.
H Willeitner, K Brandt

Progress towards controlling soft rot of treated hardwood poles in Australia
1977 - IRG/WP 289
H Greaves

Accelerated fixation of CCA in borak bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.) of Bangladesh
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40193
CCA-C fixation study on impregnated (6% CCA solution), then boiled, oven-dried, normal, air-dried and steamed bamboo slices of air-dried borak bamboo (Bambusa balocca Roxb) of Bangladesh, revealed almost complete fixation in steamed (accelerated fixation) and air-dried (3 weeks, slow fixation) bamboo slices compared to moderate to slow fixation in boiled, oven-dried, normal and 24h air-dried slices.
A K Lahiry

A discussion of current theories concerning CCA fixation
1983 - IRG/WP 3238
The understanding of the fixation mechanism of CCA and related preservatives in wood has been greatly improved by a significant series of recent scientific papers. In view of recent concerns in New Zealand regarding the long-term efficacy of CCA in high decay-hazard situations, it was considered appropriate to review this recent work and to contrast it with theories presented by previous workers.
D V Plackett

A simple leaching procedure for in-plant monitoring of CCA fixation
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30023
A simple leaching test is described to quantitatively estimate the extent of fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treated wood products. It is based on the reaction between diphenylcarbazide and unreacted hexavalent chromium leached from borings taken from treated wood during the fixation process. The test requires about 20 minutes to complete and can be set up in a treating plant quality control laboratory for less than US $1000.00.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung

Long-term effectiveness of fumigants in controlling decay in Douglas fir waterfront timbers
1986 - IRG/WP 3364
The persistence, movement, and effectiveness of chloropicrin and Vapam (sodium N-methyl dithiocarbamate) in large, horizontal Douglas fir timbers were evaluated 7 years after fumigation. Chloropicrin prevented reestablishment of decay fungi; reinvasion occurred in some Vapam-treated timbers. Residual fungistatic effect was detected up to 1.2 m from the fumigation site in chloropicrintreated timbers but not in Vapam-treated timbers.
T L Highley

Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi

Radical changes in the requirements for more safe pressure impregnation in the Nordic countries in 1988
1990 - IRG/WP 3581
After introduction of quality control schemes and standards in the Nordic countries during the seventies, the first radical change of the standards and practice of work took place after pressure from the labor unions and authorities in 1988 and 1989 in Denmark and in Sweden. A new class of preservation with less retention for out of ground contact use was introduced, fixation times were prolonged to 6 and 14 days, and branding became a requirement. At the same time, treating companies replaced CCA with arsenic-free preservatives, and started using processes for accelerated fixation. Drying of treated wood was started to be used widely.
B Moldrup

Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma

Assessment of losses of wood preservatives from treated wood by leaching into the environment
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-13
Wood preservative chemicals may be lost from treated timber by leaching into water or soil. The degree to which this might occur and its effect on the environment is difficult to assess quantitatively due to the absence of appropriate test methods. This paper describes work to assess test methodology capable of allowing the rates of loss of wood preservative from treated timber to be quantified. The possibility of adapting simple laboratory equipment to monitor preservative losses from treated wood has been investigated. Losses due to leaching from selected faces of treated wood blocks when immersed in water have been monitored, using disodium octaborate as a model water-soluble preservative. The investigation has demonstrated the importance of distinguishing between transverse, radial and tangential surfaces when considering potential losses and the subsequent likely environmental impact of treated timber in service.
R J Orsler, G E Holland

A short note on fungal decay in K33-treated poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1169
Soft rot cavities and erosion of the lumen have been found in K33-treated Pinus sylvestris poles from the years 1956-66 by microscopic studies. Poor treatment quality has been proved for some of these poles. The microscopy showed an unusual pattern of attack, and pre-treatment decay is suspected but not yet proved. Sounding the poles and using the Pilodyn indicated decay, but poking did not. Quantification of the attacks was possible only by microscopic studies.
H Friis-Hansen

The effect of temperature on the rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3293
The rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound wood preservative was measured by soaking samples of wood wool in various preparations of the preservative for arbitrary times followed by immediate leaching in water. The wood wool was then analysed for residual preservative. The results indicated that fixation was very rapid and increased at higher temperatures.
P Vinden

CCA fixation experiments. Part 1
1989 - IRG/WP 3504
A method of squeezing solution from CCA treated wood that has not been dried at various times after treatment appears to be useful in following the fixation of CCA in wood. Experiments confirm that temperature governs the rate of fixation.
W S McNamara

nvestigation of anomalous fixation and leaching of CCA-treated red maple
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30341
The fixation of CCA-C preservative was investigated in red maple sawdust (Acer rubrum L.) at target retentions of 4.0, 6.4, 9.6 and 30.0 kg/m3. The effect of water-soluble extractives on the course of fixation was evaluated comparing the non-extracted with pre-extracted samples treated to 6.4 and 30 kg/m3. Leaching of the CCA components was monitored after complete fixation for all retentions. Fixation results show rapid chromium reduction, with the formation of a significant amount of water-soluble chromium complexes at lower retentions. Copper fixation was extremely fast while a substantial amount of arsenic remained unreacted. Leaching at the lower retentions was characterized by exceptionally high losses of arsenic and moderate losses of copper and chromium. Increase in the strength of the CCA solution consistently improved fixation and leaching of CCA in red maple. The observed anomalies were more pronounced for low retention levels. The presence of water-soluble low molecular weight carbohydrates, phenolic, and other extractives is likely the prominent factor responsible for the observed irregularities.
S Radivojevic, P A Cooper

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 5. Treatment of Sitka spruce and Scots pine
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40136
The suitability of the MPP Process for CCA treatment and accelerated fixation of species other than Radiata pine was assessed by pilot plant trials on UK-grown Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Pressure and vacuum kickbacks of spruce (14 l/m3) and Scots' pine (122 l/m3) were both substantially lower than that generated during treatment of radiata pine (369 1/m). Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in kickback from spruce treatment (~ 750 ppm) was approximately half that in Scots pine kickback (~ 1400 ppm), and were substantially less than TOC generated during treatment of radiata pine (~ 2000 ppm). Extent of CCA fixation (spruce: 93%, Scots pine: 97%) was similar to that obtained with radiata pine (97%). To reduce post-treatment drippage, caused particularly by the refractory nature of spruce, a modified Bethell process was found most appropriate for MPP treatment rather than modified Lowry schedules used with radiata pine. Use of hot CCA solutions did not improve penetration into spruce and some collapse (washboarding) of early wood was a feature of its treatment.
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, G Durbin

The influence of previous anti-blue-stain preservative treatments on the fixation of CC in spruce
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30134
Freshly cut and kiln dried spruce boards were treated with 4 different anti-blue stain preservatives (ABP). After a period of 10 days allowing the samples to dry and fixate, the samples were treated with CC (chromium, copper formulation) using a vacuum pressure cycle. After impregnation the wood was steam fixed. A submersion leaching test showed differences in the leachable quantity of copper and chromium. When related to the retention of both salts after impregnation, no differences could be found between samples previously treated with anti-blue-stain preservatives and untreated samples. However, the retention of CC diminished significantly by application of quaternary ammonium compounds.
M Van der Zee, W J Homan

A fixation model, based on the temperature dependence of CCA-C fixation
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40163
A model was prepared for the fixation of 1% CCA-C in red pine that allows the prediction of extent of fixation based on the temperature history of the treated wood following pressure treatment. The reaction kinetics of the rapid initial reaction and the slower main reaction were characterized using the Van t'Hoff equation. The initial reaction could be represented by a 10th order chemical reaction and the main reaction by a first order chemical reaction. The main reaction zone in red pine starts once approximately 47% of the total Cr VI in the impregnated CCA-C solution is fixed on wood matrix and is much slower so it controls the fixation rate. The rate constants for the two zones were estimated at a range of fixation temperatures and the temperature dependence defined by the Arrhenius equation. The rate equation and the temperature dependence were combined in a single model for each fixation zone providing an equation that related extent of fixation to the time/temperature history following fixation. The model accurately predicted fixation rate of pine poles exposed to variable temperature conditions following treatment in most cases, although slight changes in the reaction and Arrhenius constants due to natural variability in wood density and other properties could result in relatively large errors in some cases.
P A Cooper, K M F Kazi, Jianbin Chen, Y T Ung

Rapid leaching test
1991 - IRG/WP 2367
An accelerated test which is suitable for measuring the extent of metal fixation in both chromium and non chromium containing preservatives is described.
J A Cornfield, M Bacon, A Lyman, C Waldie, M R Gayles

CCA Chemistry
1983 - IRG/WP 3268
A Pizzi

Checking of sodium pentachlorophenate fixation in wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3620
In order to estimate the volatilization of sodium pentachlorophenate from treated wood, wood samples treated with pentachlorophenate were analysed after various durations of an EN 73 weathering The results giving no clear evidence of volatilization, treated wood samples were put in a test chamber with precise climatic conditions, the air used in the experiment being analysed. The pentachlorophenate content in air was quantified: 1.8 µg/m³
M Lamour, H Sageot

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